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Enquiry into 
plants and 
minor works 
on odours and 
weather signs 


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B. CAPPS, Ph.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, Litt.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, Litt.D. 



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This is, I believe, the first attempt at an English 
translation of the c Enquiry into Plants.' That it 
should be found entirely satisfactory is not to be 
expected, since the translator is not, as he should be, 
a botanist ; moreover, in the present state at least 
of the text, the Greek of Theophrastus is sometimes 
singularly elusive. I should never have undertaken 
such a responsibility without the encouragement of 
that veteran student of plant-lore the Rev. Canon 
Ellacombe, who first suggested that I should make 
the attempt and introduced me to the book. It is a 
great grief that he did not live to see the completion 
of the work which he set me. If I had thought 
it essential that a translator of Theophrastus should 
himself grapple with the difficulties of identifying 
the plants which he mentions, I must have declined 
a task which has otherwise proved quite onerous 
enough. However the kindness and the expert 
knowledge of Sir William Thiselton-Dyer came to 
my rescue ; to him I not only owe gratitude for 
constant help throughout ; the identifications^ the 
Index of Plants are entirely his work, compared 
with which the compilation of the Index itself was 


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but mechanical labour. And he has greatly increased 
my debt and the reader's by reading the proofs of 
my translation and of the Index. This is perhaps 
the place to add a note on the translation of the 
plant-names in the text: — where possible, I have 
given an English equivalent, though I am conscious 
that such names as ' Christ's thorn/ ' Michaelmas 
daisy ' must read oddly in a translation of a work 
written 300 years before Christ ; to print Linnean 
binary names would have been at least equally 
incongruous. Where an English name was not 
obvious, although the plant is British or known in 
British gardens, I have usually consulted Britten 
and Holland's Dictionary of Plant-names. Where 
no English equivalent could be found, i.e. chiefly 
where the plant is not either British or familiar in 
this country, I have either transliterated the Greek 
name (as arakhidna) or given a literal rendering of it 
in inverted commas (as ( foxbrush ' for aXw-rrUovpo*;) ; 
but the derivation of Greek plant-names being often 
obscure, I have not used this device unless the 
meaning seemed to be beyond question. In some 
cases it has been necessary to preserve the Greek 
name and to give the English name after it in 
brackets. This seemed desirable wherever the author 
has apparently used more than one name for the 
same plant, the explanation doubtless being that he 
was drawing on different local authorities ; thus Kcpcuro? 
and XaKapYj both probably represent ' bird-cherry/ 
the latter being the Macedonian name for the tree, 

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Apart from this reason, in a few places (as 3.8.2 ; 
3.10.3.) it seemed necessary to give both the Greek 
and the English name in order to bring out some 
particular point. On the other hand one Greek 
name often covers several plants, e.g. A«»ro$ ; in such 
cases l hope that a reference to the Index will make 
all clear. Inverted commas indicate that the render- 
ing is a literal translation of the Greek word ; the 
identification of the plant will be found in the Index. 
Thus ifxWo&pvs is rendered 6 cork-oak/ though ' holm- 
oak ' would be the correct rendering, — cork-oak (quer- 
cus Suber) being what Theophrastus calls ^cAAo?, 
which is accordingly rendered cork-oak without 
commas. As to the spelling of proper names, con- 
sistency without pedantry seems unattainable. One 
cannot write names such as Arcadia or Alexander 
otherwise than as they are commonly written ; but 
I cannot bring myself to Latinise a Greek name if it 
can be helped, wherefore I have simply transliterated 
the less familiar names ; the line drawn must of 
course be arbitrary. 

The text printed is in the main that of Wimmer s 
second edition (see Introd. p. xiv). The textual notes 
are not intended as a complete apparatus criticus ; 
to provide a satisfactory apparatus it would probably 
be necessary to collate the manuscripts afresh. I have 
had to be content with giving Wimmer's statements 
as to MS. authority ; this I have done wherever any 
question of interpretation depended on the reading ; 
but I have not thought it necessary to record mere 


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variations of spelling. Where the textual notes go 
beyond bare citation of the readings of the MSS., Aid., 
Gaza, and Pliny, it is usually because I have there 
departed from Wimmers text. The references to 
Pliny will, I hope, be found fairly complete. I am 
indebted for most of them to Schneider, but I have 
verified these and all other references. 

I venture to hope that this translation, with its 
references and Index of Plants, may assist some 
competent scholar-botanist to produce an edition 
worthy of the author. 

Besides those already mentioned I have to thank 
also my friends Professor D'Arcy Thompson, C.B., 
Litt.D. of Dundee, Mr. A. W. Hill of Kew, Mr. E. A. 
Bowles for help of various kinds, and the Rev. F. W. 
Galpin for his learned exposition of a passage which 
otherwise would have been dark indeed to me — the 
description of the manufacture of the reed mouth- 
pieces of wood-wind instruments in Book IV. Sir John 
Sandys, Public Orator of Cambridge University, was 
good enough to give me valuable help in matters of 


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I. — Bibliography and Abbreviations used 
A. Textual Authorities 

Wimmer divides the authorities on which the text 
of the v€pl <f>vrZ>v laropia is based into three classes : — 

First Class : 

U. Codex Urbinas : in the Vatican. Collated by 
Bekker and Amati ; far the best extant 
MS., but evidently founded on a much 
corrupted copy. See note on 9. 8. 1. 

P 2 . Codex Parisiensis : at Paris. Contains con- 
siderable excerpts ; evidently founded on a 
good MS. ; considered by Wimmer second 
only in authority to U. 

(Of other collections of excerpts may 
be mentioned one at Munich, called after 

Second Class : 

M (M v M 2 ). Codices Medicei : at Florence. 
Agree so closely that they may be re- 
garded as a single MS. ; considered by 
Wimmer much inferior to U, but of higher 
authority than Aid. 


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P. Codex Parisiensis : at Paris. Considered by 
Wimmer somewhat inferior to M and V, 
and more on a level with Aid. 

mP. Margin of the above. A note in the MS. 
states that the marginal notes are not scholia, 
but variae lectiones aid emendationes. 1 

V. Codex Vindobonensis : at Vienna. Contains 
the first five books and two chapters of the 
sixth ; closely resembles M in style and 
readings. j 

Third Class : 

Aid. Editio Aldina : the editio princeps, printed 
at Venice 1495-8. Believed by Wimmer 
to be founded on a single MS., and that 
an inferior one to those enumerated above, 
and also to that used by Gaza. Its readings 
seem often to show signs of a deliberate 
attempt to produce a smooth text : hence 
the value of this edition as witness to an 
independent MS. authority is much im- 

(Bas. Editio Basiliensis : printed at Bale, 1541. 
A careful copy of Aid., in which a number 
of printer's errors are corrected and a few 
new ones introduced (Wimmer). 

Cam. Editio Camotiana (or Aldina minor, altera) : 
printed at Venice, 1552. Also copied from 
Aid., but less carefully corrected than Bas. ; 
the editor Camotius, in a few passages, 

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altered the text to accord with Gaza's 

G. The Latin version of Theodore Gaza, 1 the 
Greek refugee : first printed at Treviso 
(Tarvisium) in 1483. A wonderful work 
for the time at which it appeared. Its 
present value is due to the fact that the 
translation was made from a different MS. 
to any now known. Unfortunately how- 
ever this does not seem to have been a 
better text than that on which the Aldine 
edition was based. Moreover Gaza did not 
stick to his authority, but adopted freely 
Pliny's versions of Theophrastus, emending 
where he could not follow Pliny. There 
are several editions of Gaza's work : thus 

G.Par.G.Bas. indicate respectively editions pub- 
lished at Paris in 1529 and at Bale in 1534 
and 1550. Wimmer has no doubt that the 
Tarvisian is the earliest edition, and he 
gives its readings, whereas Schneider often 
took those of G.Bas. 

Vin. Vo.Cod.Cas. indicate readings which Schnei- 
der believed to have MS. authority, but 
which are really anonymous emendations 
from the margins of MSS. used by his pre- 
decessors, and all, in Wimmer's opinion 

1 See Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, ii. p. 62, etc. 


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traceable to Gaza's version. Schneider's 
so-called Codex Casauboni he knew, ac- 
cording to Wimmer, only from Hofmann's 

B. Editions 

H. Editio Heinsii, printed at Leyden, 1613 : founded 
on Cam. and very carelessly printed, repeating 
the misprints of that edition and adding many 
others. In the preface Daniel Heins 1 pretends 
to have had access to a critical edition and to a 
Heidelberg MS. ; this claim appears to be en- 
tirely fictitious. The book indeed contains what 
Wimmer calls a farrago emendationum; he remarks 
that 'all the good things in it Heinsius owed 
to the wit of others, while all its faults and 
follies we owe to Heinsius.' Schneider calls it 
editio omnium pessima. 

Bod. Editio Bodaei (viz. of Joannes Bodaeus a 
Stapel), printed at Amsterdam, 1644. The text 
of Heinsius is closely followed ; the margin con- 
tains a number of emendations taken from the 
margin of Bas. and from Scaliger, Robertus Con- 
stantinus, and Salmasius, with a few due to the 
editor himself. The commentary, according to 
Sir William Thisel ton- Dyer, is ' botanically 
monumental and fundamental.' 

1 See Sandys, op, cit. p. 313 etc. 


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St. Stackhouse, Oxford, 1813: a prettily printed 
edition with some illustrations : text founded on 
Aid. The editor seems to have been a fair 
botanist, but an indifferent scholar, though occa- 
sionally he hits on a certain emendation. The 
notes are short and generally of slight value. 
The book is however of interest, as being appa- 
rently the only work on the ' Enquiry ' hitherto 
published in England. 

Sch. J. G. Schneider (and Linck), Leipzig: vols, 
i.-iv. published in 1818, vol. v. in 1821 ; contains 
also the ircpt cutiujv and the fragments, and a re- 
print of Gaza's version (corrected). The fifth, 
or supplementary, volume, written during the 
author's last illness, takes account of the Codex 
Urbinas, which, unfortunately for Schneider, 
did not become known till his edition was 
finished. It is remarkable in how many places 
he anticipated by acute emendation the readings 
of U. The fifth volume also gives an account of 
criticisms of the earlier volumes by the eminent 
Greek Adamantios Koraes 1 and Kurt Sprengel. 
This is a monumental edition, despite the ver- 
bosity of the notes, somewhat careless references 
and reproduction of the MSS. readings, and an 
imperfect comprehension of the compressed 
style of Theophrastus, which leads to a good 
deal of wild emendation or rewriting of the 
text. For the first time we find an attempt at 
1 See Sandys, op. cit. iii. pp. 361 foil. 


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providing a critical text, founded not on the 
Aldine edition, but on comparison of the manu- 
scripts then known ; the Medicean and Viennese 
had .been collated a few years before by J. Th. 
Schneider. We find also full use made of the 
ancient authors, Athenaeus, Plutarch, Pliny, 
Dioscorides, Nicander, Galen, etc., who quoted or 
adapted passages of Theophrastus, and copious 
references, often illuminating, to those who 
illustrate him, as Varro, Columella, Palladius, 
Aelian, the Geoponica. 

Spr. Kurt Sprengel, Halle, 1822. This is not an 
edition of the text, but a copious commentary 
with German translation. Sprengel was a better 
botanist than scholar; Wimmer speaks dis- 
paragingly of his knowledge of Greek and of 
the translation. (See note prefixed to the 
Index of Plants.) 

W. Fr. Wimmer : (1) An edition with introduction, 
analysis, critical notes, and Sprengel' s identi- 
fications of the plant-names ; Breslau, 1842. 

(2) A further revised text with new Latin 
translation, apparatus criticus, and full indices ; 
the Index Plantarum gives the identifications of 
Sprengel and Fraas; Didot Library, Paris, n.d. 

(3) A reprint of this text in Teubner's series, 

These three books are an indispensable supplement 
to Schneider's great work. The notes in the edition of 


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1842 are in the main critical, but the editor's remarks 
on the interpretation of thorny passages are often 
extremely acute, and always worth attention. The 
mass of material collected by Schneider is put into 
an accessible form. Wimmer is far more conservative 
in textual criticism than Schneider, and has a better 
appreciation of Theophrastus' elliptical and some- 
what peculiar idiom, though some of his emendations 
appear to rest on little basis. A collation of the 
Paris MSS. (P and P 2 ) was made for Wimmer ; for 
the readings of U and M he relied on Schneider, 
who, in his fifth volume, had compared U with 
Bodaeus' edition. A fresh collation of the rather 
exiguous manuscript authorities is perhaps required 
before anything like a definitive text can be pro- 
vided. Wimmer s Latin translation is not very 
helpful, since it slurs the difficulties: the Didot 
edition, in which it appears, is disfigured with 
numerous misprints. 

(Sandys' History of Classical Scholarship (ii. p. 380) 
mentions translations into Latin and Italian by 
Bandini ; of this work I know nothing.) 

C. Other Commentators 

Seal. J. C. Scaliger : Commentarii et animatlversiones on 
the Trcpi <f>vru)v loTopta posthumously published 
by his son Sylvius at Leyden, 1584. (He also 
wrote a commentary on the u-cpl ama>v, which 
was edited by Robertus Constantinus and pub- 


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lished at Geneva in 1566.) The most accurate 
and brilliant scholar who has contributed to the 
elucidation of Theophrastus. 

R.Const. Robertus Constantinus (see above). Added 
notes of his own, many of them valuable, which 
are given with Scaliger's in Bodaeus' edition. 

Salm. Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise). Made many 
happy corrections of Theophrastus* text in his 
Exercitationes Plinianae. 

Palm. Jacobus Palmerius (Jacques de Paulmier). 
His Exercitationes in optimos auetores Graecos 
(Leyden, 1668) contain a certain number of 
acute emendations ; Wimmer considers that he 
had a good understanding of Theophrastus' 

Meurs. Johannes Meursius (Jan de Meurs). Author 
of some critical notes on Theophrastus pub- 
lished at Ley den in 1640; also of a book on 

Dalec. Jean Jacques D'Al^champs: the botanist. 
Author of Historia plantarum universalis, Lyons, 
1587, and editor of Pliny's Natural History. 

Mold. J. J. P. Moldenhauer. Author of Tentamen 
in Historiam plantarum Theophrasti, Hamburg, 
1791. This book, which I have not been able 
to see and know only from Wimmer's citations, 
contains, according to him, very valuable notes 
on the extremely difficult Introduction to the 
' Historia ' (Book I. chaps, i.-ii.). 


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II. — Theophrastus' Life and Works 

Such information as we possess concerning the 
life of Theophrastus comes mainly from Diogenes 
Laertius' Lives of the Philosophers, compiled at least 
four hundred years after Theophrastus' death ; it is 
given therefore here for what it may be worth ; 
there is no intrinsic improbability in most of what 
Diogenes records. 

He was born in 370 b.c. at Eresos in Lesbos ; at 
an early age he went to Athens and there became a 
pupil of Plato. It may be surmised that it was from 
him that he first learnt the importance of that 
principle of classification which runs through all his 
extant works, including even the brochure known as 
the ' Characters ' (if it is rightly ascribed to him), 
and which is ordinarily considered as characteristic 
of the teaching of his second master Aristotle. But 
in Plato's own later speculations classification had a 
very important place, since it was by grouping things 
in their ' natural kinds ' that, according to his later 
metaphysic, men were to arrive at an adumbration 
of the ( ideal forms ' of which these kinds are the 
phenomenal counterpart, and which constitute the 
world of reality. Whether Theophrastus gathered 
the principle of classification from Plato or from his 
fellow-pupil Aristotle, it appears in his hands to 
have been for the first time systematically applied 
to the vegetable world. Throughout his botanical 



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works the constant implied question is ' What is its 
difference ? ', ' What is its essential nature ? ', viz. ( What 
are the characteristic features in virtue of which a 
plant may be distinguished from other plants, and 
which make up its own ' nature ' or essential 
character ? 

Theophrastus appears to have been only Aristotle's 
junior by fifteen years. On Plato's death he became 
Aristotle's pupil, but, the difference in age not being 
very great, he and his second master appear to have 
been on practically equal terms. We are assured 
that Aristotle was deeply attached to his friend; 
while as earnest of an equally deep attachment on 
the other side Theophrastus took Aristotle's son 
under his particular care after his father's death. 
Aristotle died at the age of sixty-three, leaving to 
his favourite pupil his books, including the auto- 
graphs of his own works, and his garden in the 
grounds of the Lyceum. The first of these bequests, 
if the information is correct, is of great historical 
importance ; it may well be that we owe to 
Theophrastus the publication of some at least of 
his master's voluminous works. And as to the 
garden it is evident that it was here that the first 
systematic botanist made many of the observations 
which are recorded in his botanical works. Diogenes 
has preserved his will, and there is nothing in the 
terms of this interesting document to suggest that 
it is not authentic. Of special interest is the 
provision made for the maintenance of the garden ; 

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it is bequeathed to certain specified friends and to 
those who will spend their time with them in learn- 
ing and philosophy ; the testator is to be buried 
in it without extravagant expense, a custodian is 
appointed, and provision is made for the emancipa- 
tion of various gardeners, so soon as they have 
earned their freedom by long enough service. 

According to Diogenes Theophrastus died at the 
age of eighty-five. He is made indeed to say in the 
probably spurious Preface to the ' Characters ' that he 
is writing in his ninety-ninth year; while St. Jerome's 
Chronicle asserts that he lived to the age of 107. 
Accepting Diogenes' date, we may take it that he 
died about 285 b.c. ; it is said that he complained 
that " we die just when we are beginning to live." 
His life must indeed have been a remarkably full 
and interesting one, when we consider that he 
enjoyed the personal friendship of two such men as 
Plato and Aristotle, and that he had witnessed the 
whole of the careers of Philip and Alexander of 
Macedon. To Alexander indeed he was directly 
indebted ; the great conqueror had not been for 
nothing the pupil of the encyclopaedic Aristotle. 
He took with him to the East scientifically trained 
observers, the results of whose observations were at 
Theophrastus' disposal. Hence it is that his de- 
scriptions of plants are not limited to the flora of 
Greece and the Levant; to the reports of Alexander's 
followers he owed his accounts of such plants as the 
cotton-plant, banyan, pepper, cinnamon, myrrh and 


b 2 

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frankincense. It has been a subject of some con- 
troversy whence he derived his accounts of plants 
whose habitat was nearer home. Kirchner, in an 
able tract, combats the contention of Sprengel that 
his observations even of the Greek flora were not 
made at first hand. Now at this period the Peri- 
patetic School must have been a very important 
educational institution; Diogenes says that under 
Theophrastus it numbered two thousand pupils. 
Moreover we may fairly assume that Alexander, from 
his connexion with Aristotle, was interested in it, 
while we are told that at a later time Demetrius 
Phalereus assisted it financially. May we not hazard 
and guess that a number of the students were ap- 
propriately employed in the collection of facts and 
observations ? The assumption that a number of 
' travelling students ' were so employed would at all 
events explain certain references in Theophrastus* 
botanical works. He says constantly 'The Maced- 
onians say/ ( The men of Mount Ida say ' and so 
forth. Now it seems hardly probable that he is 
quoting from written treatises by Macedonian or 
Idaean writers. It is at least a plausible suggestion 
that in such references he is referring to reports of 
the districts in question contributed by students 
of the school. In that case ' The Macedonians say ' 
would mean € This is what our representative was 
told in Macedonia/ It is further noticeable that 
the tense used is sometimes past, e.g. ' The men of 
Mount Ida said ' ; an obvious explanation of this is 

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supplied by the above conjecture. It is even possible 
that in one place (3. 12. 4.) the name of one of these 
students has been preserved. 

Theophrastus, like his master, was a very volu- 
minous writer ; Diogenes gives a list of 227 treatises 
from his pen, covering most topics of human interest, 
as Religion, Politics, Ethics, Education, Rhetoric, 
Mathematics, Astronomy, Logic, Meteorology and 
other natural sciences. His oratorical works enjoyed 
a high reputation in antiquity. Diogenes attributes 
to him ten works on Rhetoric, of which one On Style 
was known to Cicero, who adopted from it the 
classification of styles into the ' grand/ the € plain,' 
and the € intermediate.' 1 Of one or two other lost 
works we have some knowledge. Thus the substance 
of an essay on Piety is preserved in Porphyry de 
Abstinentia.* The principal works still extant are 
the nine books of the Enquiry into Plants, and the 
six books on the Causes of Plants ; these seem to be 
complete. We have also considerable fragments of 
treatises entitled : — of Sense-perception and objects 
of Sense, of Stones, of Fire, of Odours, of Winds, of 
Weather-Signs, of Weariness, of Dizziness, of Sweat, 
Metaphysics, besides a number of unassigned excerpts. 
The style of these works, as of the botanical books, 
suggests that, as in the case of Aristotle, what we 
possess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken 
of lectures. There is no literary charm ; the sen- 

1 Sandys, i. p. 99. 

2 Bernays, Theophrastus, 1866. 


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tences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical, 
to the point sometimes of obscurity. It follows that 
translation, as with Aristotle, must be to some extent 
paraphrase. The thirty sketches of ' Characters ' 
ascribed to Theophrastus, which have found many 
imitators, and which are well known in this country 
through Sir R. Jebb's brilliant translation, stand on 
a quite different footing ; the object of this curious 
and amusing work is discussed in Sir R. Jebb's 
Introduction and in the more recent edition of 
Edmonds and Austen. Well may Aristotle, as we 
are assured, have commended his pupil's diligence. 
It is said that, when he retired from the headship of 
the school, he handed it over to Theophrastus. We 
are further told that the latter was once prosecuted 
for impiety, but the attack failed ; also that he was 
once banished from Athens for a year, it does not 
appear under what circumstances. He was con- 
sidered an attractive and lively lecturer. Diogenes' 
sketch ends with the quotation of some sayings 
attributed to him, of which the most noteworthy 
are € Nothing costs us so dear as the waste of time,' 
'One had better trust an unbridled horse than 
an undigested harangue/ He was followed to 
his grave, which we may hope was, in accordance 
with his own wish, in some peaceful corner of the 
Lyceum garden, by a great assemblage of his fellow 


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The principal references in the notes are to the 
following ancient authors : — 

Apollon. Apollonius, Historia Miraculorum. 

Arist. Aristotle. Bekker, Berlin, 1831. 

Arr. Arrian. Hercher (Teubner). 

Athen. Athenaeua. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1827. 

Col. Columella, de re rustica. Schneider, Leipzig, 1794. 

Diod. Diodorus. 

Diosc. Pedanius Dioscurides, de materia medica. Well- 

mann, Berlin, 1907. 

Geop. Geoponica. Beckh (Teubner), 1895. 

Nic. Nicander, Theriaca. Schneider, Leipzig, 1816. 

Pall. Palladiua, de re rustica. Schneider, Leipzig, 1795. 

Paus. Pausanias. Schubart (Teubner), Leipzig, 1881. 

Plin. Plinius, Naturalis Historia. Mayhoff (Teubner), 

1887. (Reference by book and section.) 

Plut. Plutarch. Hercher (Teubner), Leipzig, 1872. 

Scyl. Scylax, Periplus. Vossius, Amsterdam, 1639. 


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Introductory : How plants are to be classified ; difficulty 
of defining what are the essential * parts ' of a plant, 
especially if plants are assumed to correspond to 

animals 3 

The essential parts of plants, and the materials of which 

they are made 9 

Definitions of the various classes into which plants may 

be divided 23 

Exact classification impracticable : other possible bases 

of classification 27 

Differences as to appearance and habitat 29 

Characteristic differences in the parts of plants, whether 

general, special, or seen in qualities and properties 33 

Differences as to qualities and properties 37 

Further * special ' differences 39 

Differences in root 41 

Of trees (principally) and their characteristic special 

differences : as to knots 55 

As to habit .... 61 

As to shedding of leaves 63 

Differences in leaves 69 

Composition of the various parts of a plant 77 

Differences in seeds 79 




Differences in taste 85 

Differences in flowers 89 

Differences in fruits 97 

General differences (affecting the whole plant) .... 99 



Of the ways in which trees and plants originate. In- 
stances of degeneration from seed 105 

Effects of situation, climate, tendance 115 

Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees, and 

of certain marvels 119 

Of spontaneous and other changes in other plants ... 123 

Of methods of propagation, with notes on cultivation . 127 
Of the propagation of the date-palm; of palms in 

general • 133 

Further notes on the propagation of trees 145 

Of the cultivation of trees 145 

Of remedies for the shedding of the fruit : caprification 151 



Of the ways in which wild trees originate 159 

Of the differences between wild and cultivated trees . 165 
Of mountain trees : of the differences found in wild trees 171 
Of the times of budding and fruiting of wild, as com- 
pared with cultivated, trees 179 

Of the seasons of budding 185 

Of the comparative rate of growth in trees, and of the 

length of their roots 191 

Of the effects of cutting down the whole or part of a tree 197 
Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves 

flowers and fruit 199 

Of * male ' and ' female ' in trees : the oak as an example 

of this and other differences 203 


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Of the differences in firs 21 1 

Of beech, yew, hop- hornbeam, lime 221 

Of maple and ash 227 

Of cornelian cherry, cornel, * cedars,' medlar, thorns, 

sorb 233 

Of bird-cherry, elder, willow • . 243 

Of elm, poplars, alder, [j&emyda, bladder-senna] .... 249 

Of filbert, terebinth, box, krataigos 253 

Of certain other oaks, arbutus, andrachne, wig- tree . . 259 
Of cork- oak, kolutea, koloitia^ and of certain other 

trees peculiar to particular localities 265 

Of the differences in various shrubs— buckthorn, withy, 

Christ's thorn, bramble, sumach, ivy, smilax, 

[spindle- tree] 269 



Of the importance of position and climate 287 

Of the trees special to Egypt, and of the carob .... 291 

Of the trees and shrubs special to Libya 303 

Of the trees and herbs special to Asia 309 

Of the plants special to northern regions 323 

Of the aquatic plants of the Mediterranean 329 

Of the aquatic plants of the 4 outer sea' [i.e. Atlantic, 

Persian Gulf, etc.) 337 

Of the plants of rivers, marshes, and lakes, especially 

in Egypt 345 

Of the plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake 

Copals), especially its reeds, and of reeds in general 361 

Of rushes 379 

Of the length or shortness of the life of plants, and the 

causes 383 

Of diseases and injuries done by weather conditions . . 391 
Of the effects on trees of removing bark, head, heart- 
wood, roots, etc. ; of various causes of death . . . 405 


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Of the seasons of cutting 417 

Of the wood of silver-fir and fir 421 

Of the effects on timber of climate 427 

Of knots and * coiling ' in timber 429 

Of differences in the texture of different woods .... 431 

Of differences in timber as to hardness and heaviness . 439 

Of differences in the keeping quality of timber .... 441 
Which kinds of wood are easy and which hard to work. 

Of the core and its effects 445 

Which woods can best support weight 451 

Of the woods best suited for the carpenter's various 

purposes 453 

Of the woods used in ship-building 455 

Of the woods used in house-building 459 

Of the uses of the wood of particular trees 459 

Of the localities in which the best timber grows . . 463 
Of the uses of various woods in making fire : charcoal, 

fuel, fire-sticks 467 


Digitized by Google 



vol . r. 

Digitized by Google 



I. T&v <f>VT&v ra? Bia<f>opa<; teal ttjv aWrjv 
<f>vaiv \r)7TT€OV Kara re ra fiiprj teal ra ira6r\ teal 
ra? y€v4(T€i<; teal tov$ /3lov<t fjOr) yap teal Trpa1*€i$ 
ovtc exovaiv &airep ra fwa. elal 6° al fxev Kara 
ttjv yevecrcv teal ra iraOr) koX tov$ yStou? evdewprj- 
rorepaL teal paovs, al Se Kara ra fieprj ifKeiov^ 
€)(pvai TTOitcikias. avTO yap tovto irp&Tov ov^ 
i/cavcos a<f> copier rat ra irola Set fiepr/ teal firj fieprj 
teaXelv, a\X' €%€t nva amopiav. 
2 To pkv ovv fiepos are itc t?)? ISias <f>v<rea)<; bv ael 
Soteec 8iafi€V€iv rj a7r\&>? rj orav yevrjrai, teaBairep 
iv Tot? fct)<H? ra varepov yevrjaofieva, irXrjv el ti 

1 rh ins. Sch., om. Ald.H. 

2 irddri, a more general word than Swdfieis, 1 virtues ' : 
cf. 1. 5. 4 ; 8. 4. 2 ; it seems to mean here something like 
* behaviour,' in relation to environment. Instances of vd0yj 
are given 4. 2. 11 ; 4. 14. 6. 

3 #xoi/<n conj. H. ; tx ovffal W. with Aid. 


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Of the Parts of Plants and their Composition. 
Of Classification. 

Introductory; How plants are to be classified; difficulty 
of defining what are the essential * parts 1 of a plant 
especially if plants are assumed to correspond to animals. 

I. In considering the distinctive characters of 
plants and their nature generally one must take 
into account their 1 parts, their qualities, 2 the 
ways in which their life originates, and the course 
which it follows in each case : (conduct and activities 
we do not find in them, as we do in animals). Now 
the differences in the way in which their life origin- 
ates, in their qualities and in their life-history are com- 
paratively easy to observe and are simpler, while 
those shewn 8 in their f parts ' present more com- 
plexity. Indeed it has not even been satisfactorily 
determined what ought and what ought not to be 
called 'parts,' and some difficulty is involved in 
making the distinction. 

Now it appears that by a ' part,' seeing that it is 
something which belongs to the plant's characteristic 
nature, we mean something which is permanent either 
absolutely or when once it has appeared (like those 
parts of animals which remain for a time undeveloped) 


b 2 

Digitized by 


, . £ia voa&v rj ■ yfjpas $j 'irijprio-cv airoftaXXerai* r&v 
B* ev to?? <f>vrot<; evia roiavr iarlv &<tt' irrereiov 
eyew rrjv ovalav, olov avdo? ftpvov (pvWov 
/eapTros, a7r\w9 oaa irpo r&v /capir&v 'fj afia 
ylverai roU /capwoir en Be avrbs 6 ftXaarov 
alel yap iirL<f>vaiv Xajiftdvei rd BevBpa /car 
iviavrbv ofioia)? ev re rots avco /cal iv rots irepl 
tA? picas' &are, el fiev ri$ ravra Otfo-ei fiept), to 
t€ TfKrjOo? dopiarov earai koX ovBeirore to avrb 
rcov fJLOpiav el 8* ai purj fieprj, avfifttfaerai, 6V &v 
reXeta yiverai /cal fyaiverai, ravra fit) elvai fieprj' 
/SXaardvovra yap teal OdXXovra /cal Kapirbv 
e'XpvTa irdvra tcaXXlco /cal reXeiorepa /cal Bo/cei 
/cal eariv. ai fiev oiv diropiai ayeBov elcriv 

3 Tdj(a Be ovx o/iolods drravra farrjreov ovre 
iv to?9 aWow ovQ* oaa 7r/>09 rrjv yiveatv, 
avrd re ret yevvebfieva fieprj dereov olov roi>$ 
/capirovs. ovBe yap ra e/xfipva r&v £<ocov, el 
Be iv rr) cop a otyei rovro ye /cdXXicrrov, 

1 i.e. the male inflorescence of some trees ; the term is 
of course wider than ' catkin.' 

2 i.e. flower, catkin, leaf, fruit, shoot. 


Digitized by 


— permanent, that is, unless it be lost by disease, age 
or mutilation. However some of the parts of plants 
are such that their existence is limited to a year, for 
instance, flower, ' catkin/ 1 leaf, fruit, in fact all 
those parts which are antecedent to the fruit or else 
appear along with it. Also the new shoot itself must 
be included with these ; for trees always make fresh 
growth every year alike in the parts above ground 
and in those which pertain to the roots. So that if 
one sets these 2 down as ' parts,' the number of parts 
will be indeterminate and constantly changing ; 
if on the other hand these are not to be called 
e parts/ the result will be that things which are 
essentia] if the plant is to reach its perfection, and 
which are its conspicuous features, are nevertheless 
not ' parts ' ; for any plant always appears to be, as 
indeed it is, more comely and more perfect when it 
makes new growth, blooms, and bears fruit. Such, 
we may say, are the difficulties involved in defining 
a 'part.' 

But perhaps we should not expect to find in 
plants a complete correspondence with animals 
in regard to those things which concern repro- 
duction any more than in other respects ; and so 
we should reckon as c parts ' even those things 
to which the plant gives birth, for instance their 
fruits, although 8 we do not so reckon the unborn 
young of animals. (However, if such 4 a product seems 
fairest to the eye, because the plant is then in its 
prime, we can draw no inference from this in 

8 ohZl yhp : ow5e seems to mean no more than ov (qf, neque 
tnim—wm enim) ; yhp refers back to the beginning of the §. 

4 ir tJ &pq. ttycc rovr6 ye I conj. ; t§ &pa 6\pci t6 ye vulg. 
W. ; rovro, i.e. flower or fruit. 


Digitized by 


ovSev arj/jueiov, eireX KaX r&v %a)(OP evOevel ra 

TloXXh Se KaX ra fjueprj Kar iviavrbv airo- 
fidXXei, KaOdirep 01 re eXa(f>ot ret Kepara KaX 
ra <f>ooXevovra ra irreph koX r/?t%a? rerpdiroha* 
&ar oviev droirov a\\o)? re koX o/jloiov ov rq> 
<f>vXXoj3oXelv to irdOos. 

c 12<ra i5tg>9 6° ovSe ra irpbs rrjv yeveaw iireX koX 
ev to?? fft>(H? ra /juev avveKTLKrerai ret S* diro- 
KaOaiperai KaOdirep dXXorpia rf)$ (frvaecos. eoixe 
Se TrapaTfKr)a-l(o<; KaX tcl irepX rrjv ffXdarriatv 
eyew. r/ yap rot ^Xdarrjat^ yeveaea)? ydpiveaTX 
ttjs TeXeta?. 

4 f/ OXa>9 &e KaOdirep elirofiev ovSe irdvra 
ofiOLCds koX iirX twv £(ooop Xtjirreov. 81 h KaX 6 
dpiOfJibs aoptaror iravraxv yctp /SXao-TrjTiKbv 
are KaX TravTayfi £Si/. &are ravra fiev out©? 
V7To\r}irT€Ov ov fjuovov eh ret vvv dXXci KaX r&v 
fieXXovrayp %dpiv % oaa yhp fit) olov re d<f>o- 
fwiovv irepLepyov to yXi^eaOai 7rai/TG>?, Xva firj 
KaX ttjv oiKeiav airo^dXXwfiev Oeaypiav. r) he 
iaropla r&v <f>vr&v earw a>? dirXS)^ eiirelv rj Kara 

1 cvOtvci conj. Sch., cbBcTci UMVAld. i.e. we do not 
argue from the fact that animals are at their handsomest 
in the breeding season that the young is therefore * part K of 
the animal. 

2 Lit. ' which are in holes,' in allusion to the well-known 
belief that animals (especially birds) which are out of sight 
in the winter are hiding in holes ; the text is supported by 
[Arist.] de plantis 1. 3, the author of which had evidently 
read this passage ; but possibly Some such words as rds t€ 
<po\ldas teal have dropped out after (pwKetovra. 


Digitized by 


support of our argument, since even among animals 
those that are with young are at their best. 1 ) 

Again many plants shed their parts every year, 
even as stags shed their horns, birds which hiber- 
nate 2 their feathers, four-footed beasts their hair : 
so that it is not strange that the parts of plants 
should not be permanent, especially as what thus 
occurs in animals and the shedding of leaves in 
plants are analogous processes. 

In like manner the parts concerned with repro- 
duction are not permanent in plants ; for even 
in animals there are things which are separated 
from the parent when the young is born, and 
there are other things 8 which are cleansed away, 
as though neither of these belonged to the animal's 
essential nature. And so too it appears to be with 
the growth of plants ; for of course growth leads up 
to reproduction as the completion of the process. 4 

And in general, as we have said, we must not assume 
that in all respects there is complete correspondence 
between plants and animals. And that is why the 
number also of parts is indeterminate ; for a plant has 
the power of growth in all its parts, inasmuch as it 
has life in all its parts. Wherefore we should assume 
the truth to be as I have said, not only in regard to 
the matters now before us, but in view also of those 
which will come before us presently ; for it is waste 
of time to take great pains to make comparisons 
where that is impossible, and in so doing we may 
lose sight also of our proper subject of enquiry. 
The enquiry into plants, to put it generally, may 

3 i.e. the embryo is not the only thing derived from the 
parent animal which is not a ' part ' of it ; there is also the 
food-supply produced with the young, and the after-birth. 

* cf. CP. 1. 11. 8. 




tcl ega fjbopia zeal ttjv oXrjv fiop<f>rjv fj /cara tcl 
ei/ro?, &<rirep iirl t&v {cocov ra i/c t&v avarofi&v. 

5 Arjirreov 6" iv airols iroid T€ iraaw virdpxei 
ravra /ecu irola tBia /caff* e/caarov 761/09, en Bk 
t&v avT&v irota Sfioia* Xeyeo B? olov <f>v\X6v pi£a 
<f>\oi6<;. ov Bee Be* ovSe tovto XavOdvecv et ti kclt 
dvaXoyiav 0e<opr)Te'ov i &aw€p iirl t&v %a>a)v, Ttjv 
dva<f>opdv iroLovpuevovs BrjXov otl 7r/)09 tcl i/A- 
fapeaTaTa zeal TeXeioTCLTa. zeal dirX&$ Be oca 

T&V iv <£UT(H? d<f>OfJLOL(OT€OV T(p €V TO?? fa>(H9, <»9 

av Tt9 rot) y dvdXoyov dQofjuoiol. TavTa pbev ovv 
Bccoptado) tov Tpoirov tovtov. 

6 Ai Be t&v fiep&v Bca(f>opal ayeBbv c!>9 tv7Tg> 
Xafielv eiaiv iv TpiaCv, fj t$ tc\ pbkv e%e«/ 
tcl Be pur), zcaddirep <j>vXXa /ecu /capirov, fj t£ 
/jltj opoia p/rjBk iaa, fj TpiTOv T<p purj opoioos. 
tovtodv Be fj puev dvopLOLOTt]^ opi%GTCu ayripwuTi 


/ecu to?9 aXXois irdOeaiv, cti B& oacu Bicupopal 
t&v xyX&v. 97 Be dvMTOTTjs vTrepoxf) zeal iXXeiyfrei 
Kara mXrfios fj /jueyeOos. a>9 B' eiirelv tvttg> 

1 A very obscure sentence ; so W. renders the MSS. text. 

2 i.e. 'inequality' might include ' unlikeness.' 


Digitized by 


either take account of the external parts and the 
form of the plant generally, or else of their internal 
parts : the latter method corresponds to the study of 
animals by dissection. 

Further we must consider which parts belong to 
all plants alike, which are peculiar to some one 
kind, and which of those which belong to all alike 
are themselves alike in all cases ; for instance, leaves 
roots bark. And again, if in some cases analogy 
ought to be considered (for instance, an analogy 
presented by animals), we must keep this also in 
view ; and in that case we must of course make the 
closest resemblances and the most perfectly de- 
veloped examples our standard ; 1 and, finally, the 
ways in which the parts of plants are affected must be 
compared to the corresponding effects in the case of 
animals, so far as one can in any given case find an 
analogy for comparison. So let these definitions 

The essential parts of plants, and tht materials of which 
they are made. 

Now the differences in regard to parts, to take 
a general view, are of three kinds : either one plant 
may possess them and another not (for instance, 
leaves and fruit), or in one plant they may be unlike 
in appearance or size to those of another, or, thirdly, 
they may be differently arranged. Now the unlike- 
ness between them is seen in form, colour, closeness of 
arrangement or its opposite, roughness or its opposite, 
and the other qualities ; and again there are the 
various differences of flavour. The inequality is seen 
in excess or defect as to number or size, or, to speak 
generally, 2 all the above-mentioned differences too 


Digitized by 


/cd/eelva irdvra icaO* v7repoxv v Ka ^ eXkeiyJriv to 
yap pJSXKov /cal fjrrov virepo^rj /cal eWeiyfrw to 

he fMT) OfWLCOS Tjj 0€<T€l hia<f>€per XeyCO olov TO 

tov? tcap7rov<; rh fiev eirdvco tcl h 9 vTroKareo tcov 
•<j>v\\cov e^eiv teal avrov rov hevhpov Tct fiev e£ 
a/cpov rh he e/c tcov ifKayicov, evia hi zeal i/e rov 
arekejfpv^, olov v\ Alywria av/cd/uvos, zeal ocra hrj 
/cal vtto yfjs cfrepet /capirov, olov r\ T€ dpaxlhva /cat 
to ev KlyvirTcp /caXovfievov oviyyov, zeal el ra fiev 
e^et p,io"Xpv ra he firj. teal eirl tcov avQecov ofioiw 
ra fiev yap irepl avrov rov /capirbv ra he aUw?. 
o\q>9 he to Trjs Oecreco? ev tovtois teal T0Z9 cfrvWot,? 
Ka\ ev T0Z9 ffkaoToi? Xtjirriov. 

AiaQepei he* h>ia zeal tj) Ta^et,* ra fiev o>? 
€TV)(e> 6° eKdrr)? ol /e\cove$ /ear dXXrjXovs 
e/carepoodev tcov he /cal ol d%oo hi lctov re /cal 
/ear dpiOfibv Xaoi, /caOdirep tcov Tpio^cov. 

f 'ClcTT€ t»9 fiev hiacf>opd^ i/c tovtcov XrfirTeov 
cov /cal f] oXrj fiop(f>fj crvvhrjXovTai /caff etcaaTOV. 

AvTct he tcl fieprj hiapiO firfaafievovs ireipaTeov 
irepl e/cdcTTOV Xeyeiv. ccttc he irpcora fiev /cal 
jieyicTTa zeal kolvcl tcov irXeiaTcov Tahe, pi^a 
/cavXbs d/cp€ficov /cXdhos, el$ a hieXoiT dv ti$ 

1 cf. CP. 5. 1. 9. 

2 cf. 1. 6. 11. T. extends the term KapirSs so as to 
include any succulent edible part of a plant. 

3 T. does not consider that Kapv6s was necessarily ante- 
ceded by a flower. 


Digitized by 


are included under excess and defect : for the ' more ' 
and the 'less* are the same thing as excess and 
defect, whereas ' differently arranged ' implies a 
difference of position ; for instance, the fruit may 
be above or below the leaves, 1 and, as to position on 
the tree itself, the fruit may grow on the apex of it 
or on the side branches, and in some cases even on 
the trunk, as in the sycamore ; while some plants 
again even bear their fruit underground, for in- 
stance arakhidna 2 and the plant called in Egypt 
uingon ; again in some plants the fruit has a stalk, in 
some it has none. There is a like difference in the 
floral organs : in some cases they actually surround 
the fruit, in others they are differently placed 3 : in 
fact it is in regard to the fruit, the leaves, and the shoots 
that the question of position has to be considered. 

Or again there are differences as to symmetry 4 : 
in some cases the arrangement is irregular, while the 
branches of the silver-fir are arranged opposite one 
another ; and in some cases the branches are at 
equal distances apart, and correspond in number, as 
where they are in three rows. 5 

Wherefore the differences between plants must 
be observed in these particulars, since taken together 
they shew forth the general character of each plant. 

But, before we attempt to speak about each, we 
must make a list of the parts themselves. Now the 
primary and most important parts, which are also 
common to most, are these — root, stem, branch, twig ; 
these are the parts into which we might divide the 
plant, regarding them as members, 6 corresponding to 

* Plin. 16. 122. 5 i.e. ternate. 

6 i. c. if we wished to make an anatomical division. ^'Atj 
conj. Sch. c/. 1. 2. 7 ; pcpy Aid. 

1 1 

Digitized by 


&GTTep eU fjbiXrj, /caOdirep iirl t&v %(b<ov. etcaarov 
re yap clvo/jlocov kcl\ e£ airdvTtav tovtodv ra oXa. 

"EaTi he pL^a filv he ov rfjv rpo<prjv indyeTat, 
/cavXbs he eh o (fyiperat. tcavXbv he Xeyeo to virep 
yi}<; Tre^u/co? €</>' ev rovro yap /coworarov 6/jlolcos 

67T€T€60t5 Kttl XpOVlOlS, h €7rl T&V hevhpcOV 

fcaXeiTai oTeXe^o?* d/cpefxovas he tov? diro 
tovtov ax^ofjbivov<;, oft? evioi /eaXovaiv ofbu?. 
icXdhov he to /3\d<TTr)fia to itc tovtcov e<f> ev, olov 
/judXiara to iirereiov. 

Kat TavTa pev ol/ceiorepa r&v hivhpav. 

10 o he* /cavXos, &(nrep eiprjTai, Koivorepo?' e%et 
he ov irdvra ovhe tovtov, olov evia tcov ttoig)- 
h&v. tcl h' e/ei pkv ovk del he d\\' iireTetov, 
teal oaa ypovmTepa Tat? pi£ai$. o\a>? he 
iroXv'Xpvv to <$>vtov fcai iroitciXov zeal ^aXeirbv 
elirelv tcaOoXov arjpeiov he to p,r)hev elvai koivov 
Xafielv 6 iraaiv virdp^ei, icaOdirep toZ? £a>ot? 

n cTo/xa /cal icofida. to, he dvaXoyLa TavTa tcl 6° 
aXXov Tpoirov. ovre yap pi^av ttuvt €%e* othre tcav- 
Xbv ovt€ dtepep,6va ovtc /cXdhov ovts <f>vXXov ovts 
avdo? ovre tcapTrbv ovt a\) <f>Xoibv fj purfTpav fj lva$ fj 
<f>Xe/3a<;, olov p,VKf)<$ vhvov ev tovtois he f) oiaia 
teal ev to?? TOJOUTOt?* dXXa pudXiaTa TavTa 

1 i.e. before it begins to divide. 2 Or ' knots.' 

s cV conj. W.; btf P 2 P 8 Ald. 

4 xpovubrepa conj. Sch.; XP 0VI< * T *P 0V Ald.H. 

6 kvaXoyiq, conj. Sch. ; kva\oyia UAlcLH. 


Digitized by 


the members of animals : for each of these is distinct 
in character from the rest, and together they make 
up the whole. 

The root is that by which the plant draws its 
nourishment, the stem that to which it is con- 
ducted. And by the e stem ' I mean that part 
which grows above ground and is single 1 ; for that 
is the part which occurs most generally both in 
annuals and in long-lived plants ; and in the case 
of trees it is called the ' trunk.' By e branches' 
I mean the parts which split off from the stem and 
are called by some ' boughs.' 2 By 'twig' I mean 
the growth which springs from the branch regarded 
as a single whole, 8 and especially such an annual 

Now these parts belong more particularly to 
trees. The stem however, as has been said, is more 
general, though not all plants possess even this, 
for instance, some herbaceous plants are stemless ; 
others again have it, not permanently, but as an 
annual growth, including some whose roots live beyond 
the year. 4 In fact your plant is a thing various and 
manifold, and so it is difficult to describe in general 
terms : in proof whereof we have the fact that we 
cannot here seize on any universal character which 
is common to all, as a mouth and a stomach are com- 
mon to all animals ; whereas in plants some characters 
are the same in all, merely in the sense that all 
have analogous 5 characters, while others correspond 
otherwise. For not all plants have root, stem, branch, 
twig, leaf, flower or fruit, or again bark, core, fibres 
or veins ; for instance, fungi and truffles ; and yet 
these and such like characters belong to a plant's 
essential nature. However, as has been said, these 


Digitized by 


virdpxei, Kaddirep eiprjrai, rofc Sev&poi? Ka/celvcov 
ot/eeiorepos 6 fiepia-fio*;. 7r/?09 a Kal ttjv dva<popav 
t&v aXXav irotelaOai hltccuov. 
12 2%eSoi/ he Kal ra? aXkas p,op<f>a<; e/cdarcov 
ravra Siaaq/iaivei. SuKpipovai yap irXrjOeL r$> 
tovtcov Kal oXiyorrfTi Kal ttvkvottjti Kal fiavo- 
ti\ti Kal tw i(f> %v fj els irXeloD axi^eaOai Kal 

Tofc aXXoi? TOi9 Opo'lOlS. €<TTl &€ €Ka<TTOV T&V 

elpr]fjL€Vcop ovx ofioio/Aepi?' Xeyo) oix o/ioio- 
fiepes otl ex t&v avT&v fiev otiovv fiepos avy- 
Keuai Tr}<; /a ££179 koI tov areXixovs, dXX* ov 
Xeyerai areXe^o^ to Xrj<f>0^v dXXa jwpiov, a>9 
iv to?9 t&v £(ocov fieXeaiv iaTiv. 4k t&v avT&v jiev 
yap otiovv rr}? Kvrjp,^ fj tov dyK&vo$, ov% 
ofjLcovvfiov KaOdirep o-apf* Kal octovv % aXX* 
dvwwfiov oiSh Brj t&v oXXodv oiSevos oaa fiovo- 
eiSr} t&v opyaviK&v* diravTcov yap t&v tolovtodv 
dvcbvvfia tcl fxepr). t&v Be TroXveiS&v oovo/iacrfieva 
KaOdirep ttoBos X €t P ^ K€<paXf}<;, otov SaKTvXo? 
pl$ 6<f>OaXfi6<;. Kal to, fiev fieyiaTa fiepr) ax^Bov 
TavTa iaTiv. 

II. v A\\a 8% il; &v TavTa <f>Xoi6$ gvXov /njTpa, 
oaa ex 61, P'V T P av ' ndvTa S' o^iOLOfxeprj. Kal Ta 
tovtcov €Ti irpoTepa Kal ig &v TavTa, vypbv U 

1 There is no exact English equivalent for 6fiotoficp4s, 
which denotes a whole composed of parts, each of which is, 
as it were, a miniature of the whole, cf. Arist. H.A. 1. 1. 

2 i.e. any part taken of flesh or bone may be called 
' flesh ' or ' bone.' 

3 e.g. bark ; cf. 1. 2. 1. 4 e.g. fruit. 

Digitized by 


characters belong especially to trees, and our 
classification of characters belongs more particularly 
to these ; and it is right to make these the standard 
in treating of the others. 

Trees moreover shew forth fairly well the other 
features also which distinguish plants; for they exhibit 
differences in the number or fewness of these which 
they possess, as to the closeness or openness of their 
growth, as to their being single or divided, and in 
other like respects. Moreover each of the characters 
mentioned is not ' composed of like parts ' 1 ; by 
which I mean that though any given part of the root 
or trunk is composed of the same elements as the 
whole, yet the part so taken is not itself called 
' trunk/ but 'a portion of a trunk.' The case is the 
same with the members of an animal's body ; to 
wit, any part of the leg or arm is composed of the 
same elements as the whole, yet it does not bear the 
same name (as it does in the case of flesh or bone 2 ) ; 
it has no special name. Nor again have subdivisions 
of any of those other organic parts 8 which are uniform 
special names, subdivisions of all such being nameless. 
But the subdivisions of those parts 4 which are 
compound have names, as have those of the foot, 
hand, and head, for instance, toe, finger, nose or eye. 
Such then are the largest 5 parts of the plant. 

II. Again there are the things of which such parts 
are composed, namely bark, wood, and core (in the 
case of those plants which have it 6 ), and these are 
all ' composed of like parts.' Further there are 
the things which are even prior to these, from which 

6 i.e. the ' compound ' parts. 

6 tf\ov rfrpa conj. W. from G. ixfopa $vXov MSS. ; 
l6\ov t taa conj. W. ; £uAa, tj ttra Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


<P^€yfr adp^ % dpxal yap avrar ifXrjv el T£? Xeyoi 
t^9 t&v <J70i%eiwv 8vvdfjL€i$, avrac 8e /coival irdv- 
raov. 7} fiev ovv ovaia /cal f] o\t) (frvai? iv tovtois. 

v A\Xa 8* iarlv wairep iirereca fiepr) rk irpb^ 
rrjv KapiroTOKiav, olov <f>v\\ov avdos playo^ 
tovto S' iarlv c5 avvr)pTt]Tai ttoo? to <\>vtov to 
<f>v\\ov /cal 6 Kapirov In 8k ftpvov, ots 

virdpxei, teal iirl iraai airepjia to tov /capwov 9 
/capirbs 8' iarl to avy/cebfievov airepfia fierce tov 
TrepucapTrlov. irapa 8e TavTa ivitov X8ia aTTa, 
/caddirep r/ /crj/cl? 8pvb$ /cal f] e\ij; d/nreXov. 

2 Kal Tots fikv 8ev8peaiv eaTiv ovtq)? SuiXafielv. 

TO?9 & iir€T€LO^ 8fjX0V C&9 dlTOVTa €7T€T€ia' 

fieXP 1, V^P T *** v Ka P 7r & i; *l <j*vo'(,$. oaa 8t) iireTeio- 
icapira Kal oaa 8i€Ti£ei, /caOdirep aeXivov /cal a\\' 
aTTa, zeal 8aa 8k TrXeLta XP® V0V %X U> tovtois 
airaai ical 6 tcavKb? d/coXovOrjaei Kara Xoyov 
orav yap cnepfiofyopeiv fieXXcoai, Tore i/c/cavXov- 
a iv, a>? eve/ca tov airepfiaTO^ 8vtq>v t&v /cavX&v, 

TavTa fiev ovv Tavry 8irjp^ad(o. t&v 8k dpri 
eiprjfievaov fiep&v ireipaTkov e/caaTOV eiirelv tL 
Igtlv d>$ iv Tvirtp Xeyovras. 

3 To fiev ovv vypbv <f>avepov b 8rj /caXovai Tives 
dirX&s ev airaaiv ottov, Sairep /cal MeveaTcop, oi 

1 ovala conj. Sch. (but he retracted it) ; aw ovaia MSS. (?) 

2 This definition is quoted by Hesych. 8.v. filaxos. 
8 ? om. ?At(, which is mentioned below. 

4 rb avytcttficvov mrepfui, lit. 'the compound seed,' i.e. as 
many seeds as are contained in one vepucdpiriot'. 


Digitized by 


they are derived — sap, fibre, veins, flesh: for these 
are elementary substances — unless one should prefer 
to call them the active principles of the elements ; 
and they are common to all the parts of the plant. 
Thus the essence 1 and entire material of plants 
consist in these. 

Again there are other as it were annual parts, 
which help towards the production of the fruit, as 
leaf, flower, stalk (that is, the part by which the 
leaf and the fruit are attached to the plant), 2 and 
again tendril, 8 ( catkin * (in those plants that have 
them). And in all cases there is the seed which 
belongs to the fruit : by s fruit ' is meant the seed 
or seeds, 4 together with the seed-vessel. Besides 
these there are in some cases peculiar parts, such 
as the gall in the oak, or the tendril in the vine. 

In the case of trees we may thus distinguish the 
annual parts, while it is plain that in annual plants all 
the parts are annual : for the end of their being is 
attained when the fruit is produced. And with 
those plants which bear fruit annually, those which 
take two years (such as celery and certain others 6 ) 
and those which have fruit on them for a longer time 
— with all these the stem will corresjwnd to the 
plant's length of life : for plants develop a stem at 
whatever time they are about to bear seed, seeing 
that the stem exists for the sake of the seed. 

Let this suffice for the definition of these parts : 
and now we must endeavour to say what each of the 
parts just mentioned is, giving a general and typical 

The sap is obvious : some call it simply in all cases 
c juice/ as does Menestor 6 among others : others, in 

5 cf. 7. 1.2 and 3. 8 A Pythagorean philosopher of Sybaris. 


VOL. I. C 

Digitized by 


h' iv fi€v T0Z9 aXXois avwvvfMDS iv he tkjw oirbv 
teal iv aXXois Bdtepvov. Ives Be teal (frXeftes /caO* 
avra fiev avebvvfia tt} Be ofioiorrjTC fieraXa/Jifta,- 
vovai t&v iv tois £a>o*9 fiopi(ov. €%e* he l<tco$ 
Kal aXXas hiacf>opa<i Kal ravra zeal oX<d$ to t&v 
<j)VT&v 761/09* 7ro\v)(pvv yap &<nrep etprf/eafiev. 
dXX* 67T€t hia t&v yvaypificorepcov iierahmiceiv hel 
ra ayvcbpiara, yvcopcpuoTepa he ra jxel^co Kal i/A- 
<f>avrj rrj ala0ij<T€i i hrjXov oti KaQamep iKptjyrjrai 

4 trepl tovtcov Xcktcov iiravacfropdv yap €%op,ev 
t&v aXXcov 7T/0O9 Tama pe^pi, iroaov Kal 7tg>9 
eteaaTa iieTeyei tt)9 ofioioTfjTO?. €iXrjp,p,evcov hk 
t&v fiep&v fJATa TavTa XrjirTeov t<x9 tovtcov 
huufropdr ovtco? yap a/jui /cal f) ovaia <f>avepa 
Kal rj oXrj t&v yev&v irpbs aXXrjXa hidaTaats. 

f H fiev ovv t&v fieyiaTcov axehbv etprjTar Xeyco 
h* olov pt^rj^ KavXov t&v aXXcov al yap hwdfiei? 
Kal &v %dpw €Ka<TT0V vGTepov pr)Qr\aovTai. e|f 
cov yap Kal TavTa Kal Ta aXXa avyKeiTai 
ireipaTeov elirelv dp^apuevov^ dirb t&v irpcoTcov. 

Up&Ta he i<JTi to vypbv Kal 0ep/Ji6v dirav yap 
<I>vt6v e^ei Tiva vypoTtjTa Kal OeppbOTrjTa avp,- 
<f>VTOv &airep Kal ^&ov, &v viroXenrovTcov ylveTai 
yfjpa? Kal <f>0C<n$, TeXeico? he vitoXlttovtcov Odva- 

6 T09 Kal avavats. iv fiev oiv tocs TrXeLaTOi? dveb- 

1 Lit. * muscles and veins.' 

2 i.e. the analogy with animals is probably imperfect, but 
is useful so far as it goes. 

3 1. 1. 10. 4 e,g. the root, as such. 

5 e.g. the different forms which roots assume. 


Digitized by 


the case of some plants give it no special name, while 
in some they call it ' juice/ and in others f gum.' 
Fibre and ' veins ' 1 have no special names in relation 
to plants, but, because of the resemblance, borrow 
the names of the corresponding \mrts of animals. 2 It 
may be however that, not only these things, but the 
world of plants generally, exhibits also other differ- 
ences as compared with animals : for, as we have 
said, 3 the world of plants is manifold. However, 
since it is by the help of the better known that we 
must pursue the unknown, and better known are the 
things which are larger and plainer to our senses, 
it is clear that it is right to speak of these things in 
the way indicated : for then in dealing with the 
less known things we shall be making these better 
known things our standard, and shall ask how far and 
in what manner comparison is possible in each case. 
And when we have taken the parts, 4 we must next 
take the differences which they exhibit, 6 for thus 
will their essential nature become plain, and at the 
same time the general differences between one kind 
of plant and another. 

Now the nature of the most important parts has 
been indicated already, that is, such parts as the 
root, the stem, and the rest : their functions and the 
reasons for which each of them exists will be set forth 
presently. For we must endeavour to state of what 
these, as well as the rest, are composed, starting from 
their elementary constituents. 

First come moisture and warmth : for every plant, 
like every animal, has a certain amount of moisture 
and warmth which essentially belong to it ; and, if 
these fall short, age and decay, while, if they fail 
altogether, death and withering ensue. Now in 


c 2 

Digitized by 


vvfw? f] vypoTrjs, iv iviois he wvo/mafievt) KaOdnep 
etprjTai. to avrb he Kal iirl t&v £<oa)v virdp^er 
fjiovq yap rj t&v ivaipxov vyporrjs wvofiaarai, Si 
h Kal Sirjprjrai irpb? tovto areprjaer Tct p,kv yap 
avaifia tcl 8' evatfia \iyerat,, £i> ri fiev oiv tovto 
to fiepos Kal to tovt<p avvrjpTrjfievov Bepfiov. 

v A\\a h* rjhr) erepa t&v ei/ro?, a icaff eavTa fiev 
Iotiv dvdovvfia, hid he* ttjv ofwioTrjTa direiKa^eTai 
to?? t&v £(b<ov fiopiois. €X ovai vfy & a "n'€p lva$* 
o iaTi a-we^es Kal cx^tov Kal eirifit)K€$, dirapd- 
6 ftXacTov he* Kal a/3\a<TTov. €ti he <f>\e/3a$. avrai 
he Td fiev aXXa elalv oyuoiai rfj IvL, /j,ei%ov<; he Kal 
TrayvTepat, Kal Trapa/3\daTa$ exovaai Kal vypo- 
TrjTa. eri %v\ov Kal adpi*. tcl jiev ydp e)(€i 
adp/ca tcl he* f*v\ov. i-aTi he to fiev £v\ov <r%t<r- 
tov 9 f] he adpg wavTrj hiaipeiTai &a7rep yrj Kal 
ocra 7779* p£Tai*v he yiveTai «>o? Kal <f)Xe/36v 
<f>avepa he 17 <f>vo*i$ air*}? iv d\\oi<s re Kal iv T019 
t&v TrepiKapTTLMV hipfiaai. <j>\oib$ he* Kal fiqTpa 
Kvpiax; fikv XiyeTai, Sec he ax)T(i Kal t$ \6ytp 
hioplaai. <f)\oib$ fikv ovv iaTi to eax arov Kal 
Xcopia-Tov tov V7TOK€tfiivov <ja>/LtaT09. purjTpa he 
to fieTa^if tov %v\ov, Tpvrov dirb tov <f>\oiov otov 
iv to?9 o<tto?9 /jLve\6$. KaXovai he Ttves tovto 

1 irKctarois conj. Mold.; tcpArois Ald.H. 2 1. 1. 3. 

3 i.vapdfiXaa'rov conj. R. Const.; hirapd^Xifrov UMVAld. 

4 %ti 5e conj. W. ; tx ov Aid. 6 Fibre. 

6 i.e. can be split in one direction. 

7 e.g. an unripe walnut. 


Digitized by 


most 1 plants the moisture has no special name, but 
in some it has such a name, as has been said 2 : and 
this also holds good of animals : for it is only the 
moisture of those which have blood which has 
received a name ; wherefore we distinguish animals 
by the presence or absence of blood, calling some 
'animals with blood/ others c bloodless/ Moisture 
then is one essential ' part/ and so is warmth, which 
is closely connected with it. 

There are also other internal characters, which in 
themselves have no special name, but, because of 
their resemblance, have names analogous to those of 
the parts of animals. Thus plants have what 
corresponds to muscle ; and this quasi-muscle is 
continuous, fissile, long : moreover no other growth 
starts from it either branching from the side 8 or 
in continuation of it. Again 4 plants have veins : 
these in other respects resemble the ' muscle,' 5 but 
they are longer and thicker, and have side-growths 
and contain moisture. Then there are wood and 
flesh : for some plants have flesh, some wood. Wood 
is fissile, 6 while flesh can be broken up in any 
direction, like earth and things made of earth : it is 
intermediate between fibre and veins, its nature being 
clearly seen especially in the outer covering 7 of 
seed-vessels. Bark and core are properly so called, 8 
yet they too must be defined. Bark then is the 
outside, and is separable from the substance which it 
covers. Core is that which forms the middle of the 
wood, being third 9 in order from the bark, and 
corresponding to the marrow in bones. Some call this 
part the ' heart/ others call it ' heart- wood ' : some 

8 i.ew not by analogy with animals, like ' muscle/ * veins/ 
« flesh.' » Reckoning inclusively. 


Digitized by 


/capBiav, oi 8 ivTepicovrjv evioi Be to ivrb? ttj? 
firjTpas avryy; /capBiav, oi Be fivekov. 
7 Tct fiev ovv fiopia a^eBov iart roaavra. <rvy- 
/cevrai Be rh varepov i/c t&v irporepcov %v\ov 
fiev ef Ivbs /cal vypov, /cal evia crap/cor gvXovTai 
yap a/cXrjpvvofievrj, olov iv tow <f>oivif;i /cal vdp- 
Orfei /ecu el ti aXXo i/c^vXovTai, &tnrep ai t&v 
pa<f>avLBcov pi%ai % firjTpa Bk ef vypov teal aap/co^' 
<f>Xoib<; Bk 6 fiev ti$ i/c irdvToyv t&v Tpi&v, olov 6 
tt}<; Bpvbs /cal alyeipov /cal dirlov* 6 Be tt)<; dfi- 
ireXov ef vypov /cal Ivor 6 Be tov <f>eXXov i/c 
aap/cb? /cal vypov. irdXiv Be i/c tovtcov avvOeTa 
tcl fieyiaTa /cal irp&Ta prjffevTa /caffairepavel 
fieXrj, 7tXt)v oi/c etc t&v avT&v irdvTa ovBe &aav- 
tg)9 dXXct Buafyopays. 

TLlXrjfifievcov Bk irdvTcov t&v fiopiav a>? eiirelv 
tcl<; tovtojv Bia<f>opa<; ireipaTeov diroBiBbvai /cal 
Tct<; oXcov t&v BevBpcov /cal <f)VT&v ovaia^. 

III. 'E7T€l Be (TVfi/3aivet <ra$e<JTepav elvai tyjv 
fiddrjaiv Biaipov/nevcov icaTa eoBr], /caX&$ e^ei 
tovto iroielv e<f>* &v ivBe^eTai. irp&Ta Be iaTi 
/cal fieyio-Ta /cal o"xeB6v v<f> &v irdvT rj tcL 
irXelaTa irepie^eTai, TaBe, BevBpov Odfivos <j)pv- 
yavov it 6a. 

AevBpov fiev ovv eo~Ti to drrb pl&s fiovo&T€Xe)(€<; 

1 <j>t\\ov conj. H. ; <j>v\\op UVP 2 P 3 Ald. ; <f>v\\ov M. 

2 i.e. root, stem, branch, twig : cf. 1. 1. 9. 

3 <ra<p€<rr4pav conj. W. ; ffcupecrtpov Aid. 

4 My here =y4ptj; cf. 6. 1. 2. n. 

5 ir&vr* 1) conj. Scb. after G ; rbvrv\ UMVAld. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO JfcANTS, I. 11. 6-m. 1 

again call only the inner part of the core itself 
the 'heart/ while others distinguish this as the 
* marrow.' 

Here then we have a fairly complete list of the 
' parts/ and those last named are composed of the first 
' parts' ; wood is made of fibre and sap, and in some 
cases of flesh also; for the flesh hardens and turns to 
wood, for instance in palms ferula and in other 
plants in which a turning to wood takes place, as in 
the roots of radishes. Core is made of moisture and 
flesh : bark in some cases of all three constituents, 
as in the oak black poplar and pear; while the 
bark of the vine is made of sap and fibre, and that 
of the cork-oak 1 of flesh and sap. Moreover out of 
these constituents are made the most important 
parts, 2 those which I mentioned first, and which may 
be called ' members ' : however not all of them are 
made of the same constituents, nor in the same 
proportion, but the constituents are combined in 
various ways. 

Having now, we may say, taken all the parts, we 
must endeavour to give the differences between them 
and the essential characters of trees and plants taken 
as wholes. 

Definitions of the various classes into which plants may be 

III. Now since our study becomes more illumin- 
ating 3 if we distinguish different kinds, 4 it is well to 
follow this plan where it is possible. The first and 
most important classes, those which comprise all 
or nearly all 6 plants, are tree, shrub, under-shrub, 

A tree is a thing which springs from the root with 


Digitized by 


iroXvtcXaBov 6£(dt6v ovtc eitairoXvTOV, olov eXda 
avtcrj dfiireXov Odfivo? Be to dirb iroXv- 
tcXaBov, olov ySaro? iraXiovpos. <f>pvyavov Be to 
airo pi&S 7ro\vo-T€\6^€? teal iroXv/cXaBov olov 
/ecu Ovfifipa teal irrjyavov. irba B\ to dirb pl&$ 
^>vXXo(j)6pov irpolbv daTeXexes, ov 6 tcavXb? airep- 
fw<f>6po<;, olov 6 0"tT09 ICCLIt TCt Xai/ava • 

2 Aet B\ tou? opovs ovtg)<; airohe'xeaOai teal Xa/i- 
fidveiv d>9 Tvirtp teal eirl to ttclv XeyopAvovv evia 
yhp ?o"G>9 eiraXXaTreiv Bogeie, rh Be /ecu iraph ttjv 
dyayrjv dXXoiorepa yiveadai zeal etcfSaivew T779 
</>u<r€a>9, olov fiaXdxv T € efc vyfros dvayopAvrj 
/cat aTroBevBpovfieirty avfiftaivei yhp tovto kcu 
ovk iv 7ro\\q> Xpbvtp a>OC iv £f tj eirrh firjoiv, 
&ar€ fir)/eo<; /cal Trdyos Bopanaiov yLveaOcu, Bl h 
teal fiatcTrjplais clvtcus ypwvTcu, irkeiovos Be XP°~ 
vov yivofievov tearh Xoyov r) aTroBoaw ofwico? 
Be zeal eVt t<ov revrXoav teal yhp ravra Xafifidvei 
p&yeOov en Be fidXXov ayvoi teal 6 iraXiovpos 
teal 6 tciTTos, bfioXoyovpuevw ravra yiverat 

8 BevBpa* teai toc OafivdoBrj ye eaTiv. 6 Be \Lvppivo$ 
fir) dvatcadaipofievo*; eteBafivovrai teal r) rjpatcXeco- 
Titerj tcapva. Boteei Be avTrj ye teal rbv Kapirbv 
fSeXriw teal irXeico <f>epetv ehv pdf3Bov<; Ti9 id 

1 ddpvos . . . wfiyavov. W.'s text transposes, without 
alteration, the definitions of Od/ivos and <pptiyavov as given 
in U. <pp6yavov 5i rb airb ftCy* tal troKvcrrtXexcs Kal wo\i>K\atiov 
otov Bdros ira\iovpos, Aid. So also M, but with a lacuna - 
marked before Qpvyavov and a note that the definition of 
Qajxvos is wanting. <ppvyavov 5i rb dirb pifas Kal wo\v(rr4\cx*s 
Kal ttoXvkXoSov olov Kal ydp&pi) Kal •K'hyavov. Bdfxvos 5^ awb fr(Cr)s 
no\vK\ahov otov $dros ica\lovpos U. So also very nearly P^. 
G ffives to ddfivos {fnitex) the definition assigned in U to 
<ppvyavov (sujffrtUex) and the other definition is wanting. 


Digitized by 


a single stem, having knots and several branches, 
and it cannot easily be uprooted ; for instance, olive 
fig vine. 1 A shrub is a thing which rises from the 
root with many branches ; for instance, bramble 
Christ's thorn. An under-shrub is a thing which 
rises from the root with many stems as well as many 
branches ; for instance, savory 2 rue. A herb is a 
thing which comes up from the root with its leaves 
and has no main stem, and the seed is borne on the 
stem ; for instance, corn and pot-herbs. 

These definitions however must be taken and 
accepted as applying generally and on the whole. For 
in the case of some plants it might seem that our de- 
finitions overlap ; and some under cultivation appear 
to become different and depart from their essential 
nature, for instance, mallow 3 when it grows tall and 
becomes tree-like. For this comes to pass in no long 
time, not more than six or seven months, so that in 
length and thickness the plant becomes as great as a 
spear, and men accordingly use it as a walking-stick, 
and after a longer period the result of cultivation is 
proportionately greater. So too is it with the beets ; 
they also increase in stature under cultivation, and so 
still more do chaste-tree Christ's thorn ivy, so that, 
as is generally admitted, these become trees, and yet 
they belong to the class of shrubs. On the other 
hand the myrtle, unless it is pruned, turns into a 
shrub, and so does filbert 4 : indeed this last appears 
to bear better and more abundant fruit, if one leaves 

Note that W.'s transposition gives ko! . . . ko) the proper 
force; § 4 shews that the typical <ppvyavov in T.'s view was 
iroAv<rrfoex c ** 

2 0tffi$pa conj. W. ; ydn&irn MSS. But the first *ol being 
meaningless, W. also suggests <rur6fx&piov for koI ydfi$fnj. 

3 cf. Plin. 19. 62. * cf. 3. 15. 1. 


Digitized by 


irXeiovs w T779 </>uo"eo)9 Oa/jLvco&ovs ovo"r)$, ov 
fiovoarekex^ & &v Sogeiev ov& 17 firjXea ovS* rj 
poih ovS* 17 airco? elvcu, ovS* oXg>9 oca irapafiXa- 
(TTrjTi/ccb airb tojv pi^&v dXXct rfj dyeoyfj roiavra 
Trapaipovfievasv t&v aXXcov. evia 8k teal iaxn 
•jroXvareKe'yrj Sid Xe-rrTOTrjra, KaOdirep poav 
firjXiav i&crt Se Kal t«9 iXdas KOTrdSas teal ra9 

4 Ta^a S' dv Tt$ §avr\ Kal o\g>9 peyeOei Kal fii- 
/cporrjrt Siaipereov etvat, tcl Se lo")(yi Kal daOeveia 
Kal iroXvxpovioTrjTi Kal oXiyoxpoviorrjTi. tg>v re 
yap (f>pvyaveoSa>v Kal Xa^aveoSAv evia jjlovo- 
(TTeXixV KCt l °l° v SevSpov fyvaiv eyovTa yiverac, 
KaOdirep pd<f>avo<; irrjyavov, oOev Kal KaXovat 
Tives tcl rotavTa SevSpoXd^ava, rd tc Xa^ovdiSri 
irdvTa rj tcl irXelaTa orav iyKarafieLvrj Tm/iftdvei 
TLvds &airep aKpefiovas Kal ylverai to oXov ev 
axtffiaTL SevSpcoSei 7rXi)v oXiyoxpovid)T€pa. 

6 Ata Si} Tavra &<nrep Xeyopuev ovk aKpifioXoyrj- 

T60V T(p Optp dXXd T(p TV7TQ) Xrj7TT€OV 
d(f)Opi<TflOV<r 67T€t Kal T<X9 Siaip€(T€l<; OflOLCO?, oloV 

rjfiepcov dypitov, Kap7TO(f>6p(ov aKapwcov, dv0o<f>6p(ov 
dvavO&v, deufyvXXeov <j)vXXo/3oX(ov. tcl fjukv yap 
aypia Kal rjfxepa iraph Trjv dyoyyrjv elvai SoKel* 
irav yap Kal dypiov Kal fjfiepov <f>r)<riv rf \inr(ov 
yiveaOai Tvy ^dvov t) /jltj Tvyydvoy OepaireLas. 

1 i.e. so that the tree comes to look like a shrub from the 
growth of fresh shoots after cutting, ef. 2 6. 12 ; 2. 7. 2. 

2 p&<pavos conj. Bod. from G ; fia<pav\s Aid. 

8 cf. 3. 2. 2, The Ionian philosopher. See Zeller, Pre- 
Socratic Philosophy (Eng. trans.), 1. 2&1 L 

4 koI add. W.; soG. 

5 f) conj. Scfc % ; K a\ UAld.CamBas.H. 


Digitized by 


a good many of itebranches untouched, since it is by 
nature like a shidSr Again neither the apple nor the 
pomegranate nor the pear would seem to be a tree of 
a single stem, nor indeed any of the trees which have 
side stems from the roots, but they acquire the char- 
acter of a tree when the other stems are removed. 
However some trees men even leave with then- 
numerous stems because of their slenderness, for in- 
stance, the pomegranate and the apple, and they 
leave the stems of the olive and the fig cut short. 1 

Exact classification impracticable: other possible bases oj 

Indeed it might be suggested that we should 
classify in some cases simply by size, and in some 
cases by comparative robustness or length of life. 
For of under-shrubs and those of the pot-herb 
class some have only one stem and come as it were 
to have the character of a tree, such as cabbage 2 
and rue : wherefore some call these e tree-herbs'; and 
in fact all or most of the pot-herb class, when 
they have been long in the ground, acquire a sort 
of branches, and the whole plant comes to have a 
tree-like shape, though it is shorter lived than a tree. 

For these reasons then, as we are saying, one 
must not make a too precise definition ; we should 
make our definitions typical. For we must make 
our distinctions too on the same principle, as 
those between wild and cultivated plants, fruit- 
bearing and fruitless, flowering and flowerless, 
evergreen and deciduous. Thus the distinction 
between wild and cultivated seems to be due 
simply to cultivation, since, as Hippon 8 remarks, 
any plant may be either 4 wild or cultivated ac- 
cording as it receives or 6 does not receive attention. 


Digitized by 


atcapira Be teal tcdpircfia teal dvfabopa teal dvavffrj 
irapa tow tottov? teal tov ai/n^-dv irepUyovra* 
tov avrov Be rpoirov teal <f>vXXoj36Xa /cat del- 
(f)v\\a. irepl yap 'l&XefyavTivqv ovBe Ta<; dpureXovs 
ovBe Ta9 avtca? <f>aai <f>vXXo/3oXeiv t 
6 'AW' o/46>9 TOtavTa BiaipeTeov e^et yap ri ttj? 
<f>vaea)<; teoivbv ofwLcos ev BevBpois teal Bdfivois teal 
T0Z9 <j>pvyaviteoi<; teal 7roia>Beaiv' virep &v teal Ta$ 
atrial orav w Xeyp irepl irdvTcov teoivfj BrjXov oti 
XetCTeov ov% bpLtpvra tca0* etcao-TOv evXoyov Bk 
teal ravras teoivas elvai irdvTcov. ajia Be teal 
<f>aiv€raC Tcva €%eiv (frvaiterjv Bia<f)opdv ev0v<; iwl 
t&v dypiav teal t&v rjfiepcov, etirep evia firj Bvva- 
rac %f)v &ajrep tcl yecopyov/jueva firjB* oXcos Several 
OepaireLav o\\i X^t/o© yiverai, teaOdmep e\drr) 
Trevtcrj terjXaaTpov teal dirX&s oaa tyvxpov? tottov? 
<f>iXet teal xiovwBeis, cbaavTco? Be teal t&v <f>pvyavi- 
tc&v teal woieoB&v, olov tcdinrapis teal Bepfio^, 
fjfiepov Be teal aypcov BLteaiov tcaXetv dva<f>epovra 
777709 re ravra teal oXcos 717)09 to q/iepdoTaTOV [6 
6° avOpoDiros rj fiovov f/ fidXiara fjfiepov.] 

IV. Qavepal Bk teal tear air as t«9 fiop<j)d<; ai 
Bia<f>opal t&v oXcov re teal fwpiav, olov Xeyco 

1 avd6(popa Kai ivavBrj conj. Sch. from G ; Kapir6<f>opa HvOtj 
P 2 Ald. 2 cf. 1. 9. 5 ; Plin. 16. 81. 

8 rotavra 'Conj. W. ; $iaiptr4ov conj. Sch.; ro?s avro?s 
alperiov Aid. The sense seems to be : Though these 
'secondary' distinctions are not entirely satisfactory, yet 
(if we look to the causes of different characters), they are 
indispensable., since they are due to causes which affect all 
the four classes of our ' primary ' distinction. 

4 i.e. we must take the extreme cases. 

5 i.e. plants which entirely refuse cultivation. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. m. 5 -iv. i 

Again the distin^rans between fruitless and fruit- 
bearing, 1 flowerfl^and flowerless, seem to be due 
to position and the climate of the district. And 
so too with the distinction between deciduous and 
evergreen. 2 Thus they say that in the district of 
Elephantine neither vines nor figs lose their leaves. 

Nevertheless we are bound to use such dis- 
tinctions. 8 For there is a certain common character 
alike in trees, shrubs, under-shrubs, and herbs. 
Wherefore, when one mentions the causes also, 
one must take account of all alike, not giving 
separate definitions for each class, it being reasonable 
to suppose that the causes too are common to all. 
And in fact there seems to be some natural difference 
from the first in the case of wild and cultivated, 
seeing that some plants cannot live under the 
conditions of those grown in cultivated ground, 
and do not submit to cultivation at all, but de- 
teriorate under it ; for instance, silver-fir fir holly, 
and in general those which affect cold snowy 
country ; and the same is also true of some of the 
under-shrubs and herbs, such as caper and lupin. 
Now in using the terms ' cultivated ' and ' wild ' 
4 we must make these 5 on the one hand our standard, 
and on the other that which is in the truest sense 6 
' cultivated/ 7 Now Man, if he is not the only 
thing to which this name is strictly appropriate, is at 
least that to which it most applies. 

Differences as to appearance and habitat. 
IV. Again the differences, both between the plants 
as wholes and between their parts, may be seen in 

6 %\us Tpbs rb. ? vpbs rb 8A«s conj. St. 

7 6 5* UpOpwicos . . . fyiepov. I have bracketed this clause, 
which seems to be an irrelevant gloss. 


Digitized by 


fi&yeOos /cal fiL/cpoTrjs, a/cXrmmrr]<; jMiXaicoTrjs, 
Xclott)^ rpaxvTys* <\>Xoiov (frvXXav t&v aXXcov, 
a7rX&>? €v/JLop<f)ia teal 8v<TfjLop<f>ia t*9, en 8k /cal 
KaXkueapiria /cal /ea/co/capiria. irXeLw fikv yap 
SoKei tcl aypia fyepeiv, wairep a%pa$ kotivos, /caX- 
Xteo 8k tcl rjfxepa /cal Tot»9 ^i/Xota 8k avroix; 
yKv/cvrepovs /cal r}8lov$ /cal to oXov d>? elirelv 
ev/cparovs puaXXov. 
2 Avrai T€ 8rj (fivcri/cai rives &(Tir€p eiprjTai 8ia- 
<f>opai, /cal en 8tj fiaXXov t&v d/cdpircov /cal /capiro- 
(f)6p(ov /cal <j>vXXo/36X(ov /cal aeifyvWtov /cal oaa 
aXXa TOtavra. irdvTCOv 8k Xrjiniov del /cal ra<; 
Kara tou9 tottow ov yap ovS* olov re ?o*&)9 
aXXws. ai 8k roiavTai 86^aiev &v yevi/cov riva 
iroielv %copi<Tfi6v, olov ivv8pcov teal ^epaaioyv, &<nr€p 
iirl t<ov £cog)V. earl yap evia t&v <f>VT&v a ov 
8vvarai fifj iv vypfy £rjv 8irjpr)Tai 8k aXXo /car 
aXXo 761/09 t&v vyp&v, &(tt€ to, fikv iv TeXfiaai 
tcl 8k iv Xifivais to. 8 y iv iroTafioh tcl 8k /cal iv 
avTjj Trj OaXaTTTj (frveo-Oat,, tcl fikv cXaTTto /cal iv 
ttj irap rffiiv Ta 8k fiei^co irepl Trjv ipvOpdv. evia 
8k dxrirepel /cdOvypa /cal eXeia, /caOdirep iTea /cal 
7r\arai/09, tcl 8k oi/e iv v8aTi 8vvdfieva £r}v oi8' 
o\w9 dXXd 8ico/covra tol>9 ^rjpov<; tottov?' t&v 8* 
iXaTTovcov 6<ttiv a /cal tovs atyLaXovs. 

1 #cot* avras ras conj. Sch. ; koI rd r* auras ras U ; Kara 
ravras ras MVAld. 

2 irdvruv . . . r Stout, text perhaps defective. 

3 i.e. as to locality. * cf. 4. 7. 1. 


Digitized by 


the appearance itself 1 of the plant. I mean differences 
such as those in size, hardness, smoothness or their 
opposites, as seen in bark, leaves, and the other 
parts ; also, in general, differences as to comeliness 
or its opposite and as to the production of good or of 
inferior fruit. For the wild kinds appear to bear 
more fruit, for instance, the wild pear and wild olive, 
but the cultivated plants better fruit, having even 
flavours which are sweeter and pleasanter and in 
general better blended, if one may so say. 

These then as has been said, are differences of 
natural character, as it were, and still more so are 
those between fruitless and fruitful, deciduous and 
evergreen plants, and the like. But with all the 
differences in all these cases we must take into 
account the locality, 2 and indeed it is hardly possible 
to do otherwise. Such 8 differences would seem to 
give us a kind of division into classes, for instance, 
between that of aquatic plants and that of plants of 
the dry land, corresponding to the division which we 
make in the case of animals. For there are some 
plants which cannot live except in wet ; and again 
these are distinguished from one another by their 
fondness for different kinds of wetness ; so that some 
grow in marshes, others in lakes, others in rivers, 
others even in the sea, smaller ones in our own 
sea, larger ones in the Red Sea. 4 Some again, one 
may say, are lovers of very wet places, 5 or plants 
of the marshes, such as the willow and the plane. 
Others again cannot live at all 6 in water, but seek 
out dry places ; and of the smaller sorts there are 
some that prefer the shore. 

6 i.e. though not actually living in water. 

8 ou5* #Aws conj. W.; iv r6vrois Ald.H. Minime G. 

3 1 

Digitized by 


3 Ov fJLtjv dXXa zeal tovtwv el Ti9 cucpifioXo- 
yelaOaL OeXoi, tcl fikv civ evpoi kolvcl teal wairep 
afi<j)i/3ia, KaBdirep fJLVpi/crjv ireav /cXiydpav, tcl 8k 
/cal t&v ofioXoyovfieveov yspaaiwv ire^vKora nork 
iv Tjj OaXdrTTj /3lovv, <j)oivi/ca a/ciXXav dvOepi/cov. 
dXXcl tcl roiavTCt real oXa>? to ovtoo o-/co7T€lv ovtc 

OlfCeiCOS i(TTL CTK07T6LV' OV&€ ydp OuS' r) <f>V<TL<; OV- 

tg)9 oih* iv TOt9 ToiovTOi? e^e* to dvayrcalov. Ta? 
fiev ovv hicLLpeaeLS fcal oXa>9 ttjv iaroplav t&v <j>v- 
t&v ovtco XrjTTTeov. [airavra 8' ovv teal tclvtci ko\ 
tcl aXXa hioLaei xaOdirep etprjTai Tafc T6 t&v 
oXcov fiop<f>a,L<; /cal Tafc t&v fiopUov hLafyopals, r) 
t$ exeiv tcl he fir) e%eiv> rj T(p TrXeico tcl 8' 
eXaTTO), rj t$ dvofiOLcos rj oaoi TpbiroL SiyprjVTcti 

4 irpoTepov. olfcelov 8e ?o"a>9 kcll to£>9 T07rot>9 crvfi- 
7rapaXafi/3dv€LV iv oh ercacTa 7r€<f>v/C€v rj fir) 
7r€<j)VK€ yivecrBaL. fieydXr) yap teal avTrj 8ia<j)opa 
real o&x rjtciGTa ol/cela t&v <f>VT&v Bed to avvrfp- 
TrjaOai Tjj yfj /cal fir) dirdXeXvaBaL zcaddirep 
Ta f(Sa.] 

V. HeipaTeov 8' elireLV t^9 /eaTa fiipo? 8ia- 
<f>opa<} a>9 t\v /caOoXov Xeyovras irp&TOV /cal kow&s, 

1 64\oi conj. Sch.; 64\ci Ald.H. 

2 fftpoi conj. Sch. ; effprj Aid. ; €0pj; H. 

3 Presumably as being sometimes found on the shore below 
high-water mark. 

4 &Travra . . . (ua. This passage seems not to belong 

5 rpSiroi conj. Sch. ; r6iroi UMVAld. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. iv. 3 -v. i 

However, if one should wish 1 to be precise, one 
would find 2 that even of these some are impartial 
and as it were amphibious, such as tamarisk willow 
alder, and that others even of those which are 
admitted to be plants of the dry land sometimes live 
in the sea, 3 as palm squill asphodel. But to con- 
sider all these exceptions and, in general, to consider 
in such a manner is not the right way to proceed. 
For in such matters too nature certainly does not 
thus go by any hard and fast law. Our distinctions 
therefore and the study of plants in general must be 
understood accordingly. 4 To return — these plants 
as well as all others will be found to differ, as has 
been said, both in the shape of the whole and 
in the differences between the parts, either as to 
having or not having certain parts, or as to having 
a greater or less number of parts, or as to having 
them differently arranged, or because of other dif- 
ferences 5 such as we have already mentioned. And 
it is perhaps also proper to take into account the 
situation in which each plant naturally grows or 
does not grow. For this is an important distinc- 
tion, and specially characteristic of plants, because 
they are united to the ground and not free from 
it like animals. 

Characteristic differences in the parts of plants, whether 
general, special, or seen in qualities and properties, 

V. Next we must try to give the differences as 
to particular parts, in the first instance speaking 
broadly of those of a general character, 6 and then 

6 i.e. those which divide plants into large classes {e.g, 
evergreen and deciduous). 


VOL. 1. D 

Digitized by 


elra naff* etcaaTov, varepov iirl irXelov &airep 

w E(m Be ra fiev 6p0o<f>vrj teal fiatepoaTeXexv 
/eaOdjrep eXaTrj irevKt] tevirdpiTTOS, ret Be atco- 
XieoTepa real fipaxv aTeXexv olov Iria avKtj poid, 
/cal Kara Tramps Be teal XeirTOTrjTa dfioicos. 
teal irakiv tcl puev pLOvoaTeXexv Ta ^ ttoXv- 
areXexv tovto Be ravrb rpoirov riva teal rep 
7rapa0XaaT7]TiKa rj ciirapd^Xaara eivar teal 
iroXvKXaBrj zeal oXiyotcXaBa leaddirep 6 <j>olvif;, 
teal ev auTofc tovtoi? en kcltc\ lo"yvv fj 7ra%09 r) 
2 t^9 TOiavTas Bict<f>opd$. irdXiv ra fiev Xcttto- 
<f>Xoia, /caddirep Bd<f>vrj <f>iXvpa, tcl Be 7raxv<f)Xoia, 
KaOdirep 8/0O9. en tc\ fikv Xei6<f>Xoia, tcaddirep 
firjXea avKrj, tcl Be TpaxfyXoia, /caOdirep tvypia 
Bpvs (freXXbs <f>oivif;. irdvra Be via fiev ovra 
Xeio^Xoiorepa, diroyTjpdaKovTa Bk Tpaxv<f>Xoio- 
Tepa, evia Be zeal prjgtyXoia, tcaOdirep apmeXos* tc\ 
Be teal a>9 Trepnr'nneiv, olov dvBpdxXrj firjXea 
teofiapos. cart Be teat t&v fiev aapfecoBr)? 6 <f>Xot,6<;, 
olov faXXov Bpvbs aiyelpov t&v Be IvdoBr)? kol 
aaapieos ofioiax; BevBpcov feed ddfivcov teal iirereicDV, 
olov cifnreXov leaXdfiov irvpov. fcal t&v fiev 
7roXvXo7ro<;, olov fyuXvpas eXdrrj? dfiireXov Xivo- 
airdprov Kpofiveov, t&v Be fiovoXoiros, olov avKYj<; 

1 i.e. taking account of differences in qualities, etc. See 
§ 4, but the order in which the three kinds of * differences ' 
are discussed is not that which is here given ; the second is 
taken first and resumed at 6. 1, the third begins at 5. 4, the 
first at 14. 4. 

2 rabrb conj. Sch. ; abrb UMVPAld. 

3 TpaxvQKoiSrcpa conj. H. from G ; iraxv<p. UMAld. 
c/. Plin. 16. 126. 


Digitized by 


of special differences between individual kinds ; and 
after that we must take a wider range, making as it 
were a fresh survey. 1 

Some plants grow straight up and have tall stems, 
as silver-fir fir cypress ; some are by comparison 
crooked and have short stems, as willow fig pome- 
granate ; and there are like differences as to degree 
of thickness. Again some have a single stem, others 
many stems ; and this difference corresponds 2 more 
or less to • that between those which have side- 
growths and those which have none, or that between 
those which have many branches and those which 
have few, such as the date-palm. And in these 
very instances we have also differences in strength 
thickness and the like. Again some have thin 
bark, such as bay and lime ; others have a thick 
bark, such as the oak. And again some have 
smooth bark, as apple and fig ; others rough bark, 
as 'wild oak' (Valonia oak) cork-oak and date-palm. 
However all plants when young have smoother 
bark, which gets rougher 3 as they get older ; and 
some have cracked bark, 4 as the vine ; and in some 
cases it readily drops off, as in andrachne apple 5 
and arbutus. And again of some the bark is fleshy, 
as in cork-oak oak poplar ; while in others it is 
fibrous and not fleshy ; and this applies alike to trees 
shrubs and annual plants, for instance to vines 
reeds and wheat. Again in some the bark has more 
than one layer, as in lime silver-fir vine Spanish 
broom 6 onions 7 ; while in some it consists of only 

4 t>i)ll<p\oia conj. St.; fii(l<t>oia (?)U; ^(^Ao<o P.; fit(6- 
<p\oia P 2 Ald. cf. 4. 15. 2, Plin. I.e. 

8 firi\4a conj. H. Steph., etc.; rqXcia UMPAld.; rli\etu 
P 2 V. cf. Plin. I.e. 

8 G appears to have read Xivov, otrdprov. 7 cf. 5. 1.6. 


D 2 

Digitized by 


tcaXdfiov at pas. Kara p,€V Br) tov$ <f>\otov<; iv 
tovtols ai 8ia(f)opaL. 

s Tcbv Be ijvXeov avr&v teal o\g>9 t&v tcavk&v oi 
fiev elat aaptccoBeis, olov Bpvbs avtcr}?, teal t£>v 
eKarroveov pdfivov revrXov tecoveiov oi Be aaap/coi, 
tcaffdirep tceBpov Xcorov tcvjrap'iTTov. teal oi fiev 
tv&Bew ra yap Tr)<; i\dTrj<; teal rov <f>OLVitco$ gvka 
roiavTa* ra Be diva, tcaOdirep rrj^favterj*;. maav- 
tg>9 B£ teal ra fikv <f>\e/3d)Br) ra S* dxfrXefia. irepl 
Be ra <f>pvyavc/ed koX OafivooBrj teal o\a>? ra vKrj- 
fiara teal aXXa? t*9 &v \d/3oi Bia<f>opd<;' 6 fie*v 
yap fcdXapbos yovar&Bes, 6 Be y8aTO$ /cal 6 
TraXLovpo? dtcavOdoBr). f) Be rvfyr) ical evca r&v 
eXeicov fj Xifivalwv ofwicos dBid<f>patera teal ofiaXrj, 
teaOdirep g^oivo^. 6 Be rod tcvireipov teal fiovro- 
fxov tcavXbs ofiaXoTrjrd Tiva fyd irapa tovtov?' 
ctl Be fidWov ?<rct)? 6 rov fivtcrjTO*;. 

4 Avrac fJLev Brj Boljaiev av ef &v f) avvdeais. ai 
Be Kara ra TrdOrj teal ra? Bvvdfiei? olov o-tcXrj- 
porrjs /jLa\ateoTi]<; y\io"xpori]^ tcpavporrjs <itvkv6- 
ttj<;> fiavorrj^ tcov<f>oTi]<} fiapvrrjs teal o&a aWa 
roiavra' rj fiev yap Irea teal %\g>/>oi/ eWv Kov<f>ov, 
&airep 6 <f>6\\6<;, f) Be Trvfjo? teal r) efievo? ovBe 
avavOevra. teal rd fiev a^L^erai, teaOdirep ra t% 

1 pdfivov conj. W.; ddpvov P 2 ; &a\dvov Ald.H. 

2 Kcoutlov conj. Sch.; kcovIov Ald.U (corrected to kwvcIou). 
cf. 7. 6. 4. 

3 5e &tva conj. Sen from G.; $h (3!pa U ; 5e fxavd Aid. ; 
51 ... ?a M. 

4 uX^juara conj. Sch. (a general term including shrubs, 
under-shrubs, etc. cf. 1. 6. 7 ; 1. 10. 6) ; K\4ifiara t Aid. 


Digitized by 


one coat, as in fig reed darnel. Such are the 
respects in which bark differs. 

Next of the woods themselves and of stems 
generally some are fleshy, as in oak and fig, and, 
among lesser plants, in buckthorn 1 beet hemlock 2 ; 
while some are not fleshy, for instance, prickly cedar 
nettle-tree cypress. Again some are fibrous, for of 
this character is the wood of the silver-fir and the 
date-palm ; while some are not fibrous, 3 as in the 
fig. In like manner some are full of 6 veins,' others 
veinless. Further in shrubby plants and under- 
shrubs and in woody plants 4 in general one might 
find other differences : thus the reed is jointed, 
while the bramble and Christ's thorn have thorns on 
the wood. Bulrush and some of the marsh or pond 
plants are in like manner 5 without joints and smooth, 
like the rush ; and the stem of galingale and sedge 
has a certain smoothness beyond those just men- 
tioned ; and still more perhaps has that of the 

Differences as to qualities and properties. 

These then would seem to be the differences in 
the parts which make up the plant. Those which 
belong to the qualities 6 and properties are such as 
hardness or softness, toughness or brittleness, close- 
ness or openness of texture, lightness or heaviness, 
and the like. For willow-wood is light from the 
first, even when it is green, and so is that of the 
cork-oak ; but box and ebony are not light even 
when dried. Some woods again can be split, 7 such 

6 d fio'ws, sense doubtful ; bfioav{tfi<av conj. W. 
■ wdev, cf. 1. 1. 1 n. 

7 <rxK* Tal conj. W.; trx^dfyra UMVAld.; <rx«<rn£ H. ; 
fissile* G. 


Digitized by 


e\aT?7?, ra hk evOpavara fiaXXov, olov ra T779 
iXdas. /cal ra fiev ao£a, olov ra T779 d/cTffc, to, he 
d%(ohrj, olov ra rr)? 7rev/crj<; teal iXaTrj?. 

6 Aei he /cal ra? Toiavra? viroXafifidveiv rf}<; 
^>i5<r€G>9. evo")(io'Tov fiev yap r) eXdrr] r<p evOv- 
iropelv, evOpavarov he r) iXda 81a, to a/coXihv /cal 
a/cXrjpov, ev/cafnrrov he r) fyiXvpa /cal oaa aXXa 
hca to y\io"Xpav €%€cv rrjv vyporifra. fiapv hk r) 
fiev 7rv£o? /cal 17 ef3evo<; on irv/cvd, r) he hpv$ otc 
ye&he?. £>aavT<o<; he teal ret aXXa irdvra 717)09 
rrjv <f>vo-iv 7r<»9 dvdyerai. 

VI. AicKpepovcn he /cal Tat? firfrpac*;' irpcorov 
fiev el evia e^et rj fir) e%€*, /caffdirep rtve? <f>aaiv 
aXXa re /cal rrjv d/CTrjv eireira /cal iv ai/Toi? 
Tofc eypvav r&v fiev yap iari aap/cdohrj? r&v 
he fjvXdohrj? r&v he v/ievoohr]?. /cal aap/ccbhrj? 
fiev olov dfiireXov crv/cr}? firjXea? poia? d/crr}? 
vdpdif)KO%. jjvXdohrjs hk 7rtTV09 iXaTTj? irevKT}^, 
/cal fidXiara avrr} hia to evhahos elvai, tovtcov 
S' ert a/cXrjpoTepai /cal irvKvorepai /cpaveias 
irpivov hpvos Kvricrov av/cafiivov iftevov Xcdtov. 

2 Aiaxf>epovai he amal /cal T0Z9 %pd>fiacn* 
fiekawai yap T779 eftevov /cal rfjs hpvos, fjv /caXovai 
fieXavhpvov. airaaai he a/cXrjpoTepai /cal icpavpo- 

1 i.e. break across the grain. etidpavGra mP; &0pav<rra 
UPAld.; fragilis G. cf 5. 5, Plin. 16. 186. 

2 &o(a conj. Palm, from G ; Ao£e£ UPAld. 

3 i.e. across the grain. 4 cf. 5. 6. 2. 5 cf. 5. 1. 4. 
6 T. appears not to agree as to elder : see below. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. v. 4 -vi. 2 

as that of the silver-fir, while others are rather break- 
able, 1 such as the wood of the olive. Again some 
are without knots, 2 as the stems of elder, others 
have knots, as those of fir and silver-fir. 

Now such differences also must be ascribed to the 
essential character of the plant : for the reason why 
the wood of silver-fir is easily split is that the 
grain is straight, while the reason why olive-wood is 
easily broken 8 is that it is crooked and hard. Lime- 
wood and some other woods on the other hand are 
easily bent because their sap is viscid. 4 Boxwood 
and ebony are heavy because the grain is close, and 
oak because it contains mineral matter. 5 In like 
manner the other peculiarities too can in some way 
be referred to the essential character. 

Further ' special ' differences. 

VI. Again there are differences in the 'core* : in 
the first place according as plants have any or have 
none, as some say 6 is the case with elder among other 
things ; and in the second place there are differences 
between those which have it, since in different plants 
it is respectively fleshy, woody, or membranous ; 
fleshy, as in vine fig apple pomegranate elder ferula ; 
woody, as in Aleppo pine silver-fir fir ; in the last- 
named 7 especially so, because it is resinous. Harder 
again and closer than these is the core of dog-wood 
kermes-oak oak laburnum mulberry ebony nettle- 

The cores in themselves also differ in colour ; for 
that of ebony and oak is black, and in fact in 
the oak it is called ' oak-black'; and in all these the 
core is harder and more brittle than the ordinary 
7 affi-oj conj. Sch.; avrr) UAld.; airrrj MV ; avTrjs P 2 . 


Digitized by 


repai t&v fjvXcov Bi h /cal ou% virofievovai 
/cafiirrjv. fiavoTepai Be ai fiev ai 8' ov. vfiev<b- 
Set? 8* iv fiev to?? BevBpoi? ov/c elalv r) airavioiy 
iv Be to?? Oafiv&Beai /cal o\o>? to?? bXrjfuxGiv 
olov /caXdfitp T€ /cal vdpdvj/ci /cal to?? toiovtoi? 
el&iv. e^ei Be ttjv firjTpav tcl fiev fieydXrjv /cal 
(f)av€pdv, co? irplvo*; 8pv<; /cal raXXa irpoeiprj- 
fieva, tcl 5' d^avearepav, olov iXda Trvfjos* ov 
yap eartv dtywpiafievrjv ovtco Xaftelv, dXXa tcaL 
<j>aai Tives ov Kara to fiecov dXXa Kara, to irav 
ware firj elvai tottov Sapiafievov Bi b /cal 
evia ovB y av 86%eiev oXa>$ ej(€iv iirel /cal rod 
<f>olvi/co<; ovBefiLa tyaiverai Bca<f>opa /car ovBiv. 

a Aia<f>epovai Be /cal Tat? pi%ai$. ra fiev yap 
TroXvppi^a /cal fia/cpoppi£a, /caOdirep av/cr) Spv<; 
irXdravo^ 9 iav yap eywai tottov, e(/>' ocrovovv 
TrpoepXovTai. ra Be oXiyoppi^a, /caBdirep poict 
firjXea* ra Be fiovoppifa, /caOdirep iXdrrj Trev/crj 9 
fiovoppi^a Be o#tg>?, on fdav fieydXrjv ttjv eh 
#a#o? e^ei fii/cpas Be dirb TavTtjs TrXeiov?. eypvai 
Be /cal t&v fir) fiovoppi^cov evia ttjv i/c tov fieaov 
fieyio~T7jv /cal /caTa y8a#oi/?, wairep dfivyBaXfj* 
iXda Be fii/cpav TavTrjv Ta? 8k aUa? /iei£ov<: /cal 
co? /ce/cap/civcofiivas. cti Be t&v fiev irayeiai 
fmXXov t&v Be dvoofiaXels, /caOdirep 8d<f>vrj$ e\aa?' 

4 t&v Be iraaai XeirTai, /caOdirep dfiireXov. &a- 
<f>epovai Be /cal XeioTrjTi /cal TpayyTvjTi /cal irv/cvb- 
ttjti. irdvTcov yap ai pi^ai fiavoTepai t&v ava, 

1 fxav6repai . . . oti : text can hardly be sound, but sense is 
clear. 2 i.e. homogeneous. 3 Plin. 16. 127. 

4 3. 6. 4 seems to give a different account. 
3 cf. CP. 3. 23. 5, and KapKiv^s CP. 1. 12. 3 ; 3. 21. 5. 


Digitized by 


wood ; and for this reason the core of these trees can 
not be bent. Again the core differs in closeness 
of texture. 1 A membranous core is not common 
in trees, if indeed it is found at all ; but it is found 
in shrubby plants and woody plants generally, as in 
reed ferula and the like. Again in some the core is 
large and conspicuous, as in kermes-oak oak and 
the other trees mentioned above ; while in others it 
is less conspicuous, as in olive and box. For in these 
trees one cannot find it isolated, but, as some say, it 
is not found in the middle of the stem, being diffused 
throughout, so that it has no separate place ; and for 
this reason some trees might be thought to have no 
core at all ; in fact in the date-palm the wood is 
alike throughout. 2 

Differences in root. 

3 Again plants differ in their roots, some having 
many long roots, as fig oak plane ; for the roots of 
these, if they have room, run to any length. Others 
again have few roots, as pomegranate and apple, 
others a single root, as silver-fir and fir ; these have 
a single root in the sense that they have one long 
one 4 which runs deep, and a number of small ones 
branching from this. Even in some of those which 
have more than a single root the middle root is the 
largest and goes deep, for instance, in the almond ; 
in the olive this central root is small, while the 
others are larger and, as it were, spread out crab- 
wise. 5 Again the roots of some are mostly stout, of 
some of various degrees of stoutness, as those of 
bay and olive ; and of some they are all slender, 
as those of the vine. Roots also differ in degree 
of smoothness and in density. For the roots of all 


Digitized by 


irvKvorepai he akXcu aXXcov real ffvXcohecrTepai,' 
/ecu ai fiev Ivooheis, d>9 ai T779 eXaTrfs, ai hk craptc- 
co&ei? fidXXov, &cnrep ai tt;9 hpvos, ai he olov 
6%d>hei<; koX Ovcravoohecs, &cnrep ai tt;9 eXdas* 
tovto hk otc ra9 X€7rT^9 fcal fiCKpd? 7roXXd<t 
eypvai kclI affpoav iirel iracrai ye teal ravra^ 
aiTO(j>vov<TLV dirb t&v fieydXeov a\\' ov% ofioicos 
aOpoa? teal iroXXd?. 

w Eo"Ti he teal tc\ fiev /3a0vppi£a, Kaddirep Spvs, 
tcl h' eiraroXaioppL^a, Kaddirep eXda poia firjXea 
KVjrapnro*;. en he ai fiev evOelai koI bfxaXels, 
ai he ctkoXiol icaX irapaXXaTTovcrar tovto yap 
ov fiovov crvjifiaLvei hid tou9 T07rot>9 t$ firj 
evohelv dXXd teal tt}9 <f>vaea><; aur^9 icrTiv, &cnrep 
eirl tt)9 hdcfcvTj? teal t^9 iXdav rj he av/cij fcal Ta 
ToiavTa afcoXiovTai hid to fit) evoheiv. 

6 "Airacrai h' efifirjTpoi Kaddirep /col to, crTeXexn 
zeal oi aKpefioves' real evXoyov dirb T779 dp^f}?. 
elcrl he fcal ai fiev irapafiXacrTrjTiKal efc to dvco, 
Kaddirep dfiireXov poa$, ai he dirapdfiXacrTOi, 
Kaddirep eXaTr)? KvirapiTTOV Trey/erf?. ai avTal 
he hiacj>opal /cal t&v <f>pvyaviK&v teal t&v iroicoh&v 
teal t&v aXXcov irXrjv el oXa>$ evia firj e%et, 
Kaddirep vhvov fiVKrfs 7re£V9 fcepavviov. Ta fiev 
iroXvppi^a Kaddirep irvpb^ Ti<f>rj Kpidrj, irav to 
tolovto, Kaddirep eltca^ovo-aw tol S* oXiyoppi^a 

6 KaOdirep tcl %ehpoird. cr^ehov he teal t&v Xa%av- 
(oh&v tcl irXelaTa fiovbppi^a, olov pd<f>avo<t 

1 ire(is Kcpavvtov : irtJ{os Kpdviov UMVAld. ; ir4(ts conj. Sch. 
from Athen. 2. 59 ; Kcpavviov conj. W. <*/. Plin. 3. 36 and 37, 
Juv. 5. 117. 2 flKa£o6<rais : word corrupt; so UMVAld. 

a Plin. 19. 98. 


Digitized by 


plants are less dense than the parts above ground, 
but the density varies in different kinds, as also does 
the woodiness. Some are fibrous, as those of the 
silver-fir, some fleshier, as those of the oak, some are 
as it were branched and tassel-like, as those of the 
olive ; and this is because they have a large number 
of fine small roots close together ; for all in fact pro- 
duce these from their large roots, but they are not 
so closely matted nor so numerous in some cases as 
in others. 

Again some plants are deep-rooting, as the oak, 
and some have surface roots, as olive pomegranate 
apple cypress. Again some roots are straight and 
uniform, others crooked and crossing one another. 
For this comes to pass not merely on account of the 
situation because they cannot find a straight course ; 
it may also belong to the natural character of the 
plant, as in the bay and the olive ; while the fig and 
such like become crooked because they can not find 
a straight course. 

All roots have core, just as the stems and branches 
do, which is to be expected, as all these parts are 
made of the same materials. Some roots again have 
side-growths shooting upwards, as those of the vine 
and pomegranate, while some have no side-growth, 
as those of silver-fir cypress and fir. The same 
differences are found in under-shrubs and herbaceous 
plants and the rest, except that some have no roots 
at all, as truffle mushroom bullfist 1 ( thunder- truffle.' 
Others have numerous roots, as wheat one-seeded 
wheat barley and all plants of like nature, for 
instance, 2 .... Some have few roots, as legu- 
minous plants. 3 And in general most of the pot- 
herbs have single roots, as cabbage beet celery 


Digitized by 


revrXov aeXivov XdiraOov ttXtjv h>ia teal cltto- 
<f>vdBa$ €%€i fieydXas, olov to aeXivov teal to 
revrXov teal a)? av Kara Xoyov ravra' fiaffvppig- 
orepa r&v BevBpav. elal Be r&v pukv aaptccoBeis, 
teaOdrrep pa^avlBo? yoyyvXlBo? apov tepoteov 
r&v Be %vXdoBei<;, olov eit^dofwv wtelfiov teal r&v 
dypicav Be r&v irXeiarwv, oacov pur) evffix? rrXeiov? 
teal ax^o/JievaL, teaOdirep irvpov tepid?)*; teal tt)? 
/eaXovfievrjs 7roa?. avrrj yap iv to?? errereioi*; teal 
iv to?? iroicoBeaiv r) Bia<f>opa r&v pi^&v &are Ta? 
fiev evOv? ayi^eaQai irXeiov^ ot/o-a? teal 6/*a\e??, 
r&v Be aXXtov piav fj Bvo Ta? p,eyiara$ teal aUa? 
dirb rovrwv. 

7 f/ 0\a>? Be irXelov? al Biafyopal r&v pi^&v iv 
to?? vXtffiao-i teal XaxavdoBeaiv elal yap ai p,lv 
gvXcoBeis, &arrep al rod mteipLOV al Be aaptecoBeis, 
&aiTep al rov revrXov teal en Br) fiaXXov rov 
apov teal da<f>oBeXov teal tepoteov al Be &airep 
etc <f)Xotov teal aaptcos, &arrep al r&v pa<f>avLB<ov teal 
yoyyvXiBwv al Be yovarcoBeis, &arrep al r&v teaXd- 
ficov teal dypdoarecov teal el ri tcaXapi&Bes, teal fiovai 
Br) avrai fj pdXiaO* opuoiai to?? virhp 77}?' &arrep 
yap KaXapbol elaiv ippifapAvoi Ta?? Xeirrafe. ai 
Be Xe7rvp(oBei<; fj <f>Xoia>Bei<;, olov aX re tt)? atclXXr}<t 
teal rov /3oX/3ov teal eri tcpopbvov teal r&v rovrot,*; 
ofiolcov. alel yap eari rrepiaipelv avr&v. 

8 Tldvra Be ra rotavra Botce? teaddirep Bvo yevrj 
pi^&v eyeiv to?? Be teal oXa>? ra teetyaXofiaprj 
teal tcardppi^a irdvra' rrjv re aaptcdoor) ravrrjv 

1 The same term being applied to ' herbaceous ' plants in 
general. 2 Plin. 19. 98. 


Digitized by 


monk's rhubarb ; but some have large side-roots, as 
celery and beet, and in proportion to their size these 
root deeper than trees. Again of some the roots are 
fleshy, as in radish turnip cuckoo-pint crocus ; of 
some they are woody, as in rocket and basil. And 
so with most wild plants, except those whose roots 
are to start with numerous and much divided, as 
those of wheat barley and the plant specially 1 called 
' grass/ For in annual and herbaceous plants this is 
the difference between the roots: — Some are more 
numerous and uniform and much divided to start 
with, but the others have one or two specially large 
roots and others springing from them. 

To speak generally, the differences in roots are 
more numerous in shrubby plants and pot-herbs ; 
2 for some are woody, as those of basil, some fleshy, as 
those of beet, and still more those of cuckoo-pint 
asphodel and crocus ; some again are made, as it 
were, of bark and flesh, as those of radishes and 
turnips ; some have joints, as those of reeds and 
dog's tooth grass and of anything of a reedy charac- 
ter ; and these roots alone, or more than any others, 
resemble the parts above ground ; they are in fact 
like 3 reeds fastened in the ground by their fine roots. 
Some again have scales or a kind of bark, as those of 
squill and purse-tassels, and also of onion and things 
like these. In all these it is possible to strip off 
a coat. 

Now all such plants, seem, as it were, to have two 
kinds of root ; and so, in the opinion of some, this is 
true generally of all plants which have a solid ' head ' 4 
and send out roots from it downwards. These have, 

3 i.e. the main root ia a sort of repetition of the part 
above ground. 4 i.e. bulb, corm, rhizome, etc 


Digitized by 


teal <f)\oia>87], /caOdirep r) a/c'iXka, /cal ra? airb 
TavTT)<; a7ro7T€<f)Vfcvia<;' ov yap XeirroTrjTi /cal ira^v- 
ttjtl hia<f>epovcn fiovov, &(nr€p ai r&v hevhpcov /cal 
r&v \ayavtov, a\V aKKolov e^ovai to yevos. 
e/c^aveardri] 6° fjhr] r\ re rov dpov /cal r) rov kv- 
ireLpov r) fiev yap irayela /cal Xeia /cal aap/ccohi)?, 
r) he XeiTTrj /cal Ivcohrjs. h Loire p dirop^aeiev av 
t*9 el /otfa? ra9 roiavra^ Oereov y fiev yap /caret 
yr}$ hogaiev av, rj he vTrevavTico? eypvai Tafc 
aWat? ov/c av holjaiev. r) fiev yap pi^a Xcttto- 
repa 7T/0O9 to iroppco ical del avvo^v^* r) he r&v 
a/ciXX&v /cal r&v /3oX/3a>v /cal rcov apcov dvd- 

9 "Etj o° ai fiev aXXai /card to irXdytov cKpiaai 
pi^as, ai h\ r&v a/eiXXcbv /cal r&v /3oX/3£>v ov/c 
dfyidaw ovhe rcov a/copohcov /cal t&v /cpofivcov. 
o\o>9 Be ye ev ravrai^ ai Kara fieaov e/c rrj<; 
/ce<j>aXr}<; r/prrj/jAvai (fraivovrat, pt^ai /cal rpe<f>ov- 
rat. tovto S' &airep /cvfia r) /capTros, oOev /cal oi 
iyyeoro/ca "Xiyovres ov /caicS)?* eirl he r&v aXXcov 
tocovto fiev oihev iariv e7ret he rrXelov r) <f)vai<; 
rj /card pL^av ravrrj diropiav e^ei, to yap hrj 
tt&v Xeyeiv to /card yr}$ pitjav ov/c 6p66v* /cal yap 
civ 6 /cavXbs rov /3oX/3ov /cal 6 rov yrjOvov /cal 

1 t&s conj. Sch. ; rrjs Ald.H.; tV • • • Airoire^i/itwav P. 

2 &\Ko7ov ix ov(Fl conj. St.; uWh. Ketov %x ovr * s PMV 
Aid.; kWoiov ix- mBas.mP from G; aWolov %x ov<rai 
conj. Seal. 8 cf. 4. 10. 5. 

4 koL *el Aid. ; &fi koI conj. W. 6 Plin. 19. 99. 

8 cf. the definition of 4 root,' 1. 1. 9. 

7 4yye6roKa \4yopres conj. W. ; Cj. y r&v iyycordiccov 
tovtwv yeveais in Athenaeus' citation of this passage (2. 60) ; 

Digitized by 


that is to say, this fleshy or bark -like root, like squill, 
as well as the 1 roots which grow from this. For 
these roots not only differ in degree of stoutness, 
like those of trees and pot-herbs ; they are of quite 
distinct classes. 2 This is at once quite evident in 
cuckoo-pint and galingale, 3 the root being in the one 
case thick smooth and fleshy, in the other thin and 
fibrous. Wherefore we might question if such roots 
should be called ( roots ' ; inasmuch as they are under 
ground they would seem to be roots, but, inasmuch 
as they are of opposite character to other roots, they 
would not. For your root gets slenderer as it gets 
longer and tapers continuously 4 to a point ; but the 
so-called root of squill purse-tassels and cuckoo-pint 
does just the opposite. 

Again, while the others send out roots at the 
sides, this is not the case 5 with squill and purse- 
tassels, nor yet with garlic and onion. In general 
in these plants the roots which are attached to 
the ' head ' in the middle appear to be real roots 
and receive nourishment, 6 and this ' head ' is, as 
it were, an embryo or fruit ; wherefore those who 
call such plants ' plants which reproduce them- 
selves underground ' 7 give a fair account of them. 
In other kinds of plants there is nothing of this 
sort. 8 But a difficult question is raised, since here 
the ( root ' has a character which goes beyond what 
one associates with roots. For it is not right to call 
all that which is underground 'root/ since in that 
case the stalk 9 of purse-tassels and that of long 
onion and in general any part which is under- 

evreoir oHraKcyoiTes U ; tv re rols oarofs &\4yopres MV (omit- 
ting re) Aid. (omitting rots). 

8 roiovro fxhv ou5eV conj. W. ; rovro fxkv MSS. 

9 itv 6 Kav\6s conj. St. ; hv&KavXos Aid. 



o\g>? oaa Kara fiddovs early etrjaav av pi^ai, 
teal to iiBvov Be teat b /cakovai TLve$ aayiov teal 
to oviyyov Kal et ti SiXKo viroyeiov iaTiv cov 
ovBev iaTi pL^a* Bvvdfiei yap Bee <f>vaifcj) Biaipeiv 
zeal ov tottco. 

10 Ta^a Be tovto fiev 6p0w \eyerac, pi^a Be ovBev 
rjTTov €<ttiv dXka Bia<f>opd TJ? avTrj TCOV pi£cov, 
&ctt€ ttjv fiev Tiva ToiavTtjv elvav ttjv Be TOiavTrjv 
Ka\ TpefyeaQai Trjv erepav virb rf}<; erepa*;. /cairoi 
Kal avral ai aapKcoBeis eol/cacriv £\tceiv. ra<; 
yovv tcov dpeov irpo tov ftXao-Tavecv o-Tpefyovai 
teal ylyvovTai p,eL%ov<; KcoXvofievac Biafirjvai 7T/oo? 
ttjv ftXdaTrjo'ip. ewel oti ye irdvTcov tcov toiov- 
tcov r) <f>vai<; eirl to /caTto fidWov peirev (pavepov 
oi fiev yap KavXol teal o\co<; tcl avco ^pa\ea koI 
dcrOevrj, tcl Be KaTco fieydXa zeal TroWd Kal 
lo"%vpa ov fiovov iirl t&v elprjfievcov dWa /cat iirl 
fcaXdfiov Kal dypdoo-TtBo*; /cal oXco? oo~a KaXaficoBrj 
zeal tovtois opLOia. /cal oca Br) vapOrjKcbBr), xal 
tovtcov pi£ai /leydXai Kal crapKcbBeis. 

11 IloWa Be Kal tcov ttolcoBcov e%ej ToiavTa? pL%a<>, 
olov airdXa^ KpoKo? Kal to irepBiKLov KaXovpuevov 
Kal yap tovto ira^e'ias tc Kal ifkeiov^ tyec rd? 
pt£a9 rj <f>vWa* KaXeiTai Be irepBiKiov Bid to tov? 
irepBiKa? eyKvXieaOai Kal bpvTTeiv. o/jloIco? Be 

1 0ddovs conj. Sch. ; pddos Aid. 

2 teal W. after U; teed ora. Aid.; G omits also rb before 
otfiyyov, making the three plants synonymous. The passage 
is cited by Athen., I.e., with considerable variation. 

* roiavrrip conj. St.; Totravrrjv MSS. 

* i.e. the fleshy root (tuber, etc.). 

6 i.e. the fibrous root (root proper). 

4 s 

Digitized by 


ground 1 would be a root, and so would the truffle, 
the plant which 2 some call puff-ball, the uingon, and 
all other underground plants. Whereas none of these 
is a root ; for we must base our definition on natural 
function and not on position. 

However it may be that this is a true account and 
yet that such things are roots no less ; but in that 
case we distinguish two different kinds of root, one 
being of this character 3 and the other of the other, 
and the one 4 getting its nourishment from the 
other 5 ; though the fleshy roots too themselves seem 
to draw nourishment. At all events men invert 6 the 
roots of cuckoo-pint before it shoots, and so they 
become larger by being prevented from pushing 7 
through to make a shoot. For it is evident that the 
nature of all such plants is to turn downwards for 
choice ; for the stems and the upper parts generally 
are short and weak, while the underground parts 
are large numerous and strong, and that, not only in 
the instances given, but in reeds dog's-tooth grass 
and in general in all plants of a reedy character and 
those like them. Those too which resemble ferula 8 
have large fleshy roots. 

9 Many herbaceous plants likewise have such roots, 
as colchicum 10 crocus and the plant called s par- 
tridge-plant ' ; for this too has thick roots which are 
more numerous than its leaves. 11 (It is called the 
' partridge-plant ' because partridges roll in it and 
grub it up.) So too with the plant called in Egypt 

6 arp4<t>ov<ri conj. Sch.; rptyovn MVAld.; c/. 7. 12. 2. 

7 Sia&Tjvai conj. W. ; tiiadcivat UMV. 

8 i.e. have a hollow stem (umbelliferous plants, more or 
less). 9 Plin. 19. 99. 

10 (rireUa£ UMV; &(nr<$Aa{ mBas. : perhaps corrupt. 

11 Plin. 21. 102. 


VOL. I. E 

Digitized by 


teal to ev KlyvirT<p KaXovpuevov oviyyov ra fiev 
yap <f)v\\a pueydXa /ecu 6 /3Xa<rrb<; avrov fHpaxvs* 
17 he pL^a fxatcpa /cat iariv &cnrep 6 /capTro?. 
Siacf)€p€L re Kal io-0L€Tai, /ecu avWiyovcn he orav 
12 6 irora/jib^ diro/Sr) <Trpe<f)ovT€<; ra? yScoXou?. <f>ave- 
pcoraTa he zeal irXeiaTrjv e%ovTa Trpb? ra aXXa 
hia<f>opav to aL\<f>iov /cat f) fcaXovfievr] puiyvhapw 
dfi<f)OT€pa)v yap tovtcov Kal dirdvTcov t&v toiovtcov 
ev rah pleats puaWov f) <pv<n$. ravra fiev oiv 
ravrrj \rj7rrea. 

"Eviai he T(ov pi£&v TrKeico ho^aiev &v e%eiv 
hia<f)opav irapa ra9 elprjfieva^ otov at re tt)? dpa~ 
Xihvrjs xal tov ofxotov tc3 dpdncp' <f>epovcrt ydp 
dficfyorepac Kapirbv ovk eXdrro) tov avw Kal piav 
fikv pL^av to dpaKobhe? tovto Tra%elav l%€t tt)v 
KaTa /3a#ou?, ra9 h' aWa? e<f>* a>v 6 Kapirbv 
XeirTOTipas Kal eir aKpcp [koI] a^L^opbeva^ 7roX- 
Xaxfj* (pikel hk fid\io~Ta %ay>ta tcl v^afipw <j>v\- 
\ov he ovheTepov e^et tovtcov ovh* ofioca to?? 
<f>vWoi<>, aXX' &cnrep dfi^LKapira paWov ecrTiv S 
Kal <f>aiv€Tai 6avp,daiov. at fiev ovv <f>va€i$ 
Kal hvvdp,ei$ ToaavTa? eypvcri hiaefcopds. 

VII. AifjdvecrOai hk irdvTcov hoKovaiv ai pi^ai 
irpoTepov t&v dvco' Kal yap <f>veTai eh ftdOos* 
oihepLia he KaOrjKei irXeov fj oaov 6 rjXio? i<f>iKvet- 
Tar to ydp 6eppbbv to yevvcov ov firjv dWd 

1 otiiYyov mBas.H.; oti'irov MV; ovXrov Aid.; cf. 1. 1. 7 ; 
Plin. 21. 88 {oetum). 

2 fieyd\a: text doubtful (W.). 

* tiioupipei : text doubtful (Sch.). 

4 <rrpt<f>ovT€s rhs fi&Xovs conj. Coraes ; (rrtyovres ftwfxovs 
UMVAld. 5 4p ins. Sch. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vi. ii-vii. i 

uingon 1 ; for its leaves are large 2 and its shoots short, 
while the root is long and is, as it were, the fruit. 
It is an excellent thing 3 and is eaten ; men gather 
it when the river goes down by turning the clods. 4 
But the plants which afford the most conspicuous 
instances and shew the greatest difference as com- 
pared with others are silphium and the plant called 
magydaris ; the character of both of these and of all 
such plants is especially shewn in 5 their roots. Such 
is the account to be given of these plants. 

Again some roots would seem to shew a greater 
difference 6 than those mentioned, for instance, those 
of arakkidna, 7 and of a plant 8 which resembles 
arakos. For both of these bear a fruit underground 
which is as large as the fruit above ground, and this 
arakos-like 9 plant has one thick root, namely, the 
one which runs deep, while the others which bear 
the ' fruit ' are slenderer and branch 10 in many 
directions at the tip. It is specially fond of sandy 
ground. Neither of these plants has a leaf nor 
anything resembling a leaf, but they bear, as it 
were, two kinds of fruit instead, which seems sur- 
prising. So many then are the differences shewn 
in the characters and functions of roots. 

VII. The roots of all plants seem to grow earlier 
than the parts above ground (for growth does take 
place downwards But no root goes down further 
than the sun reaches, since it is the heat which 
induces growth. Nevertheless the nature of the soil, 

6 i.e. to be even more abnormal: Stcupopav conj. Sch.; 
Zia<popa\ Aid. 7 Plin. 21. 89. 

8 tine-tare. See Index, A pp. (1). 

9 kpatcS&es conj. Sch. ; <rapK&1>c$ Ald.G. 

10 koL before <rx*C- ora. Sch. from G. 

11 cf. CP. 1. 12. 7. (cited by Varro, 1. 45. 3); 3. 3. 1. 


E 2 

Digitized by 


ravra peydXa avfifidWerai 777009 ftadvppL^iap 
/cal en fiaXkov 777009 fia/cpoppi£iav, fj rijq x&pa? 
<f>v<ri<S iav fj /covQr) /cal fiavrj /cal evBioBov iv yap 
ra?9 roiavrai? TroppcoripQ) /col fiei^ov? ai av\*r)~ 
(T6^9. (j>avepbv Be iirl t&v rjfiepcofiaTcov Zyovra 
yap vBcop oirovovv Bieiaiv a>9 elirelv, iireiodv 6 
T07T09 fl *€i>09 /cal firjBev to dvTKTTaTOvv. rjyovv 
iv tcS Av/cei<p f) irXaTavo? rj /card tov 6%€toi> en 
vka ovaa iin rpels /cal rpid/covra irrjX eL ^ ^<f>V K€V 
expvaa toitov tc dfia icai rpo^rfv, 

2 Aogeie B& a)9 eiirelv rj av/crj fia/cpoppt^oTaTOV 
elvai /cal o\a>9 Be puaXKov rd fiavd /cal ev0vppi£a. 
irdvra Be rd ve&repa t&v ira\ai&v, iav eh d/c/Jifjv 
fj/caciv, i)Br) fiadyppityrepa /cal puaKpoppL^oTepa. 
(rv/j/p0LVOV<ri ydp /cal ai pi£ai T(p aW(p crddixari. 
TrdvTcov Be 6/jLOLgos oi %u\ot rofc <f>v ro?9 Betvorepoi, 
ro?9 Bk ft)9 iiriirav Bi b /cal ivicov iri/cpal &v oi 
/capTTol y\v/cei$' ai Be /cal (frapfia/cdoBew eviat 8' 
evdoBeis, &<rirep ai rrj? ipiBo?. 

3 'IoYa Be pity)? <f)v(ri<z /cal Bvva/M? rj r?j9 'IvBi/crj? 
av/cfjv dirb ydp t&v fiXaaT&v difrirjai, p>expt ov 
av avvdyfrp ttj yrj ical pi£a>0fj, /cal yiveTai ire pi to 
BevBpov Kv/cKcp avvexh to t&v pi£&v ou% dino- 
fievov tov (TTeXexov? a\V dfaaTrj/cos. 

1 ravra before p4ya\a om. W. 

2 rinepcofidruv conj. Sch.; rifiepurdrav UP 2 Ald.; cf, CP. 
5. 6. 8. 

8 birovovv MSS. ; biroaovovv conj. W. from G, in quantum 
libeat. 4 iireihav conj. Sch. ; nap UMVPAld. 

5 Quoted by Varro, 1. 37. 5. 

6 4tt\ conj. Sch. ; irapa P 2 ; wcpl Aid. 

7 ffvfi<pOlvovat : <Tvp.<pa>povat conj. St. 


Digitized by 


if it is light open and porous, contributes greatly 1 to 
deep rooting, and still more to the formation of long 
roots ; for in such soils growth goes further and is 
more vigorous. This is evident in cultivated plants. 2 
For, provided that they have water, they run on, one 
may say, wherever it may be, 8 whenever 4 the ground 
is unoccupied and there is no obstacle. 6 For instance 
the plane-tree by the watercourse in the Lyceum 
when it was still young sent out its roots a distance 
of 6 thirty-three cubits, having both room and 

The fig would seem, one may say, to have the 
longest roots, and in general plants which have wood 
of loose texture and straight roots would seem to 
have these longer. Also young plants, provided that 
they have reached their prime, root deeper and have 
longer roots than old ones ; for the roots decay along 
with 7 the rest of the plant's body. And in all 
cases alike the juices of plants 8 are more powerful in 
the roots than in other parts, while in some cases 
they are extremely powerful ; wherefore the roots 
are bitter in some plants whose fruits are sweet ; 
some roots again are medicinal, and some are frag- 
rant, as those of the iris. 

The character and function of the roots of the 
'Indian fig' (banyan) are peculiar, for this plant sends 
out roots from the shoots till it has a hold on the 
ground 9 and roots again ; and so there comes to be 
a continuous circle of roots round the tree, not 
connected with the main stem but at a distance 
from it. 

8 rots tpvrots Aid.; rats {>i(ais conj. W. from G : text pro- 
bably defective. 

9 rg *yj? conj. Seal, from G ; <tvk% U ; 17) <rvicy P2AW. 


Digitized by 


Hlapaifkr)Giov Be rovrtp puaXKov Bk Tpoirov Tivd 
0avfJLa(rid>T€pov et rv e/c t&v (frvWcov cufrlrjai pi£av, 
olbv <f>a<ri irepl 'Oirovvra irotdpiov elvai, b /cal 
eaOieaOai ecTiv rjBv. to ydp av t&v Oepfitov 
ffavfiaarbv fjrTov, otl av iv v\rj fiaOeia airapfi 
Bieipei rrjv pL^av Trpbs ttjv yrjv /cal /SXaardvet Bid 
TtfV layyv. dWd Brj ret? fiev t&v pi^&v Bia<f>o- 
/><Z9 i/c tovtwv dewprjTiov. 

VIII. Taw BevBpcov ra9 toiclvtcls av t*9 \d/3oi 
Bia<f>opd<;. e<rri yap ret fiev o^coBrj rd 6° avo£a 
teal <f>v<7€i teal tottw /card to fwXKov /cal fjTrov. 
avo^a Be \eyco ovy^ wcrre firj fyeiv oXa>9 — oiBev 
yap tolovto BevBpov, aXX' etirep, eirl t&v aWcov 

oloV Volvos TV<f>T) KVTT€LpO$ G>Xg>9 €7rl T&V XlflVW- 

B&v — aXX' w<7T€ oXtyov? e^eiv. (frvaet, fiht olov 
dteTr) Sd(f>vr) av/crj oXa>9 irdvTa ra \ei6<f>Xoia /cal 
oca KoTKa zeal fiavd. o£a>8e9 Be e\da irevKrj 
KOTivor tovtcov Be Td fiev iv jraXia/dois teal 
vrjvifiois Kal i(f>v8poi<;, Td Be iv evrjkLoi? icaX %€t- 
fiepiois teal TrvevfiaT&Beai /cal X€7tt<H9 /cal jjrjpoiv 
Td fiev yap dvo^oTepa, ra Be o^coBecTepa t&v 

1 n conj. W.; ris MSS. 2 Plin. 21. 104. 

8 cf. 8. 11. 8 ; Plin. 18. 133 and 134. 

4 5i€*p€i conj. Sch. ; tuupci PjAld. ; cf. CP. 2. 17. 7. 

8 6(os is the knot and the bough starting from it : cf. 
Arist. de iuv. et sen. 3. 

6 c-wi rSov conj. Coraes ; y r&v UM ; ^ttop (erased) P {4k 
rap marg. ) rjrrov Aid. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vn. 3 -vni. 1 

Something similar to this, but even more surprising, 
occurs in those plants which 1 emit roots from their 
leaves, as they say does a certain herb 2 which grows 
about Opus, which is also sweet to taste. The 
peculiarity again of lupins 8 is less surprising, namely 
that, if the seed is dropped where the ground is 
thickly overgrown, it pushes 4 its root through to the 
earth and germinates because of its vigour. But 
we have said enough for study of the differences 
between roots. 

Of trees {principally) and their characteristic special differences: 
as to knots. 

VIII. One may^take it that the following are 
the differences between trees : — Some have knots, 5 
more or less, others are more or less without them, 
whether from their natural character or because of 
their position. But, when I say ' without knots/ I 
do not mean that they have no knots at all (there is 
no tree like that, but, if it is true of any plants, it is 
only of 6 other kinds, such as rush bulrush 7 galingale 
and plants of the lake side 8 generally) but that they 
have few knots. Now this is the natural character 
of elder bay fig and all smooth-barked trees, and 
in general of those whose wood is hollow or of a 
loose texture. Olive fir and wild olive have knots ; 
and some of these grow in thickly shaded windless 
and wet places, some in sunny positions exposed to 
storms and winds, 9 where the soil is light and dry ; 
for the number of knots varies between trees of the 

7 ri<pn conj. Bod. ; rtyij UAld.H.; c/. 1. 5. 3. 

8 4v\ rSav conj. W.; et ri ivl tSov Aid. 

9 vpcv/xarAltcffi conj. Seal,; irvfiarw^ffi U; vvyfjLart&fifc 1 


Digitized by Google 


ofwyev&v. oA.g>9 he o^coSearepa tcl opeivd t&v 
ireheiv&v teal tcl ^rjpd t&v eXeiwv. 
2 "En he /caret rrjv <f)VTelav ra fiev irvKvd avo^a 
teal 6p0d, ret he* fiavd o^coheaTepa teal atco\ia>T€pa % 
avfifialvei yap &are ra fiev iv ira\i<nd<p eivai to, 
he iv evrjkLco. teal ra dppeva hk t&v drfKei&v 
bfahecTepa iv 0I9 iarw dfi<f>co, olov tewirdpiTTOs 
iXdrrj oarpv'h tepaveia* tcaXovai yap yevos ti 
OrfKvtepaveiav teal Tct aypia he r&v rffiipcov, teal 
a7r\ft)? teal ra virb ravrb y&vos, olov kotivo? 
e\aa9 teal ipivebs avfer}? teal a%/oa9 airiov. iravra 
ydp Tavra d^aySearepa' teal » 009 iirl to 7roXv 
jravra rd irvtevd t&v fiav&v teal ydp ra appeva 
TTVKVorepa teal rd aypia' ttXtjv el ti Sid nrvtcvo^ 
T7?ra TravreX&s avo£ov rj oXlyotyv, olov irv^o^ 


8 EtVl he t&v fiev aratcroi teal a>9 erv)(ev ol o£oi, 
t&v he Terayfjuevot, teal rep hiaaTijfiaTi teal t& 
ifKrjdet tcaOdirep eiprjTai* hi t> teal Tagio^coTa 
Tavra tcaXovaiv. t&v fiev yap olov hi laov t&v 
he fielXpv aiel to 777)09 t$ ira^ei. teal tovto teaTd 
\6yov. oirep fidXiaTa evhrfkov teal iv T049 kotL- 
voi<: teal iv Tofc teaXdfioiv to yap yovv tcaOdjrep 
ofo9. teal ol fiev tear aXkrfKov?, &airep ol t&v 

1 Plin. 16. 125. 2 1. 8. 1. 

8 ral-ioC wto conj. W. ; ^toXoydjrara Aid.; cf, rafid>v\\os t 
1. 10. 8. 4 Plin. 16. 122. 


Digitized by 


same kind. And in general mountain trees have 
more knots than those of the plain, and those that 
grow in dry spots than those that grow in marshes. 

Again the way in which they are planted makes a 
difference in this respect ; those trees that grow close 
together are knotless and erect, those that grow far 
apart have more knots and a more crooked growth ; 
for it happens that the one class are in shade, the 
others in full sun. Again the ' male ' trees have 
more knots than the ' female ' in those trees in which 
both forms are found, as cypress silver-fir hop-horn- 
beam cornelian cherry — for there is a kind called 
' female cornelian cherry' (cornel) — and wild trees 
have more knots than trees in cultivation : this is 
true both in general and when we compare those of 
the same kind, as the wild and cultivated forms of 
olive fig and pear. All these have more knots in the 
wild state ; and in general those of closer growth 
have this character more than those of open growth ; 
for in fact the e male ' plants are of closer growth, 
and so are the wild ones ; except that in some cases, 
as in box and nettle-tree, owing to the closer growth 
there are no knots at all, or only a few. 

1 Again the knots of some trees are irregular and 
set at haphazard, while those of others are regular, 
alike in their distance apart and in their number, as 
has been said 2 ; wherefore also they are called ' trees 
with regular knots.' 3 4 For of some the knots are, 
as it were, at even distances, while in others the 
distance between them is greater at the thick end of 
the stem. And this proportion holds throughout. 
This is especially evident in the wild olive and in 
reeds — in which the joint corresponds to the knot in 
trees. Again some knots are opposite one another, 


Digitized by 


teorivwv, oi 8* ft>9 €Tvy(€V. €<tti Be ra fikv Bio^a, ra 
Be Tpuo^a, ra Be 7rX€tou? e^pwa* evia Be irevrdo^d 
earl, teal rf}? fiev eKdrr)? opdol teal oi o£ot teal oi 

4 tcXdBoi &airep i par eirriy ores, t&v Be aXkwv ov. 6V 
b teal ia^vpov f) i\drrj. iBicoraroL Bk oi ttj? 
firfKea^' opuoioi yap drjpicov irpoadtiroi^, eh fiev 6 
/leyiaTO^ aWoi Be irepl avrbv fittepol irXeiovs. 
elal Be t&v o£gh> oi p,ev Tv<f>\oi, oi Be yovip,oi. 
\eyco Be TV<f>Xov<; d<f> &v /JbrjBel? /3\ao"T09. ovtol 
Be teal (f)V(T€L teal Trrjpctio-ei yivovrai, orav rj fir] 
\v0r) teal iiefiiatflTai rj teal diroteoirfj teal otov 
eTTi/cavOeU TrrjpcoOfj* yivovrai Be juloXKov iv tow 
ira^eai t&v atcpefiovcov, evicov Be teal iv rofc 
Greke'Xea'iv. o\a>9 Bk teal tov areXe'Xpv^ teal tov 
tcXdBov teaO* h av iTntcoyjrj) fj eirirefirf t*9> ofo? 
yiverai tcadairepavel Bvaip&v to ev teal ttoi&v 
erepav apxtfv, etre Bia ttjv ir^pcoaiv etre Bi aWrjv 
alriav ov yap Brj teara fyvaiv to virb tt}? 

5 Aiel Bk iv airaaiv oi teXdBot (f>aivovrac tto\vo- 
^orepoi Bia to firjiro) rdva fieaov Trpoarjvgrjo'Oai, 
Kaddirep teal t?}9 o-v/crj? oi veoftXaaTOi Tpayy- 
raroi teal t?J? dfiireKov ra atepa t&v kXtj/jAtcov. 
a>9 yap of 09 iv to?9 aWoi? ovtco teal d<j)0a\p,b<; 

1 c/. 4. 4. 12. 2 Plin. 16. 122. 

3 i.e. primary and secondary branches. 

4 c/. 5. 2. 2. 6 Plin. 16. 124. 

6 c/. Arist. de iuv. et sen. 3 ; Plin. 16. 125. 

7 5tov . . . mipuBfi conj. W. ; t) Zrav rj /u^ \vOfj kcl\ 4K&td(rirai 
Ka\ t) inroKOv^i Kat U ; ftrav t) ^ \vdfi koI iK&t&fyrat fj faro/coirfj 
P ; f) Hrav Kvdr) kol\ iK&id(riTcu t) Attokov)) koI oi ov P« ; trav ^ 

^v6$ koI iK^ii^ai Kgti ^ faoKoity kqX Ald.H. ; G differs 


Digitized by 


as those of the wild olive, while others are set at 
random. Again some trees have double knots, some 
treble, 1 some more at the same point ; some have as 
many as five. 2 In the silver-fir both the knots and 
the smaller branches 8 are set at right angles, as if 
they were stuck in, but in other trees they are not 
so. And that is why the silver-fir is such a strong 
tree. 4 Most peculiar 5 are the knots of the apple, for 
they are like the faces of wild animals ; there is one 
large knot, and a number of small ones round it. 
Again some knots are blind, 6 others productive ; by 
€ blind ' I mean those from which there is no growth. 
These come to be so either by nature or by mutilation, 
according as either the knot 7 is not free and so the 
shoot does not make its way out, or, a bough having 
been cut off, the place is mutilated, for example by 
burning. Such knots occur more commonly in the 
thicker boughs, and in some cases in the stem also. 
And in general, wherever one chops or cuts part of 
the stem or bough, a knot is formed, as though one 
thing were made thereby into two and a fresh 
growing point produced, the cause being the mutila- 
tion or some other such reason ; for the effect of such 
a blow cannot of course be ascribed to nature. 

Again in all trees the branches always seem to 
have more knots, because the intermediate parts 8 
have not yet developed, just as the newly formed 
branches of the fig are the roughest, 9 and in the 
vine the highest 10 shoots. 11 (For to the knot in other 

8 i.e. the internodes ; till the branch is fully grown its 
knots are closer together, and so seem more numerous : /^jxw 
rava fi4aov irpoariv^rjaOai conj. Sch.; fx-f)iru> rkvh. /j.4aov irpoffKv- 
(rjdai U ; yA\r* h.vk piaov icpofficvfcfadai M Aid. ; flavor' &vdfj.€ffov 
*po<rrivZrj(r$ai P 2 . 9 i.e. have most knots. 

w i.e. youngest. 11 Plin. 16. 125. 


Digitized by 


iv dfnriXq) teal iv tcaXdfMp yovv . . . ivioi? Be* 
teal olov tepdBai yivovrai, teaOdirep TTTeXeq, teal 
Bpvt teal fidXiara iv ifkardvy idv Be iv rpa^eai 
teal dvvBpois teal Trvev fiaTcoBeai teal 7rai>Te\a)9. 
irdvTO}^ Be 7T009 tt) yfj kclI olov rfj tce(f>aXfj rov 
<rTeXe%of9 dTroyiypao-tcovTCDv to it ados tovto 

6 v Ewa Be teal ?o~%€4 rov? tcaXovfievov? vtto tivcqv 
rj yoyypov? fj to dvdXoyov, olov r) eXda* tevpid>- 
raTov yap iirl ravrr)^ tovto Tovvofia teal Trdcxeiv 
Bo /eel pAXiGTa to elprjfievov tcaXovac 8' evioi 
tovto irpifivov oi Be tepOTobvrjv oi Be aXXo ovofia. 
to 49 Be evOeai teal p.ovoppi^oi^ teal aTrapaffXd- 
o-TOJ? oi yiv€Tai tovO* o\g>9 fj fjTTOv \jf>olvi^ Bk 
7rapa/3\ao-Ti]Titc6v] f) B\ iXda teal 6 kotivo? 
teal tc\$ ovXoTTjTas tBia? e%ovo"i tc\<; iv to 49 


IX. v Eo~T4 fiev ovv Tct fiev a>9 €49 p>f}fco$ ai^rj- 
TLteh pudXiaT fj /jlovov, olov iXaTtj <f>oivii; tevird- 
piTTO? teal o\ft)9 tcl puovoaTeXevrj teal oaa firj 
TroXvppL^a firjBe TroXvtcXaBa* <rj Be (f>oivii; dirapa- 
/3XaaTr]Tifc6v> tcl Be ofiola tovtois dvd Xoyov 
teal €49 y9a#09. evia 8* evdvs Gyi^eTai, olov f) 

1 The opening of the description of the diseases of trees 
seems to have been lost. 2 Kpdhai ; cf, CP. 5. 1. 3. 

8 wdrTODS . . . ylverai conj. W.; irdvrws 8e 6 vpbs rp yy ko\ 
oTov t. k. cr. airoyrjpdaKoov ruv waxvrepuv yiverai Ala.; so U 
except xoxwT€pov, and M except waxvrepQs. 

* y^yypovs : cf. Hesych. , s.vv. y6yypos, Kpordsvt), 

5 The word is otherwise unknown. 

6 t)ttov ft 8c iKaa conj. W. ; §ttov rj 5c <f>Qivi£ Trdpa$\ao~- 
rrriicSv % tie i\da U ; so Aid. except trapa&\a*Tiic6v. The 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vm. 5-ix. 1 

trees correspond the ' eye ' in the vine, the joint in 

the reed) 1 In some trees again there occurs, 

as it were, a diseased formation of small shoots, 2 as 
in elm oak and especially in the plane ; and this is 
universal if they grow in rough waterless or windy 
spots. Apart from any such cause 3 this affection 
occurs near the ground in what one may call the 
e head ' of the trunk, when the tree is getting old. 

Some trees again have what are called by some 
' excrescences ' 4 (or something corresponding), as the 
olive ; for this name belongs most properly to that 
tree, and it seems most liable to the affection ; and 
some call it € stump,' some krotone, 5 others have a 
different name for it. It does not occur, or only 
occurs to a less extent, in straight young trees, which 
have a single root and no side-growths. To the 
olive 6 also, both wild and cultivated, are peculiar 
certain thickenings 7 in the stem. 

As to habit. 

IX. 8 Now those trees which grow chiefly or only 9 
in the direction of their height are such as silver-fir 
date-palm cypress, and in general those which have 
a single stem and not many roots or branches (the 
date-palm, it may be added, has no side-growths at 
all 10 ). And trees like 11 these have also similar growth 
downwards. Some however divide from the first, 

note about the palm (<poivil irapafi\a<rrr}TtK6p) I have omitted 
as untrue as well as irrelevant ; possibly with faapa&a. for 
Tcapa3a. it belongs to the next section. 

7 ov\6rriTas conj. W.; Koi\6rriras MSS. (?) Aid. 

8 Plin. 16. 125. 

8 n&\iffr' t) fi6vov conj. W.; /xd\iara pavh, Ald.H. 

10 See 3. 8. 6. n. 

11 ti^oia conj. Sch. ; 6p.olws MSS. Sense hardly satisfactory. 


Digitized by 


firjXea* ra Be iroXvKXaBa real fiel^co rbv oyteov 
e^et rbv ava>, Kaddirep poa % ov firjv d\V ovv 
\ieyiard ye av/jiftdXXerai irpbs eKaarov f\ ay coy}) 
/cat 6 T07T09 Kal r] rpo^rj. arjfieiov B' on raira 
irvKvh fihv ovra fiatepa teal Xeirra ylverai, fiavct 
Be ira^vrepa /cat ^pa^vrepa* koX iav fiev evOvs 
Tt9 a<j)ifj tou9 ofof9 fipaxea, iav Bk ava/caOaipt) 
fiatepa, KaOdirep 17 afi7reXo<;. 

'l/cavbv Bk KCLKelvo 717)09 iriarw on Kal r&v 
Xa^dvcov evia Xafifidvei BevBpov o"xf}/jui, Kaddrrep 
eiTTOfiev rrjv yLaiXdypv teal to revrXov Hiram a 
S' iv to?9 ol/ceioi? rorrois evav^fj . . . Kal to auTo 
KaXXiarov. €7rel teal r&v opjoyev&v dvo£6repa 
teal yueitps teal tcaXXico ra iv to?9 olteelois, olov 
iXdrrj 77 MatceBovitcrj t?)9 Hapvaaia? teal r&v olX- 
Xwv. airavra Be* ravra Kal o\a>9 f] vXrj rj dypia 
KaXXlcov Kal irXeiwv rov opovs iv T0Z9 TTpoa^o- 
peiois rj iv Tofc 7r/)09 fieo-rjjifipiav. 

"JLan Be to, fjuev dei(f>vXXa ret Bk <f>vXXo- 
fioXa. t&v fiev rjfiipcov detyvXXa iXda <f>oivif; 
Bd<f)vr) fjuvppivo? irevKrjq n yevo? Kvirdpirrov t&v 
B* dypiwv iXdrrj irevKrj apKevffo? jilXos Qvia Kal 
fjv 'ApKaBes KaXovai <f>eXX6Bpvv <f>iXvpea KeBpo? 
irirv^ dypia fivpLKrj 7ri5£o9 irplvo^ KrjXaarpov 
<f>iXvKr) 6%vdKav6o<i depap/crj, ravra Bk <f>verai 
irepl rbv "OXvfnrov, avBpd)(Xr) Kofiapo? repfiLvOos 

1 olv marked as doubtful in U. 2 1. 3. 2. 
8 Kal rb avrb k&Wuttop. The first part of the sentence to 
which these words belong is apparently lost ( W. ). 
4 i.e. the fir and other trees mentioned in the lost words. 
* Plin. 16. 80. 

6 fil\os conj. Sch.; <r/tifAo| P 2 Ald.; c/. 3. 3. 3. 

Digitized by Google 


such as apple ; some have many branches, and their 
greater mass of growth high up, as the pomegranate : 
however 1 training position and cultivation chiefly 
contribute to all of these characters. In proof of 
which we have the fact that the same trees which, 
when growing close together, are tall and slender, 
when grown farther apart become stouter and 
shorter; and if we from the first let the branches 
grow freely, the tree becomes short, whereas, if we 
prune them, it becomes tall, — for instance, the vine. 

This too is enough for proof that even some pot- 
herbs acquire the form of a tree, as we said * of 
mallow and beet. Indeed all things grow well in 
congenial places. . . . 8 For even among those of the 
same kind those which grow in congenial places have 
less knots, and are taller and more comely : thus the 
silver-fir in Macedon is superior to other silver- firs, 
such as that of Parnassus. Not only is this true of 
all these, 4 but in general the wild woodland is more 
beautiful and vigorous on the north side of the 
mountain than on the south. 

A 8 to shedding of leaves. 

Again some 5 trees are evergreen, some deciduous. 
Of cultivated trees, olive date-palm bay myrtle a 
kind of fir and cypress are evergreen, and among 
wild trees silver-fir fir Phoenician cedar yew 6 odorous 
cedar the tree which the Arcadians call ' cork-oak ' 
(holm-oak) mock-privet prickly cedar ( wild 7 pine ' 
tamarisk box kermes-oak holly alaternus cotoneaster 
hybrid arbutus 8 (all of which grow about Olympus) 

7 by pi* after irlrvs conj. Sch.; after vpivos UPAld.: c/. 
3. 3. 3. 

8 ic6fMpos conj. Bod. ; dvapos UMV; otvapos Aid. ; vivapos P 2 . 


Digitized by 


dypla Bd<f>vrf. Boteel S' 17 avSpd^Kv tcofiapos 
ra fiev teara) (frvWofioXelv ra Be ea^ara r&v 
d/cpepLovcov dei(f>vWa eyew, iirnfiveiv Be del roix; 

4 T&v fiev ovv BevBpa>v Tavra, t&v Be Oafivto- 
B&v tciTTO? flaro? pdfivo? tcaXa/w? /ceBpfa €<tti 
yap tl futcpbv b ov BevBpovTai. t&v Be <f>pvyavitc&v 
teal ttomdB&v nrr\yavov pd<f>avo$ pohwvia Icovia 
dfipoTovov dfidpa/cov epirvWo? bplyavov aiXivov 
iTTiroaeXivov firj/ccov teal t&v dypicov etBrj irXeia). 
Biapuevei he teal tovtcov evia rofc atcpoi? ra Be 
aXXa diro^dXXei olov opLyavov aekivov . . . €7rel 
teal to irrp/avov teateovTai teal aXKaTrerai. 

5 Hdvra Be teal t&v aWcov ret deicfyvWa o~Tevo- 
<f>vX\6repa teal eypVTa Tiva XnrapoTrjTa teal 
eva>Biav. evia S* ovte ovra t$ (f>vaei irapa rov 
toitov €<ttIv dei<f>v\Xa, tcaQdirep iXex^V ^€pl t&v 
ev 'TLXetfravTivy teal M.ep,<f>er teaTcorepco 8' ev t$ 
AeXra /utepbv irdvv yjpbvov BiaXeiirei tov /jltj del 
{iXaardveiv. ev Kptfry Be* Xeyerai irXdravov 
Tiva elvai ev rfj YoprvvaLa irpb^ irriyfj tivi fj ov 
(frvXXofioXer puvOoXoyovai Bk a>9 virb TavTy 
ifiiyr) rfj JLvpooirr) 6 Zevv t^9 Bk 7r\7?(na9 irdaa^ 
<f>vXXo/3oXeiv. ev Be ^vftdpei S/0O9 eariv ev- 
gvvotttos etc tt}9 7ro\€a)9 ^ ov (frvXXoftoXei 9 <f>aal 

1 Plin. 16. 80. 

2 Some words probably missing (W.) which would explain 
the next two clauses. 8 Plin. 16. 82. * 1. 3. 5. 

8 Plin. 12. 11 ; Varro, 1. 7. 


Digitized by 


andrachne arbutus terebinth 'wild bay' (oleander). 
Andrachne and arbutus seem to cast their lower 
leaves, but to keep those at the end of the twigs 
perennially, and to be always adding leafy twigs. 
These are the trees which are evergreen. 

1 Of shrubby plants these are evergreen : — ivy 
bramble buckthorn reed kedris (juniper)— for there 
is a small kind of kedros so called which does not 
grow into a tree. Among" under-shrubs and herba- 
ceous plants there are rue cabbage rose gilliflower 
southernwood sweet marjoram tufted thyme mar- 
joram celery alexanders poppy, and a good many 
more kinds of wild plants. However some of these 
too, while evergreen as to their top growths, shed 

their other leaves, as marjoram and celery 2 

for rue too is injuriously affected and changes its 

3 And all the evergreen plants in the other classes 
too have narrower leaves and a certain glossiness and 
fragrance. Some moreover which are not evergreen 
by nature become so because of their position, as 
was said 4 about the plants at Elephantine and 
Memphis, while lower down the Nile in the Delta 
there is but a very short period in which they are not 
making new leaves. It is said that in Crete 5 in the 
district of Gortyna there is a plane near a certain 
spring 6 which does not lose its leaves ; (indeed the 
story is that it was under 7 this tree that Zeus lay 
with Europa), while all the other plants in the 
neighbourhood shed their leaves. 8 At Sybaris there 
is an oak within sight of the city which does not shed 

6 xTryg conj. H. from G ; cicwy UMVAld.; Kriyrj P 2 ; Kpripfi 

7 v*h conj. Hemsterhuis ; ivl Aid. 8 Plin. 16. 81. 


VOL. I. K 

Digitized by 


Bh ov ftXao-Taveiv avTtjv dfia rats aWcus aWa 
fierci Kvva. Xeyerai Be teal iv JZvirptp ifKaravo^ 
elvai TOiavrrj. 

<f>v\\o/3oXel Bh irdvra tov fieTOircopov teal fierct 

TO fJL€T07T(0p0V, 7r\f)V TO fl€V OcLTTOV TO Be ftpaBv- 

repov &<tt€ teal tov xeifiayvos iiriXafifidveiv, oitc 
dvdXoyoi B% ai <j>v\Xo/3o\iai reus ^XaaTrjaeaiv, 
&<tt€ Ta irpoTepov pKaarrjaavra irporepov <f>v\- 
\o/3oi\eiv, dW* evia irpoiifiXaaTeZ p,ev oiBkv Be 
TTporepet t&v aWav, d\\d Tiveov teal varepel, 
fcaOdirep f] dfivyBaXf). 

Ta Be 6->fnl3\aa'T€i fiev oiBev Be &>? elirelv 
varepel t&v aXkeov, tbairep f] av/cdfjuivos. Bo/cei Be 
teal t) ^aypa avfi/SdWeadai teal 6 T0V09 6 eviKfio^ 
7T/309 to Biajieveiv. ra yap iv toZs f^pofc teal 
o\a>9 XeirToyeLois irpojepa <f>vWo/3oXei teal Ta 
TrpeafivTepa Bk t&v vecov. evia Be teal irpb tov 
ireiravai tov teapirov ditofSaXkei Ta <j>v\\a, teadd- 
irep ai oyfriai avteal teal d^pdBe^. 

T&v B* dei<f>v\\a>v 17 diro^oXtj teal f) avavais 
tcaTa fiepo<r oi yap Br) TavTct alel Biap,evei, dXKa 
Ta [lev eTTi/SXaaTavei to, dfyavalverai. tovto 
Be irepl TpoTras p,d\iaTa yiverai Oepivds. el Be 
tivcjv teal pi€T 'AptcTovpov fj teal teaT aWrjv &pav 
€7riaK€7rT€ov. teal tc\ fiev irepl ttjv <j>v\\o- 
/3o\iav ovTcos e^et. 

1 Plin. 16. 82 and 83. 


Digitized by 


its leaves, and they say that it does not come into 
leaf along with the others, but only after the rising 
of the dog-star. It is said that in Cyprus too there 
is a plane which has the same peculiarity. 

1 The fall of the leaves in all cases takes place in 
autumn or later, but it occurs later in some trees 
than in others, and even extends into the winter. 
However the fall of the leaf does not correspond to 
the growth of new leaves (in which case those that 
come into leaf earlier would lose their leaves earlier), 
but some (such as the almond) which are early in 
coming into leaf are not earlier than the rest in 
losing their leaves, but are even comparatively 
late. 3 

3 Others again, such as the mulberry, come into 
leaf late, but are hardly at all later than the others 
in shedding their leaves. It appears also that position 
and a moist situation conduce to keeping the leaves 
late ; for those which grow in dry places, and in 
general where the soil is light, shed their leaves 
earlier, and the older trees earlier than young ones. 
Some even cast their leaves before the fruit is ripe, 
as the late kinds of fig and pear. 

In those which are evergreen the shedding and 
withering of leaves take place by degrees ; for it is 
not the same 4 leaves which always persist, but fresh 
ones are growing while the old ones wither away. 
This happens chiefly about the summer solstice. 
Whether in some cases it occurs even after the rising 
of Arcturus or at a quite different season is matter for 
enquiry. So much for the shedding of leaves. 

2 var€pti conj. H.; varepov UMVPAld. 
8 Plin. 16. 84. 

4 Tourcfc conj. Sch.; ravra Aid. 


F 2 

Digitized by 


X. Ta Be <f>vXXa tcop /xei> aXX<ap BepBpayp Sfioia 
irdvrcov avra iavrots, tt}? Be XevKtj<; Kal tov 


kTepoGyfuiova* tcl /xev yap pea irepifapf} tcl Be 
iraXaiorepa yapoeiSfj, Kal et? tovto i] pLerdaraai^ 


eyycopicoTepa irpeafivTepov Be* TrepL^epeaTepa' p&Ta- 
ftdXXei yap /cal ovto?. IBiop Be Kal to tt) eXda teal 
Tjj <j>iXvpa teal tjj TTTeXea /cal tjj XevKjj avp./3aLPOP* 
GTpefyeiv yap Bokovglp to, virTia fieTa Tpoiras Oepi- 
vd<i, /cal tovtg) ypwpi^ovaip oti yeyeirqvTai TpoiraL 
2 irdvTa Be* Ta <f>vWa Sia<f>€pei Kara Ta virTia /cal tcl 
Trpavi). /cal t&p fiev aXXcop Ta vnTia iroLwBeaTepa 
/cal Xeiorepa* Ta? yap lva$ /cal Ta? <f>Xe/3a<; ev 
to?? TTpaveaiv exovaip, &airep fj yelp <tcl ap0pa>* 
Try? 8' eXdas Xev/coTepa /cal fjTTOP Xeia evioTe 
/cal Ta {rrrTia. irdvra Brj fj Ta ye irXelaTa i/c<f>avr) 
fyd Ta virTia /cal TavTa ylveTai t$ fjXttp <f>avepd. 
/cal aTpe(j>€Tai ra iroXXa 777)0? top rfXiov BC /cal 
oi pdBiop elirelv oiroTepov 7iy>o? t$ kX&pl fiaXXov 
eaTiv rj fiev yap vtttlottjs fidXXop So/cel iroieiv to 
Trpaves, fj Be (frvais ofy fjTTOP fiovXeTai to vtttiop, 
oUfi)? t€ /cal rj apd/cXaais Slit top fjXiop* lBoi 8' 

1 Plin. 16. 85. 

2 Kal tov Kirrov koL tov MSS. cf. Plin. I.e. ; Diosc. 4. 164. 
Kal rov hikIov tov koI conj. W. ; Galen, Lex. Hipp., gives 
kIkiov as a name for the root of Kporwv. cf. CP. 2. 16. 4. 

8 i.e. not * entire.' * Young leaves' = leaves of the young tree. 
* This seems to contradict what has just been said. 
6 Th Updpa add. Sch. from Plin. 16. 88, incisuras. cf. Arist. 
H.A. 1. 15, where Plin. (11. 274) renders &pdpa incisuras. 


Digitized by 


Differences in leaves. 

X. 1 Now, while the leaves of all other trees are 
all alike in each tree, those of the abele ivy 2 and 
of the plant called kroton (castor-oil plant) are 
unlike one another and of different forms. The 
young leaves in these are round, the old ones 
angular, 3 and eventually all the leaves assume that 
form. On the other hand 4 in the ivy, when it is 
young, the leaves are somewhat angular, but when 
it is older, they become rounder : for in this plant 
too a change of form takes place. There is a 
peculiarity special to the olive lime elm and abele : 
their leaves appear to invert the upper surface after 
the summer solstice, and by this men know that the 
solstice is past. Now all leaves differ as to their 
upper and under surfaces ; and in most trees the 
upper surfaces are greener and smoother, as they 
have the fibres and veins in the under surfaces, even 
as the human hand has its i lines,' 5 but even the upper 
surface of the leaf of the olive is sometimes whiter 
and less smooth. 6 So all or most leaves display 
their upper surfaces, and it is these surfaces which 
are exposed to the light. 7 Again most leaves turn 
towards the sun ; wherefore also it is not easy to say 
which surface is next to the twig 8 ; for, while the 
way in which the upper surface is presented seems 
rather to make the under surface closer to it, yet 
nature desires equally that the upper surface should 
be the nearer, and this is specially seen in the 
turning back 9 of the leaf towards the sun. One 

8 iplorc Ka\ rh, farta conj. W. ; \ua 5c koI rck rov Kirrov 
MSS. A makeshift correction of an obscure passage. 

7 c/. Plin. I.e. 8 i.e. is the under one. 

9 Whereby the under surface is exposed to it : see above. 

Digitized by 


dv Tt9 oaa irvKvd fcal /car aWrjka, KaOdirep ra 
t&v fivppLvcov. 

Otovrai Be Tive<; Kal ttjv Tpo<f>r)V T<p virrLtp Bid 
rov irpavov? elvai, Bid to eviKfwv del tovto koI 
'Xyo&Be? elvai, ov ko\&<; XiyovTes. dWd tovto 
fihv taw avfifialvei Xg>/H9 T779 IBLas (fivcec*? xal 
Bid to fit) o/4oia>? ffXiovaOai, r) Be Tpo<f>f) Bid t&v 
<f>\€/3a>v rj Iv&v ofAOLCos dpbtf>OTej)OL^ etc Barepov 8' 
eh or epov ovk evXoyov p,fj e^ovai iropov^ p,r)Be 
ft ados Bi ov* dXkd irepl p,ev Tpo<f>fj<; Bid tivcov 
ere/jo? X0709. 

Aia<f>epovai Be teal Ta <f>v\\a irXeioai Bia- 
<f)o pals' Td fiev yap eaTi irkaTwfrvWa, KaOdirep 
dpme\os avKrj irXaTavos, ra Be aT€v6<f>vWa, 
KaOdirep ekda poa pbvppivov ra 8' &airep axavOo- 
<f>vXka, KaOdirep irevKtf ttitv? KeBpov Ta 8' olov 
aapKofyvXka* tovto 8' oti aapK&Bes e^ovai to 
<f>v\\ov, olov KVirdpiTTO? fivpiKt) firfXea, t&v Bk 
<j>pvyaviK&v Kvewpos CTOifir) Kal iroicoB&v deifaov 
iroXiov [tovto Be Kal irpb? tou9 cruras tou? ev 
to?9 ipuTiois dyaObv*\ Ta yap a 5 t&v T€Vt\i(ov 
rj pa<f>dvG>v aWov Tpoirov aapK&Brj Kal Ta t&v 
irrjyavicov KaXovfievcov ev irXaTei yap Kal ovk ev 
aTpoyyvXoTrjTi to aapK&Bes. Kal t&v OajivaB&v 
Be r) fivpiKrf aapK&Bes to <f>vXXov evia B\ 

1 c/. 1. 8. 3 ; 1. 10. 8 ; Plin. 16. 92. 

8 4k 0ar4pov B % cis conj. Sch. from G ; SWk $ar4pou us with 
stop at IvSov Aid. * Bi* oZ I conj. ; Bi 9 &v U. 

4 h.KavQ6<pv\Xa conj. W. ; a-Kav6<pv\Xa UMAld. ; hv6<pv\ka 
P 2 ; c/. 3. 9. 5, whence Sch. conj. rpix6<pv\\a : Plin. I.e. has 
capillata pino cedro. 

5 firj\4a probably corrupt ; omitted by Plin. I.e. 


Digitized by 


may observe this in trees whose leaves are crowded 
and opposite, 1 such as those of myrtle. 

Some think that the nourishment too is conveyed to 
the upper surface through the under surface, because 
this surface always contains moisture and is downy, 
but they are mistaken. It may be that this is not 
due to the trees' special character, but to their not 
getting an equal amount of sunshine, though the 
nourishment conveyed through the veins or fibres 
is the same in both cases. That it should be con- 
veyed from one side to the other 2 is improbable, 
when there are no passages for it nor thickness for it 
to pass through. 3 However it belongs to another 
part of the enquiry to discuss the means by which 
nourishment is conveyed. 

Again there are various other differences between 
leaves ; some trees are broad-leaved, as vine fig and 
plane, some narrow-leaved, as olive pomegranate 
myrtle. Some have, as it were, spinous 4 leaves, 
as fir Aleppo pine prickly cedar ; some, as it were, 
fleshy leaves ; and this is because their leaves are of 
fleshy substance, as cypress tamarisk apple, 5 among 
under-shrubs kneoros and stoibe, and among herba- 
ceous plants house-leek and hulwort. * This plant 
is good against moth in clothes. For the leaves of 
beet and cabbage are fleshy in another way, as are 
those of the various plants called rue ; for their fleshy 
character is seen in the flat instead of in the round. 7 
Among shrubby plants the tamarisk 8 has fleshy 

6 Probably a gloss. 

7 Or * solid,' such leaves being regarded as having, so to 
speak, three, and not two dimensions. arp6yyv\os = * thick- 
set.' in Arist. H.A. 9. 44. 

8 fivpliai probably corrupt ; fi. was mentioned just above, 
among trees ; tpcbcri conj. Dalec. 


Digitized by 


/cal /caXa/ju6(f>vX\a t /caOdirep 6 <j>olvif; /cal 6 /coil; 
/cat oo~a roiavra* ravra Be o>9 /caff* oXov elirelv 
ytoviofyvXXa' zeal yap 6 /caXapLO$ /cal 6 /cvireipo*; 
/cal 6 fiovrofio? /cal raXXa Be r&v Xifivcoocov 
roiavra* rrdvra Be &airep i/c Bvoiv avvdera /cal 
to fieaov olov rpoTTis, ov iv to £9 a\\o*9 fieyas 
rropo? 6 peao?. Biafyepovai Be /cal rol$ vxfiiiaar 
rd fiev yap irepifyeprj, /caOamep ret T779 diriov, ret 
Be irpofirj/cearepa, /cadairep rd TT79 firjXear rd Be 
el? 6£v irporjKovra ical irapa/cavdifyvra, /caddrrep 
rd rov filXa/co?. /cal ravra fiev dayiara* <rd Be 
a^iard> /cal olov irpiovcbBrj, /cavdirep rd T779 
iXdrrjs /cal rd T779 TrreplBos* rponov Be riva 
a^iard /cal rd T779 dfiireXov, ical rd TJ79 av/cr}? 
6 Be &airep av eXrroi ri$ KopcovoTroBooBrj. evia Be 
/cal evrofids e^ovra, /caQdrrep rd rrf<; irreXeas /cal 
rd T779 'Hpa/cXeoori/crjs /cal rd rr)$ Bpvos. rd Be 
/cal irapa/cavOL^ovra /cal i/c rov a/cpov ical i/c r&v 
irXayiwv, olov rd t?}9 irpivov /cal rd T779 Bpvbs 
/cal fi'iXaico<; /cal ftdrov /cal rraXiovpov /cal rd r&v 
aXXcov. d/cav0&Be<? Be i/c r&v a/epcov /cal to tt}9 
TrevK^ /cal irirvos /cal iXdrrj? en Be /ceBpov /cal 
/ceBpiBo?. SvXXd/cavOov Be 0X0)9 iv fiev to?9 
oevopoi? ov/c eariv ovoev cov rjfieis io~fiev, ev be 
to?9 aXXois vXtffiaaiv iariv, olov r\ re a/copva /cal 
7) Bpvirh /cal 6 a/cavo? /cal a^eBov drrav ro r&v 
d/cavcoB&v yevos* wairep yap <f>vXXov iarlv rj 
d/cavOa rraaiw el Be firj <j>vXXa ri$ ravra drjaei, 

1 Plin. I.e. and 13. 30. 2 ol iu conj. W.; Mev Aid. H. 

3 irapaKavOi^ovra conj. Sch.; Trapayeov(£ovTa UMVAld. 

4 ra 8e <rx^rh. add. W. 


Digitized by 


leaves. Some again have reedy leaves, as date-palm 
doum-palm and such like. But, generally speaking, 
the leaves of these end in a point ; for reeds galin- 
gale sedge and the leaves of other marsh plants are 
of this character. 1 The leaves of all these are com- 
pounded of two parts, and the middle is like a keel, 
placed where in 2 other leaves is a large passage 
dividing the two halves. Leaves differ also in their 
shapes ; some are round, as those of pear, some 
rather oblong, as those of the apple ; some come to a 
sharp point and have spinous projections 3 at the 
side, as those of smilax. So far 1 have spoken of 
undivided leaves; but some are divided 4 and like 
a saw, as those of silver-fir and of fern. To a 
certain extent those of the vine are also divided, 
while those of the fig one might compare to a crow's 
foot. 5 6 Some leaves again have notches, as those of 
elm filbert and oak, others have spinous projections 
both at the tip and at the edges, as those of kermes- 
oak oak smilax bramble Christ's thorn and others. 
The leaf of fir Aleppo pine silver-fir and also of prickly 
cedar and kedris (juniper) 7 has a spinous point at 
the tip. Among other trees there is none that we 
know which has spines for leaves altogether, but it 
is so with other woody plants, as akorna drypis pine- 
thistle and almost all the plants which belong to 
that class. 8 For in all these spines, as it were, take 
the place of leaves, and, if one is not to reckon these 

3 KopwvoTTotidoSri conj. Gesner. The fig-leaf is compared to a 
crow's foot, Plut. de defect, orac. 3 ; gkoKottwIti Aid. , which 
word is applied to thorns by Diosc. 6 Plin. 16. 90. 

7 K&pilos conj. Dalec. ; ictlpias MSS. c/. Plin. I.e., who 
seems to have read ay p las. 

8 cLKavwZwv conj. W., c/. 1. 13. 3; &.Kav0w6wv MSS.; atcav- 
$£>v P 2 . 


Digitized by 


avfiftcuvoi av oXa? a<j>vXXa elvai, ivioi? Be dxavOav 
fiev elvai <f>vXXov Be o\g>9 ovk e%eti>, Kaddirep 6 

7 tldXiv 8' oti rd fiev apuia^a, KaOdirep rd rr}? 
<TiclWr)<; Kal tov /3oX/3ov, ra 8' e^ovra /u<r%oi/. 
Kal rd fiev fiaxpov, olov fj apiireXos teal 6 kittos, 
rd Be fipaxvv Kal olov i purely koi a , Kaddirep eXda 
Kal ov% &airep eirl rrjs niKardvov teal dpureXov 
irpoarjpTtjp^vov, BiaQopd Be Kal to pufj e/c t&v 
avT&v elvai ttjv irpbafyvaiv, dXXa rot? jjlcv 
irXeiaTois etc t&v /cXdBeov row Be Kal €K t&v 
aKpepuovoDV, Try; Bpvbs Be Kal ex tov areXexovs, 
t&v Be XaxavcoB&v tois iroXXoi? ev0v$ ck Trfc 
pL&St olov Kpofxvov CKopBov KiyppLov, en Be 
da<j>oBeXov aKiXXt]<; ftoXfiov aiavpiyylov Kal 
o\ft>9 tcov /3oX/3(oB&v Kal tovtcov Be oi>x V irpcoTrj 
fxovov €K<j)vacs dXXa Kal o\o? 6 KauXos d<f>vXXov. 
evicov B* oTav yevrjTai, <f>vXXa eiKos, olov OpiBaKivrfS 
to/cifiov aeXivov Kal t&v aiTrjp&v ofioiw. €%ei 
8' evia TovTeov Kal tov KavXbv eiT aKavdL^ovTa, 
ft>9 f) dpiBaKivq Kal Ta <f>vXXaKav0a irdvra Kal 
t&v 0ap,va>B&v Be Kal £ti /jloXXov, olov ySaro? 

8 Koivrj Be Bta<f>opd irdvTcov opboiw BevBpcov Kal 
t&v aXXoav oti Td fiev iroXv<j)vXXa Ta 8' oXiyo- 
<f>vXXa, c!>9 8' eirl to irdv ra irXaTv<f>vXXa raft- 
<f>vXXa, Kaddirep fivppivo^, Ta 8' ara/cra Kal a>9 
€Tvxe, KaOdirep axeBov Ta irXeiCTa t&v aXXcov 

1 Plin. 16. 91. 2 conj. W.; ^ Ald.H. 

3 iviwv . . . *Ik6s. So Sch. explains : text probably de- 


Digitized by 


as leaves, they would be entirely leafless, and some 
would have spines but no leaves at all, as asparagus. 

1 Again there is the difference that some leaves 
have no leaf-stalk, as those of squill and purse-* 
tassels, while others have a leaf-stalk. And some 
of the latter have a long leaf-stalk, as vine 
and ivy, some, as olive, a short one which grows, as 
it were, into the stem and is not simply attached to 
it, as it is in 2 plane and vine. Another difference is 
that the leaves do not in all cases grow from the 
same part, but, whereas in most trees they grow from 
the branches, in some they grow also from the twigs, 
and in the oak from the stem as well ; in most 
pot-herbs they grow directly from the root, as in 
onion garlic chicory, and also in asphodel squill 
purse-tassels Barbary-nut, and generally in plants 
of the same class as purse-tassels ; and in these 
not merely the original growth but the whole 
stalk is leafless. In some, when the stalk is pro- 
duced, the leaves may be expected to grow, 8 as in 
lettuce basil celery, and in like manner in cereals. 
In some of these the stalk presently becomes spinous, 
as in lettuce and the whole class of plants with 
spinous leaves, and still more in shrubby plants, as 
bramble and Christ's thorn. 

4 Another difference which is found in all trees 
alike and in other plants as well is that some have 
many, some few leaves. And in general those that 
have flat leaves 5 have them in a regular series, as 
myrtle, while in other instances the leaves are in no 
particular order, but set at random, as in most other 

* Plin. 16. 92. 

5 ir\arv<pv\\a UVP ; TcoAu<pu\\a conj. W. ; but wXarvrris is 
one of the ' differences ' given in the summary below. 


Digitized by 


[fjv], cBtov Be eirl t&v Xa^avayB&v, olov zcpofivov 
yrjreiov, to zcoi\6<f)v\Xov. 

'AttX&s Bi* ai Bia<f>opal t&v <f>vXXcov fj fieyeOev 
fj irXrjdei fj a^rjfiaTi r) 7r\arvTrjTi fj arevorriri 

fj KoCXOT7]Tl fj TpaXVTTfTl fj XeiOTYJTl KCU T& TTap- 

azcavQLt,eiv fj purj. en he Kara ttjv Trp6<r<f>vaiv 
od ev fj Bi oxr to fiev 66 ev, duo pi£r}<; fj zcXdBov 
fj zcavXov fj dzcpefiovos* to Be Bi ov, fj Bid fiia^ov 
fj Bi avrov zeal el Br) iroXXd etc tov avTov. zeal 
evia zcapiro^opa, fiera^v TrepieiXrj^oTa tov icapirov, 
&airep r) *AXe%avSpeLa Bd<f>vrj eirifyvKXozcapiro*;. 

Ai fiev ovv SiCHpopai twv QvXXeav zcoivoTepw 
irdaai eiprjvTai zeal c)(eB6v elaiv ev tovtois, 

(ZvyzceiTai Be Tci /nev ef* ivos zeal <f>\oiov zeal 
aapzeos, olov ra rfj? avzcr)<; zeal Trj$ dfiireXov, ra Be 
&o"irep e'f lvb<; jjlovov, olov tov zeaXdfiov zeal avrov. 
9 to Be vypbv dirdvToav zcoivov* diraai yap evv- 
irdpxei fcal tovtoi<; zeal to?9 aXXoi<; Tofc eirereioi? 
[/uo^o? avdos Kapiros el ri a Wo]* fiaXXov Bk teal 
to?9 fir) eireTeiow ovBev yap dvev tovtov, Bozcei 
Be /cal t&v fiiaytov tcl fiev e'f Iv&v fidvov avyzcei- 
adai, zcaddirep rd tov g'itov zeal tov zeaXdfiov, tcl 
8' izc tcov avT&v, wairep oi zcavXoL 

1 rSov &\\oov %v MSS. ; rwv irotw^wv conj. W. Ijv, at all 
events, cannot be right. 2 Plin. 19. 100. 

3 fi (tt€p6t7]ti tj Koi\6rrjri : so G ; fj Koi\6rrjri ff tmv6Tt\ri 
MSS. 4 i.e. petiolate. . 5 i.e. sessile. 

6 i.e. compound : 5fy conj. W. ; ctdrj UMVAld. 

7 The passage from here to the end of the chapter is a 


Digitized by 


plants. 1 2 It is peculiar to pot-herbs to have hollow 
leaves, as in onion and horn-onion. 

To sum up, the differences between leaves are 
shewn in size, number, shape, hollowness, in breadth, 3 
roughness and their opposites, and in the presence or 
absence of spinous projections ; also as to their 
attachment, according to the part from which they 
spring or the means by which they are attached ; 
the part from which they spring being the root or a 
branch or the stalk or a twig, while the means by 
which they are attached may be a leaf-stalk, 4 or they 
may be attached directly ; 5 and there may be 6 
several leaves attached by the same leaf-stalk. 
Further some leaves are fruit-bearing, enclosing the 
fruit between them, as the Alexandrian laurel, which 
has its fruit attached to the leaves. 

These are all the differences in leaves stated some- 
what generally, and this is a fairly complete list of 

Composition of the various parts of a plant. 

7 (Leaves are composed some of fibre bark and flesh, 
as those of the fig and vine, some, as it were, of 
fibre alone, as those of reeds and corn. But moisture 
is common to all, for it is found both in leaves and in 
the other annual parts, 8 leaf-stalk, flower, fruit and so 
forth but more especially in the parts which are 
not annual ; in fact no part is without it. Again it 
appears that some leaf-stalks are composed only of 
fibre, as those of corn and reeds, some of the same 
materials as the stalks. 

8 f*.l*x°* . . . *x\o has no construction ; probably a (correct) 
gloss, taken from 1, 2, 1. 

9 i.e. while these are young, W. 


Digitized by 


T&v 8' dvQ&v ra puev ix <f>Xoiov xal (frXefios xal 
(rap/cos, <ra 8' ix aapxb$> pdvov, olov Ta iv fi€<rq> 
t&v apcop. 

'Ofioico^ Be xal iirl t&v xapir&v oi fih yap ix 
aapxb<; xal Ivos, oi Be ix aaptcb? fiovov, oi Be* xal 
ix BeppxiTos avyxeivrar to Bk vypbv dxoXovdel 
xal tovtois. ix aapxbs i*ev xal lvb$ 6 t&v 
KOKKvpbrfKoav xal aixvcov, ivbs Bh xal Bepparo? 
6 t&v avxapuvcov xal tt}? poas. aXXoi ok xaT 
aXXov rpoirov fiefiepiapuevoi. irdvTtov Be o>9 

€L7T€LV TO pL€V €£0) (pXoiO? TO €VTO$ aap^ TCOV 06 

xal Trvprjv.) 

XI. "Eio-yarov 8' iv airaav to aireppia. tovto 
Be eypv iv eavrfy avfi(f>vTov vypbv xal Oepjiov, &v 
ixXnrovrwv ay ova, xaOdirep ra &d. teal t&v fiev 
ev6v to airepfia pueTa to irepiexov, olov <f>olvixo$ 
xapvov apbvyBakrfs, irXela Be tovt<ov tcL ipuirepi- 
eypVTa, w to, tov <j>oivixo<i. t&v Be fieTa^v aapf; 
xal Trvprfv, &Girep eXdas zeal xoxxvpLrjXea? teal 
€T€pG)v. evia Be* teal iv Xo/3q>, Ta 6" iv vpuevi, Ta 
B* iv ayyeitp, tcl Bk xal yvp.v6aTTepp.a TeXeiw. 

'Ev Xo/3& p,ev ov piovov T(t iireTeia, Kaddirep Ta 
'XeBpoirh /cal ere pa TrXeico t&v drypicov, dXXa xal 
t&v BivBpwv evia, xaOdirep rj tc xepavia, Tive? 
xaXovai avxrjv hlyvirTiav, xal f) xep/ch xal 17 
xoXoiTia 7T€pl Anrdpav iv vpievi 8' evia t&v 

1 t£ U ; rh Aid. 

2 rck 5* 4k aapxhs preserved only in inBas.; oni. UMVP 2 . 
Sch. reads rb. 

3 &pu>v conj. W.; alp&v MSS. 4 i.e. rind. 

8 Plin. 18. 53. 6 oh conj. Sch.; olv Ald.H. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. x. io-xi. 2 

Of flowers some 1 are composed of bark veins and 
flesh, some of flesh only, 2 as those in the middle of 
cuckoo-pint. 8 

So too with fruits ; some are made of flesh and 
fibre, some of flesh alone, and some of skin 4 also. 
And moisture is necessarily found in these also. 
The fruit of plums and cucumbers is made of flesh 
and fibre, that of mulberries and pomegranates of 
fibre and skin. The materials are differently distri- 
buted in different fruits, but of nearly all the outside 
is bark, the inside flesh, and this in some cases 
includes a stone.) 

Differences in seeds. 

XI. Last in all plants comes the seed. This possesses 
in itself natural moisture and warmth, and, if these 
fail, the seeds are sterile, like eggs in the like case. 
In some plants the seed comes immediately inside 
the envelope, as in date filbert almond (however, as 
in the case of the date, there may be more than one 
covering). In some cases again there is flesh and a 
stone between the envelope and the seed, as in olive 
plum and other fruits. Some seeds again are enclosed 
in a pod, some in a husk, some in a vessel, and some 
are completely naked. 

6 Enclosed in a pod are not 6 only the seeds of 
annual plants, as leguminous plants, and of con- 
siderable numbers of wild plants, but also those of 
certain trees, as the carob-tree (which some 7 call 
the ' Egyptian fig '), Judas-tree, 8 and the koloitia 9 
of the Liparae islands. In a husk are enclosed the 

7 fa rives conj. St. from G ; livriva Ald.H. 

8 Clearly Dot the spiels (aspen) described 3. 14. 2. 

9 Ko\otria MSS.; Ko\ovr4a conj. St., cf. 3. 17. 2 n. 


Digitized by 


eireTeLoav, (oairep 6 irvp6<; teal 6 tceyxpov ixravrox; 
Be teal ivayyeioairepfiaTa teal yvpwoGTrepiuna. 
ivayyeioairepfiaTa fiev olov tj re firj/cav teal oaa 
prj/coovitcd' to yap arjaapov IBieoTepw yvfivo- 
airepfiaTa Be tcov re Xa^dveov iroXXd, teaOdirep 
avqdov tcopLavvov avvrjaov tcvpivov fid pad ov teal 
3 erepa TrXeteo. t&v Be* BevBpeov ovBev yvfivoairepfiov 
aXX* fj aapgl Trepieypp&vov fj /ceXvcpecriv, Ta fiev 
BepjuLTiteol*;, &airep f) j3dXavo<; teal to Ev/Soitcov, 
to, Be gvXcoBeaiv, &airep f] apuvyBaXtj teal to 
tedpvov. ovBev Be evayyeioaireppov, el pur) t*9 tov 
te&vov dyyelov Orjaei Blcl to xcopi^eaOai t&v 

Avra Be ra aireppLara t&v fiev eitdv aaptecoBrj, 
teaddirep oaa teapvrjpa teal ftaXavrjpd* t&v Be iv 
irvpfjvi to aaptc&Be? e%eTai, tcaOdirep eXda<; teal 
Ba<f>viBo<; teal aXXcov. t&v B' epmvpr)va fiovov fj 
irvprjveaBrj ye teal &airep fopd, tcaOdirep tcl 
tevrjKa>Brj teal tceyxpajiiBcoBr) teal woXXa t&v 
Xwxavrip&v. epL^avearara Be ra tov <f>oiviteo<;' 
ovBe yap tcotXoTrjTa e%€t touto ovBeplav dXX' 
oXov ffypov ov prjv dXX 9 vypoTT)? Brj ti$ teal 
OepfioTt)*; virdp^ei BijXov oti teal TOVTtp, tcaOdirep 

1 fiTiKwviKh . . . rb ykp conj. W. from G ; /Wjicwvr Kark ykp 

2 Kopiavvov &vvr\<rov conj. Sch.; Kopidvvrjaov UMAld. ; ko- 
pdvvrtaov V; c/. Plin. 19. 119. 

* ^ KcXtycffiv conj. Sch., cf. CP. 4. 1. 2 ; tj Bt Kv^aatv U ; 
Plin. 15. 112, crusta tegunlur glandes. 4 Plin. 15. 113. 


Digitized by 


seeds of some annuals, as wheat and millet; and 
in like manner some plants have their seeds in a 
vessel, some have them naked. In a vessel are 
those of the poppy and plants of the poppy kind ; 1 
(the case of sesame however is somewhat peculiar), 
while many pot-herbs have their seeds naked, as 
dill coriander 2 anise cummin fennel and many 
others. No tree has naked seeds, but either they 
are enclosed in flesh or in shells, 8 which are some- 
times of leathery nature, as the acorn and the sweet 
chestnut, sometimes woody, as almond and nut. 
Moreover no tree has its seeds in a vessel, unless one 
reckons a cone as a vessel, because it can be separated 
from the fruits. 

The actual seeds are in some cases fleshy in them- 
selves, as all those which resemble nuts or acorns ; 
4 in some cases the fleshy part is contained in a stone, 
as in olive bay and others. The seeds in some 
plants again merely consist of a stone, 5 or at least 
are of stone-like character, and are, as it were, 6 dry ; 
for instance those of plants like safflower millet and 
many pot-herbs. Most obviously of this character 
are those of the date, 7 for they contain no cavity, 
but are throughout dry 8 ; — not but what there must 
be even in them some moisture and warmth, as we 
* have said. 9 

6 ifiirvpripa fx6vov fj rvprivdBri conj. Sch.; iv rvpr)vi \x6vov fj 
■nvprivooZsi Aid. (P has ttvprivwlti). 

i.e. no seed can really be without moisture ; cf. 1. 11. 1. 

7 cf CP. 5. 18. 4. 

8 &iphv I conj. , as required by the next clause ; t^opBov PAld. ; 
Qoppov W. from Sch. conj. The germ in the date-stone is so 
small as to be undiscoverable, whence the stone seems to be 
homogeneous throughout, with no cavity for the germ. 

9 1. 10. 9. 


VOL. I. O 

Digitized by 


Aia(j>epov(Ti Be teal t& ra fiev dOpoa fier 
aXkrjXcov elvai, tcl Be BieaT&Ta teal aroi^rj^ov, 
&(nr€p ra t% Ko\oKvvrrj<; teal aifevas teal t&p 
BepBpcop, c!)9 Hepaite?)*; firjXea?. teal t&p d0p6<op 
to, fiev kvi tlvl irepU^eaOai, teadairep ra t^? poa$ 
teal 7-775 dirtov teal /jirjXeas teal t>)9 d/i7re\ov teal 
cuter)?' tcl Be per dXXrjXcop fiev elvai, firj irepi- 
e^ea0ai Be v<f> epos, &airep tcl <TTa%vr)pa t&p 
iireTelow, el fiir) ti$ 0elr\ top Qidyyv co? irepieypp* 
ovtco B* carat teal 6 fiorpvs teal raWa ra 
ftoTpvcoSr) teal oaa Br) <f>epei Si evfUocriav teal 
X&pa? dperrjit d0poov? t<w tcapirov?, &<nrep ev 
Xvpia <f>aal teal aXKo0i Ta9 eXdas. 

'AWa teal avrrj Botcei ti? elvai Sia<f>opd to ra 
p,ev d<f> ivb<; piaypv teal fiia? it poa <f>v a e«9 
ddpoa yipea0ai, teaOdirep eirL re t&p {JoTpvrjp&p 
teal (TTaxvrjp&p eiprjrai fir) nepieypiieva teoipfy 
tipi yipeadar tc\ Be fir) yipeaOai. eirel tea0* 
e/eaarop ye XafifidpopTt, t&p aTrep/idrayp rj t&v 
irepieyoPTtoP IBLap dpyr\p ^X €l T *? ? irpoo-$vaeoi><; 9 
olop r) re pag teal r) poa teal irdXip 6 irvpb? teal r) 
tepi0r). tfteiara S* dp Sogeiep ra t&p firjXeop teal 
ra t&p diriwp, otl crvfiyfravei T€ teal TrepieiXrjTTTai 
teaOdirep v fiep 1 tlpI BepfiaTite& irepl bp to irepi- 
KapiTLOP" dXX* o/jlws teal tovtoup eteaarop iSLav 
dpyr)p eyei teal (pvaw <f>apepcl>TaTa Be t^> 

1 <rroixnti&v con j. W. ; <rxchbv Aid. 

2 iyl rtvi conj. Sch. ; iv rivi Aid. 3 cf. Plin. 15. 15. 

4 aurri conj. Sch.; aur^ Aid. 5 rb conj. W.; Aid. 


Digitized by 


Further seeds differ in that in some cases they are 
massed together, in others they are separated and 
arranged in rows, 1 as those of the gourd and 
bottle-gourd, and of some trees, such as the citron. 
Again of those that are massed together some differ 
in being contained in a single 2 case, as those of 
pomegranate pear apple vine and fig; others in 
being closely associated together, yet not contained 
in a single case, as, among annuals, those which are 
in an ear — unless one regards the ear as a case. In 
that case the grape-cluster and other clustering fruits 
will come under the description, as well as all those 
plants which on account of good feeding or excellence 
of soil bear their fruits massed together, 3 as they 
say the olive does in Syria and elsewhere. 

But this 4 too seems to be a point of difference, 
that 5 some grow massed together from a single 
stalk and a single attachment, as has been said in 
the case of plants with clusters or ears whose seeds 
do not grow contained in one common case ; while 
others grow otherwise. For in these instances, if 
one takes each seed or case separately, it has its own 
special point of attachment, for instance each grape 
or pomegranate, or again each grain of wheat or 
barley. This would seem to be least of all the case 
with the seeds of apples and pears, since 7 these 
touch one another 8 and are enclosed in a sort of 
skin-like membrane, outside which is the fruit-case. 
However each of these too has its own peculiar 
point of attachment and character; this is most 

6 fi re . . . p6a, : text perhaps defective ; fj t€ £a| fi6rpuas 
ko\ rrjs t>6as 6 xvpriv conj. Bod. 

7 in conj. Sch.; Ui U; Hoi PMAld. 
« cf. 8. 5. 2. 9 i.e. pulp. 


G 2 

Digitized by 


tce^piirOai ra rrj^ poas* 6 yap irvprjv e/cdo-TG) 
7rpoa7T€<l>vfC€v, ovx cocirep t&v av/c&v aBrfXa Bia 
rrjv vyporrjra. /cal yap rovrtp exovai Bia<f>opdv 
/calirep dpfyoTepa irepuyopueva aap/ccoBet tlvI /cal tw 
tovto ir€pi€iXrj<j>6Tt fiera tg>v aWcov ra fiev yap 
irepl e/caaTOv irvprjva to o-ap/c&Bes tovto to 
vypov, ai Be /ceyxpa p>tBe<; wairep kolvov tl iraaai, 
KaBdirep teal to yiyapTOV /cal oaa t6v avTov 
Tpoirov. a\Xa Tas p,ev TOiavTas Bia<j>opa$ Tax 
av Tt9 \dfioi irXeiov &v Bet Tas /cvpicoTaTa? teal 
fidXiaTa t?)? (pvaea)? purj dyvoeiv. 

XII. At Be Kara tovs ^uXou? /cal Ta axv/ JLara 
/cal Ta? o\a9 pu>p<f>a<i ax^Bov <f>avepal irdaiv, SaTe 
firj Bel a 6 ai \6yov irXrjv toctovtov y oti o'XVf la 
ovBev irepi/cdfymov €v0vypap,fwv ovBe ycovia? ex €l " 
t&p Be x v ^& v °* ^laip olvcoBet,*;, &airep dp,- 
ireKov av/capivov p,vpTOV oi 8' eXacoBeis, &airep 
e\aa? Bd<f)vr)<; /capvas ap,vyBa\f}$ irev/cq? ttltvo^ 
eXaTW oi Be pbeXiTcbBeis, olov av/cov <f)OLvi/co$ 
Bioo-ftaXdvov oi Be Bpijxeis, olov opiydvov 8vp>l3pa<; 
KapBdpbov vdirvo^ oi Be m/cpot, &airep dsfrivdiov 
/cevTavpiov. Bia<f>epovcri Be /cal Tal$ evcoBiais, 
olov dvvrjaov /ceBpiBor ivicov Be vBapefc av Bogaiev, 
olov oi t&v KOKKvp,rfKe(ov* oi Be o£ e£?, &o-irep po&v 

1 i.e. of the pulp. 2 ro6r<p conj. Sch.; rovro Aid. 
8 rbv om. St.: i.e. the seeds are arranged in compartments 
of the pulp. 

s 4 

Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xi. 6-xn. i 

obvious in the separation of the pomegranate seeds, 
for the stone is attached to each, and the connexion 
is not, as in figs, obscured by the moisture. 1 For 
here 2 too there is a difference, although in both 
cases the seeds are enclosed in a sort of fleshy 
substance, as well as in the case which encloses this 
and the other parts of the fruit. For in the pome- 
granate the stones have this moist fleshy substance 
enclosing each 8 separate stone ; but in the case of 
fig-seeds, as well as in that of grape-stones and other 
plants which have the same arrangement, the same 
pulp is common to all. 4 However one might find 
more such differences, and one should not ignore the 
most important of them, namely those which specially 
belong to the plant's natural character. 

Differences in taste. 

XII. The differences in taste, shape, and form as 
a whole are tolerably evident to all, so that they do 
not need explanation ; except that it should be 
stated that 5 the case containing the fruit is never 
right-lined in shape and never has angles. 6 Of 
tastes some are like wine, as those of vine mul- 
berry and myrtle ; some are like olive-oil, as, besides 
olive itself, bay hazel almond fir Aleppo pine silver- 
fir ; some like honey, as fig date chestnut ; some are 
pungent, as marjoram savory cress mustard ; some 
are bitter, as wormwood centaury. Some also are 
remarkably fragrant, as anise and juniper 7 ; of 
some the smell would seem to be insipid, 8 as in 
plums ; of others sharp, as in pomegranates and 

4 i.e. the fruit is not divided into compartments. 

5 it\^v f) Toaovrov conj. W.; rocrovrov ^ UMAld. 

6 Plin. 19. 186; 15. 109. 7 cf. 1. 9. 4. 8 Lit. watery. 


Digitized by 


/ecu ivlcjv firfKasv. airdvTtov he olvwheis teal tou9 
iv rovT(p t$ yevet Oereov aXXoi he iv aXkoi? 
elheaiw virep &v dirdvToav dtcpifiecrTepov iv to?? 
7repi %u\o)i/ pr)T€ov, avrds re ra<; thea? hiapiff/xov- 
fievovs otrdaai teal Ta9 7rpo9 a\Xij\ov<; hia<f>opa<; 
teal Tt9 f] kieaarov <j>vai<; /ecu Svvafiis. 
2 '^X 61 ^ Kai V T ^ p hevhpeov avT&v vypoTTjs, 
&<nrep iXex^V* hid<j>opa elhrj' rj p,ev yap iariv 

07Tft)S77?, &<T1T€p f] T^9 CTVfCr)? KOI TYfi fliqtCG)VO<; m Tf 

he irtTTcoSr]*;, olov iXdrrjs irevtcr)<; t&v /ccopo<f>6pa)V 
a\\r) 8' vhaprjs, olov dpniekov dirLov firjXeas, fcal 
rcov Xa^aveohcov he, olov aiKvov tcoXotcvvTrjs Opiha- 
KiVf]V al he [rjhrj] hpip,VTrjTa riva c^ovcri, /caOdirep 
7] tov Ovfiov zeal Ovpu^pa^ al he teal evaohiav, 
&airep al tov aeXivov dvijdov puapdOov zeal r<ov 
toiovtcov. a>9 S' tt7rXw9 eiirelv diraaat Kara ttjv 
IhLav <f>vaiv e/cdarov hevhpov teal do? tcaO' o\ov 
eiirelv k^vtov* irav yap e%ei tcpaaiv riva teal pifyv 
IhLav, fpirep oiiteLa hrjXov otv Tvyydvei rot? biro- 
fceipevois KapTrolv &v roU ifXeicrTOL^ avvefifyaive- 
rat t*9 6pLOi6rr)<: oitc d/cpij3r)<; ovhe aa<f))}<r a\\' 
iv to?9 nrepucapirLow hio fiaXKov tcarepyaaiav 
Xapuftdvei teal 7reyfnv teadapav Kal eiXitcpivrj rj tov 

1 cf. G.P. 6. 6. 4. 

2 T. is said to have written a treatise ntpl x^^v. 

s 6vwSr)s. 6x6s is used specially of the juice of the fig 

4 fii}Kwvos probably corrupt : it should be a tree. 

Digitized by 


some kinds of apples. 1 But the smells even of 
those in this class must in all cases be called wine- 
like, though they differ in different kinds, on which 
matter we must speak more precisely, when we come 
to speak of flavours, 2 reckoning up the different 
kinds themselves, and stating what differences 
there are between them, and what is the natural 
character and property of each. 

Now the sap of the trees themselves assumes 
different kinds of tastes as was said ; sometimes it 
is milky, 3 as that of the fig and poppy, 4 some- 
times like pitch, as in silver-fir fir and the conifers ; 
sometimes it is insipid, as in vine pear and apple, 
as well as such pot-herbs as cucumber gourd 
lettuce ; while others 5 again have a certain pungency, 
such as the juice of thyme and savory ; others have 
a fragrance, such as the juices of celery dill fennel 
and the like. To speak generally, all saps corre- 
spond to the special character of the several trees, 
one might almost add, to that of each plant. For r 
every plant has a certain temperament and com- 
position of its own, which plainly belongs in a j 
special sense to the fruits of each. And in most of 1 
these is seen a sort of correspondence with the 
character of the plant as a whole, which is not 
however exact nor obvious ; it is chiefly 7 in the fruit- 
cases 8 that it is seen, and that is why it is the 
character of the flavour which becomes more com- 
plete and matures into something separate and 

5 I have bracketed ^ : ? a dittography of at 8e. 

6 fjxep mBas.H ; cfrrcp MAld. 

7 *AA' iv . . . fiaWov MSS. (?) Ald.H ; yhp for 81b conj. W., 
omitting stop before it. 

8 i.e. the pulp : so Q. cf. 1. H, 6. 


Digitized by 


XyXov (pvaw Bet ydp &airep to fiev vXrjv vtto- 
Xaftelv to Be eZSo9 /cal /xoptptfv. 

3 "Ex 61 ^ a>vTa tcl crTrep/iara /cal ol %it<ov€<z ol 
irepl avra Bia<f>opdv t&v j(vXS)V. 009 8' air\&<; 
elirelv airavra ra fjuopia t&v BevBpcov /cal <f>vra>v, 
olov piifii /cavXbs d/cpeficov <j>vXXov /cap7r6^, e^ei 
nva ol/eeiorrjra 717)09 ttjv oXrjv <f>vaiv, el /cal 
irapaXKaTTei tcard re Ta9 6<r/j,a<s /cal tou9 %f\ou9, 
<J>9 ra fjuev evoafxa /cal evdbSrj ra o° aovfxa /cal 
&xy\a 7ravT€\w elvai t&v rov avrov fxoptcov. 

4 Evlcov yap evoajia tcl dvOrj fidXXov rj ra. 
<f>vXXa, t&v Be dvdiraXtv rd <f>vXXa fidXXov /cal 
ol /cX&ves, &crirep t&v a-Te^avcofiariK&v* t&v Be ol 
KCLpTToi* t&v 8' ovBeTepov evtcov S* al pt^ar t&v 
Be ti fiepos. 6/jloIqx; Be /cal /card tou9 %vXov^ rd 
fiev yap fipcord rd 6" dftpcora Tvyydvei /cal iv 
(f>vXKoL<; real irepi/capirioi*;* IBccorarop Be to eVl 
t^9 (piXvpas* ravT7)<; yap rd fiev <f>vXXa yXv/cea 
/cal TroXXd t&v £(06)v eafflei, 6 Be /capTro? ovBevl 
y3/0G)TO9* eirel to ye dvdiraXiv ovSev Oav/iacrTov, 
a>o-Te rd fiev <j>vXXa firj ecrdieadai tou9 Be icapirovs 
ov fiovov v(j> rjfi&v dXXd /cal virb t&v aXXcov 
£(bcop. dXXd /cal irepl tovtov teal t&v aXXcov 
t&v toiovtcov vaTepov ireipaTeov Oewpelv Ta9 

XIII. Nvv Bk ToaovTOV ecTft) BrjXov, oti /card 
irdvTa Ta fieprj irXelovs elal Bia<f>opal ttoXTulx&v 

1 i.e. the pulp. 2 i.e. the flavour. 

8 Sense : Every tree has a characteristic juice of its own, 
which is however specially recognisable in its fruit ; in the 
tree as a whole its character is not always apparent. Hence 
the importance of the flavour (which is seen in the fruit- 
pulp), since it is this which determines the specific character, 

Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xn. 2-xiii. i 

distinct ; in fact we must consider the one 1 as 
' matter/ the other 2 as ' form ' or specific character. 3 

Again the seeds themselves and the coats con- 
taining them have different flavours. And, to speak 
generally, all parts of trees and plants, as root stem 
branch leaf fruit, have a certain relationship to the 
character of the whole, even if 4 there is variation in 
scents and tastes, so that of the parts of the same 
plant some are fragrant and sweet to the taste, 
while others are entirely scentless and tasteless. 

For in some plants the flowers are more fragrant 
than the leaves, in others on the contrary it is 
rather the leaves and twigs which are fragrant, as in 
those used for garlands. In others again it is the 
fruits ; in others it is neither 5 of these parts, but, in 
some few cases, the root or some part of it. And 
so too with the flavours. . Some leaves and some 
fruit-pulps are, and some are not good for food. 
Most peculiar is the case of the lime : the leaves 
of this are sweet, and many animals eat them, but 
the fruit no creature eats, (for, as to the contrary 
case, it would not be at all surprising that the leaves 
should not be eaten, while the fruits were eaten not 
only by us but by other animals). But concerning 
this and other such matters we must endeavour to 
consider the causes on some other occasion. 

Differences in flowers. 

XIII. For the present let so much be clear, that 
in all the parts of plants there are numerous differ- 

the pulp of fruit in general being, in Aristotelian language, 
the « matter, ' while the flavour is 4 form.' rf. CP. 6. 6. 6. 

4 u koI conj. Sch. ; y «€ U ; d 8e MVAld. ' 

8 ovMrtpov seems inaccurately used, as four parts have been 
mentioned. 6 cf. 3 10. 5 ; V lin 16. 65, 


Digitized by 


€7rel Kal t&p avO&v tcl fiev icrri )(vo(ohrj, KaOdirep 
to T779 dpmeXov Kal avKapipov Kal tov kittov* 
ra he <f>vXX<bhrj, KaOdirep a/jLvy8a\r}<; firfXeas 
airiov fco/CKVfiTjXeas. teal ra fiev piyedo? e^ei, 
to he rrjs iXda<; (pvXX&hes op dpeyeOes. 6poiw<; 
he teal iv to£? ewere'iois Kal iroKoheat tcl pep 
(frvXXdohr) tcl Be )(yo(!l>hr). irdvroiv he ret pep hi^poa 
tcl he fiovo^poa. tcl pep twp hevhpwv rd ye 
ttoXXcl popoyjpoa zeal XevKapffrj* poPov yap 009 
eiirelv to tt}9 p6a$ <f>ocpiKOVP Kal dpvyhaXcop 
tlvwv virepvOpov aXXov he ovhevos t<op fjpbepcov 
ours dvdwhe? ovre hixpovp, aU' ei twos; t£>p 
dypicop, olov to t/)9 iXdrrj^' KpoKiPop yap to 
Tairr]^ avdos* /cal oaa hrf <f>a<rcv iv rfj ef <o daX- 
aTTtj pohcov v^ew ttjp y^poap. 

2 'Ep he to?9 €7r€T€ioi9 axehbv rd ye irXeico 
roiavTa /cal hfypoa ical htavOrj. Xeyeo he hiavffe? 
on erepov avQos iv ra> avOei e^et Kara fieo~ov, 

&CT7T6P TO f>6h0V Kal TO KpLVOV KOI TO IOV TO fieXaV. 

evia he Kal pop6(f>vXXa <f>veTai hiaypafyrjv eypvTa 
jiovov tcov 7r\ei6v(av, &airep to T779 laaicovrj^ ov 
yap KeywpiGTai TavTrj? iv t$ dvQei to <f>vXXop 
e/caaTOV ovhe hrj tov XeipLov to KaT<o fiepos, dXXa 
iic tcov a/epcov diro<f)vaei^ ycovccohei?. o"X,ehbv he 
ical to t?}9 e\aa9 tolovtov iaTiv. 

3 Aia<f>ep€t he Kal KaTa, ttjp €K<f>vo~ip Kal deaiv 
tcl pep yap fya irepl avTov tov Kapirov, olov ap,- 

1 i.e. petaloid. 

2 aypioiv Aid. ; alrlwv U ; avriSbv M V ; irovrltav conj. W s 

3 i.e. corolla and stamens, etc. 

4 i.e. are gamopQ^lo^s, (or gamosepalous). 


Digitized by 


ences shewn in a variety of ways. Thus of flowers 
some are downy, as that of the vine mulberry and 
ivy, some are * leafy,' 1 as in almond apple pear 
plum. Again some of these flowers are conspicuous, 
while that of the olive, though it is ' leafy/ is incon- 
spicuous. Again it is in annual and herbaceous 
plants alike that we find some leafy, some downy. 
All plants again have flowers either of two colours or 
of one ; most of the flowers of trees are of one colour 
and white, that of the pomegranate being almost the 
only one which is red, while that of some almonds is 
reddish. The flower of no other cultivated trees is 
gay nor of two colours, though it may be so with 
some uncultivated 2 trees, as with the flower of silver- 
fir, for its flower is of saffron colour ; and so with 
the flowers of those trees by the ocean which have, 
they say, the colour of roses. 

However, among annuals, most are of this charac- 
ter — their flowers are two-coloured and twofold. 3 I 
mean by ' twofold' that the plant has another 
flower inside the flower, in the middle, as with rose 
lily violet. Some flowers again consist of a single 
( leaf,' 4 having merely an indication of more, as that 
of bindweed. 5 For in the flower of this the separate 
' leaves ' are not distinct ; nor is it so in the lower 
part of the narcissus, 6 but there are angular projec- 
tions 7 from the edges. And the flower of the olive 
is nearly of the same character. 

But there are also differences in the way of growth 
and the position of the flower ; some plants have it 

5 cf. CP. 2. 18. 2 and 3 ; Plin. 21. 65. 

6 Xaplov conj. Sch., i.e. narcissus, cf. 6. 6. 9 ; %*iplov MSS. 

7 i.e. something resembling separate * leaves' (petals or 


Digitized by 


TreXo? eXda m fj$ /cal diromirrovra hearer prj/xeva 
(fraiverai, /cal rovro crrj/ietov Xafifidvovaiv el 
/caX&$ arrr\vQi)icev eav yap o-vy/cavOfj fj fipe^dj}, 
avvairoftdXXei rbv /capirbv teal ov rerprjfievov 
yLyverar axehbv 8k /cal ra iroXXa r&v <dv0&v> 
ev /liaa) to Trepi/cdpiriov eyei, raya Se /cal eir 
avrov rov trepiicaprrlov, /caOwrrep poa fieXea dirio^ 
/co/c/cv/irjXea fjLVpptvos, /cal r&v ye <f>pvyavc/c&v 
poScovia /cal ra vroXXa r&v arefyav&ri/c&v /cdr<o 
yap iirb rb avffo? eyei ra cnrepfiara* <f>avep(o- 
rarov Se eVi rov poSov Sia rov oy/cov. evia Se 
/cal eir air&v r&v o-7repfidr<av 9 wairep 6 atcavos 
/cal 6 /cvr)/co<; /cal irdvra ra d/cavd)8r) % /caff e/caa- 
rov yap eyei rb avOo<;. oyu-oteo? Se /cal rS>v 
iroiwS&v evia, /caQdrrep rb dvffefiov ev he rols 
Xaxavrjpol? o re ai/cvo? ical rj /coXo/cvvrrj koX 17 
ai/cva* irdvra yap eirl r&v /capw&v eyei ical 
TTpoaavgavofievcov iirifievet ra dv0rj ttoXvv ^povov. 
4 w A\\a Se l&icoripax;, olov 6 Kirrbs /cal r\ av/cd- 
fiivo?' ev avrol<; fiev yap eyei to?9 oXols irepi- 
Kapirioi^, oh firjv ovre eir a/cpoi? ovr e7rl 
irepieiXr)<f)6<Ti icaff e/caarov, dXV ev rot? dva 
fieaov el fxrj dpa ov avvSrjXa Sia rb xyo&Ses. 

"Eo-t* Se /cal ayova r&v dvQ&v evia, /caOdirep 
eirl r&v ai/cvcov a e/c r&v a/epcov <j}verai rov /cXtj- 

1 cf. 3. 16. 4. 2 Lacuna in text ; hvQuv I conj. 

3 t<£x« Aid. ; riva W. after Sch. conj. 

4 Hirtos conj. Bod. ; 671*05 Ald.H. 

5 i.e. composites. 

6 airtpfi<i.rwv conj. Dalec. from G ; (rrofxdrosy Aid. 

7 &Kavos conj. W. ; &icapos UV. 

8 bKovAdri conj. W.; M6*n Ald.H. cf. 1. 10. 6 ; 6. 4. 4. 

Digitized by 


close above the fruit, as vine and olive ; in the latter, 
when the flowers drop off, they are seen to have a 
hole through them, 1 and this men take for a sign 
whether the tree has blossomed well ; for if the 
flower is burnt up or sodden, it sheds the fruit along 
with itself, and so there is no hole through it. The 
majority of flowers 2 have the fruit-case in the middle 
of them, or, it may be, 3 the flower is on the top of 
the fruit-case, as in pomegranate apple pear 4 plum 
and myrtle, and among under-shrubs, in the rose 
and in many of the coronary plants. For these have 
their seeds below, beneath the flower, and this is 
most obvious in the rose because of the size of the 
seed-vessel. In some cases 6 again the flower is on 
top of the actual seeds, 6 as in pine-thistle 7 safflower 
and all thistle-like 8 plants ; for these have a flower 
attached to each seed. So too with some herba- 
ceous plants, as anthemon, and among pot-herbs, with 
cucumber 9 gourd and bottle-gourd ; all these have 
their flowers attached on top of the fruits, 10 and the 
flowers persist for a long time while the fruits are 

In some other plants the attachment is peculiar, 
as in ivy and mulberry ; in these the flower is closely 
attached to the whole 11 fruit-case ; it is not however 
set above it, nor in a seed-vessel that envelops each 12 
separately, but it occurs in the middle part of the 
structure — except that in some cases it is not easily 
recognised because it is downy. 

13 Again some flowers are sterile, as in cucumbers 
those which grow at the ends of the shoot, and that 

* 5 T6 aixvos conj. W. ; forep oIkvos UM ; 6 mp<rlKvos Aid. 
10 Kapiruv conj. Sch. ; &Kpwv Ald.H. 
u i.e. compound. 12 otir* ir\ I conj. for out}. 
13 cf. Arist. Probl. 20. 3. 


Digitized by 


fiaro?, BC o teal d<f)aipovcriv avra* tccoXvei yap tt)v 
tov aitcvov ftXdaTrjcriv. <f>aal Be teal rrj<; firjXia? 
t?)? MrjBitcr)*; oaa fiev e^ei ra>v dvd&v &airep 
rfKaKdrrjv Tivd irefyvtcvlav etc fieaov ravT elvai 
yovifia, oaa Be fir) e^ei ravT ayova. el Be teal in 
aWov rivb<; ravra avjifiaivei t&v dvOofyopcov 
ware dyovov av6o<; tpveiv elre teexoopiajievov etre 
fxr) f GKeirreov. eirel yevr\ ye h>va teal dfiireXov icaX 
p6a$ dSwarel TeXeotcapireiv, dWa fieyjpi tov 
avOov? rj yeveai?. 
5 (YLverai Be /cal to ye t% poas avOo? ttoXv teal 
irvKvbv teal o\o)9 6 oytco? 7r\arv<; &airep 6 r&v 
poBcov tedrcoOev 8' erepolo^ olo? StWro? fii/cpb? 
&airep itcreTpafifievo? 6 kvtivos e^oav rd X e ^V 

<Paal Be rives teal t&v 6fioyev&v rd fiev dvOeiv 
rd 8* ov, tcaddirep t&p <f>oivitca)v tov fiev dppeva 
dvOeiv tov Be Orjkvv ovk dvOeiv d\\ y **vOv irpo- 
<f>alveiv tov teapTTov. 

Td fiev ovv T(p yevei Tavrd TOiavTrjv ttjv 81a- 

1 i.e. the pistil. 

2 i.e. as seen from above: ku\ . . . j>6t<av describes the 
corolla, K<iru0€v . . . fivx^v the undeveloped ovary, including 
the adherent calyx. 

3 f>6hwv conj. Bod. ; frowv Aid. 

4 KdrwOev . . . fivx^V I conj. ; 8' trtpoi hi* &v as /xircpbv 
fctneep ^Krtrpafxixivos k6tivos %x u)V t ^ X* 1 '*^ fivx&fiy UMVAld. 
(except that Aid. has &ru> for x*^ 7 ? an< ^ ^Krirpafifiivov : so 
also P, but iicrcTpafifihos). The sentence explains incidentally 
why the pomegranate flower was called kvtivos (cf. 2. 6. 12 ; 
CP. 1. 14. 4; 2. 9. 3 ; 2. 9. 9; Diosc. 1. 110 ; Plin. 23. 110 


Digitized by 


is why men pluck them off, for they hinder the 
growth of the cucumber. And they say that in the 
citron those flowers which have a kind of distaff 1 
growing in the middle are fruitful, but those that 
have it not are sterile. And we must consider 
whether it occurs also in any other flowering plants 
that they produce sterile flowers, whether apart 
from the fertile flowers or not. For some kinds of 
vine and pomegranate certainly are unable to mature 
their fruit, and do not produce anything beyond the 

(The flower of the pomegranate is produced abun- 
dantly and is solid 2 : in general appearance it is a 
substantial structure with a flat top, like the flower 
of the rose 3 ; but, 4 as seen from below, the inferior 
part of the flower is different-looking, being like a 
little two-eared jar turned on one side and having 
its rim indented.) 

Some say that even of plants of the same kind 5 
some specimens flower while others do not; for 
instance that the e male ' date-palm flowers but the 
e female ' does not, but exhibits its fruit without any 
antecedent flower. 

Such 6 is the difference which we find between 

and 111), i.e. because it resembled a kvtos (see LS. s.v.). T. 
chooses the particular form of jar called Mwtos, because the 

indentations between the sepals suggest this : ^J. This is 

called iKrerpafififvoty because the weight of the developing 
fruit causes it to take up at one stage a horizontal position, 
like a jar lying on its side ; x*^ 7 ? refers to the jar (for the 
plural c/. the use of &vrvy ts), fivx^v to the indentations in 
the calyx (a jar having ordinarily an unindented rim). 

5 dfioywatp conj. Sch.; dfxoioyevocv Aid. 

6 ravrh roiavri\v 1 conj. from G ; roiavra r))v UM ; 
roiavrriv P. 


Digitized by 


(popap €X€i, /caOdirep o\g>? oaa fitj Svparai TeXeo- 
fcapirelv. fj Be tov avdovs (jyvais otl irXeiovs e^ei 
8ia(f)opa<? <j>av€p6v i/c t&p 7rpo€Lpr)jjL€pcop. 

XIV. Ata(f)€p€L Be tcl BepBpa /cat to?9 tolovtoi? 
Kara ttjp /capiroTO/ciav tcl pep yap i/c t&p peeop 
fiXao-T&p <j>ep€i tcl 8' i/c t&p evwp tcl 8* i£ apxfro- 
Tepcov. i/c /jlcp t&p vecov av/crj afnreXov i/c Be t&p 
evwv iXda pba firjXia dfivyBaXij aino^ fivppipo? 
/cat cxeBbv tcl toiclvto, it opt a* i/c Be t&p vecov 
edv apa ti <rv/j,/3f} /cvfjaai /cat dvdrjaai (yiveTai 
yap teal TavT eviois, &airep teal t$ [ivppLv(p /cal 
fid\i(T0 y a>? elirelv irepl ra? ftXaGTrjaet,*; ra? fi€T 
'Ap/CTOvpov) ov BvvaTai TeXeovp dXX* rj/Myeprj 
<f>0eipeTar eg dfi<f>OT€pa>p Be /cat t&p Hvcop teal t&p 
pccop et tlpc? apa firjXeai t&p Bi<f>6pa>p rj el ti 
aXXo /cdpin/JLOP' eTi Be 6 oXvpOo? i/cireTTWP koX 
av/ca <f)epa>p etc t&p vecov. 
2 'iBicdTaTrj B% f] i/c tov CTeXexovs e/ccfyvtri^, 
&<T7T€p T7)<; ip AlyviTT<p (Tvicafupov TavTrjp yap 
<paai <f>ep€ip etc tov aTeXe^pv^* ol Be Tavrrj tc /cal 
etc t&p dtcpefiopwp, &airep ttjp fcepwvlav avTrj yap 
/cat i/c tovtmp <f>ep€i ttXtjp oi ttoXvp* /caXovai Be 
/ceptoPiap d<fi fj$ tcl o'v/ca tcl AiyvirTLa /caXov/jbeva. 

1 ? i.e. that, like the * female' date-palm, they have no 

2 roiouTO iravTO* 4 k 8c rwv vtwv lav &pa ti conj. W. ; toioCto* 
travra yap 4k rSov (vtov 4av 5e &pa ti MSS. 

3 cf. 3. 5. 4. 

4 hi<p6ptav conj. Sch. from G ; faa#6puv UAld. 

9 6 

Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xm. 5-xiv. 2 

plants of the same kind ; and the like may be said 1 
in general of those which cannot mature their fruit. 
And it is plain from what has been said that flowers 
shew many differences of character. 

Differences in fruits. 

XIV. Again as to the production of fruit trees 
differ in the following respects. Some bear on their 
new shoots, some on last year's wood, some on both. 
Fig and vine bear on their new shoots ; on last year's 
wood olive pomegranate apple almond pear myrtle 
and almost all such trees. And, if any of these does 2 
happen to conceive and to produce flowers on its new 
shoots, (for this does occur in some cases, as with 
myrtle, and especially, one may say, in the growth 
which is made after the rising of Arcturus) 3 it can 
not bring them to perfection, but they perish half- 
formed. Some apples again of the twice-bearing 4 
kinds and certain other fruit-trees bear both on last 
year's wood and on the new shoots ; and so does the 
olynthos* which ripens its fruit as well as bearing figs 
on the new shoots. 

Most peculiar is the growth of fruit direct from 
the stem, as in the sycamore ; for this, they say, 
bears fruit on the stem. Others say that it bears 
both in this way and 6 also on the branches, like the 
carob ; for the latter bears on the branches too, 
though not abundantly : (the name carob is given to 
the tree which produces what are called ( Egyptian 

5 6\vv6os is not elsewhere used for a kind of fig : tri 8e 

CVKT) TOVS 6\VV60VS £/CW€TTOV<TA KCtl ffVKCl QfpOVffO, COnj. Sell. 

somewhat drastically. 

8 rafori re ko\ 4k conj. W.; towttjs filv 4k UMVAld. cf, 
4. 2. 4. 


VOL. I. H 

Digitized by 


€<tti 8k Kal ra pJkv a/cpo/cap7ra r&v 8ev8pa>v Kal 
5\g>9 r&v <f>VT&v ra 8k rrXayioKapira ra 8* ajufx)- 
ripa)$» irXeia) 5* afcpotcapira r&v aWcov rj r&v 
8ev8pwv, olov r&v re airr)p&v ra ara^ycoSrj /cal 
r&v 0a/jLVG>8&v ipei/ct) /cal aireipaia Kal ayvos /cal 
aA,V arra /cal r&v \a%ai/a>8(5i> ra /ce<j>a\6ppi£a. 
eg ap,(f)OT€pa)p 8k /cal r&v SevSpoov evia /cal r&v 
XaxavooS&v, olov /SXirov ahpcufiagvs paxfcavor 
iirel /cal ekda rroiei 7Tft>9 rovro, /cal <f>aai,v orav 
a/cpov ivey/cy arjfielov evfyoplas elvai. a/cpo- 
/capiTO? 84 7tg>9 Kal 6 <f>olvil;' ttXtjv rovro ye /cal 
a/cp6<j>v\\ov xal a/cpo/SXaarov o\a>9 yap ev r<p 
dva> rrav to %a>ri/cov. ra9 fiev olv Kara <ra> 
pApr) 8ia<fiopa<; rteipareov ex rovrmv decapelv. 
3 Al 8k roiavrai rf}$ 0X179 ovaia? <f>aivovrar 8rj\ov 
ore rh p,kv rjfjuepa ra 8 y aypia* Kal ret p,kv Kapmpui 
ra 8' aKapira* Kal detyvWa Kal fyvKkoftoka* 
KaOairep iXexdrj, ra 8* o\g>9 a<f>v\\a* xal ra p,kv 
avdrjriKa ra 8' avavOrj* Kal 7rpm/3\ao"ri] Be Kal 
Trpcot/capira ra 8k oyjrt^Xaarrj Kal oyjrLKapira* 
tiaavrax; 8k Kal oo-a wapairXtfaia rovrow. KaL 
7TCD9 ra ye roiavra ev T049 p^kpeaw fj ovk avev r&v 
fiep&v icr iv. a\\' ixeLvrj IBicordri) Kal rporrov nva 
fjueyiarrj Sidaraat^, fjirep Kal eirl r&v ^cocov, on ra 
fikv evv8pa ra 8k ^epcala* Kal yap r&v <f>vr&v 

1 Plin. 16. 112. 

2 rovro conj. Sch. ; rourov UAld. ; rovrov M. 
• ret add. W.; cf. 1. 13. 1. 


Digitized by 


figs '). 1 Again some trees, and some plants in general, 
produce fruit at the top, others at the sides, others in 
both ways. But bearing fruit at the top is less 
common in trees than in other plants, as among 
grains in those which have an ear, among shrubby 
plants in heath privet chaste tree and certain others, 
and among pot-herbs in those with a bulbous 
root. Among plants which bear both on the top 
and at the sides are certain trees and certain pot- 
herbs, as blite orach cabbage. I say trees, since 
the olive does this too in a way, and they say that, 
when it bears at the top, it is a sign of fruitfulness. 
The date-palm too bears at the top, in a sense, but 
this 2 tree also has its leaves and shoots at the top ; 
indeed it is in the top that its whole activity is 
seen. Thus we must endeavour to study in the 
light of the instances mentioned the differences seen 
in the 8 various parts of the plant. 

General differences (affecting the whole plant). 
But there appear to be the following differences 
which affect the plant's whole being : some are culti- 
vated, some wild ; some fruitful, some barren ; some 
evergreen, some deciduous, as was said, while some 
again have no leaves at all ; some are flowering plants, 
some flowerless ; some are early, some late in producing ' 
their shoots and fruits ; and there are other differences 
similar to these. Now it may be said that 4 such 
differences are seen in the parts, or at least that 
particular parts are concerned in them. But the 
special, and in a way the most important distinction 
is one which may be seen in animals too, namely, 
that some are of the water, some of the land. For 

4 Kal irwi t<£ 76 roiavra conj. Sch. ; koI icStv rd y* ravra U ; 
teal ret 7c roiavra Aid. 

Digitized by 


€<tti tl tolovtop 761/09 b ov BvpaTai <f>vea6ai <firj> 
iv vyp&* tcl Bk <f>v€TCU /i€P, oi>x o/xoia Be dXXd 
%et/)a>. irdvTcop Be t&p BepSpcop a>9 aTrX&s elirelp 
kciX t&p <f>VT&p etBrj irXeio) Tvyydpei icaff* etcaarop 
7€i/09* a%€Bbp yap ovBep iarip dirXovv dXlC oaa 
fjuev fjfiepa teal dypia XeyeTat ravrrfp i/A<f>ape- 
cTdrrjp teal /neyiaTTfv e^ei Bia<j>opdp, olop av/cr) 
epLPeos, ekda kotipos, amos dyjpdv oaa 8' iv 
itcaripq) tovtojp to £9 tcapTrois re teal <f>vXXoi<; teal 
Tat9 ctXXais fMpcfyals tc teal to?9 fioplois. dXXa 
t&p fi€P dypicop dpcovvfia rd TrXelaTa fcal epmeipoi 
oXiyoc t&p Be rjfiepcop koX &po/j,aa/jLepa tcl TrXeia) 
koX r) atadrjais /coiporepa* Xiyto S' olop dfiireXov 
avfcr)? poas /irjXeas diriov Bd<f>prj$ fjLvppiprjs t&p 
aXXw fj yap XPV ai< > oZaa koipt) avpdeeopeiP 
iroiel r^9 Bia<f>opd<;. 

"IBiop Be* fcal tovt e<f> e/caTepw tcl fiev yap 
aypia tg> appevi koX t& OrjXeL fj /jlovol? fj fidXiaTa 
Biaipovai, tcl Be r^iepa irXeioaip IBeais. eaTi Be 
t&p fiep paov Xaj3eLp teal Biapi6 ] pfqaai tcl eXBrj, 
t&p Be ^a\€7Tft)Te/90V Bid ttjp iroXvyptap. 

'A\XA Br) t<Z9 fiep t&p fiopioyp Bia<f>opd<? /cat t&p 
aXXwv ovai&p etc tovtcop izeipaTeop Oeapelv. irepl 
Be t&p yepeaecop fieTa Tavra Xe/CTeop* tovto ydp 
axnrep i<j>€%r)<} to?9 elprj/iepoi? eaTiP. 


Digitized by 


of plants too there is a class which cannot grow 
except 1 in moisture, while others will indeed grow 
on dry land, but they lose their character and are 
inferior. Again of all trees, one might almost say, 
and of all plants there are several forms to each kind ; 
for hardly any kind contains but a single form. But 
the plants which are called respectively cultivated 
and wild shew this difference in the clearest and 
most emphatic way, for instance the cultivated and 
wild forms of fig olive and pear. In each of these 
pairs there are differences in fruit and leaves, and in 
their forms and parts generally. But most of the 
wild kinds have no names and few know about them, 
while most of the cultivated kinds have received 
names 2 and they are more commonly observed ; I 
mean such plants as vine fig pomegranate apple pear 
bay myrtle and so forth ; for, as many people make 
use of them, they are led also to study the differences. 

But there is this peculiarity as to the two classes 
respectively ; in the wild kinds men find only or 
chiefly the distinction of ' male ' and ' female,* while 
in the cultivated sorts they recognise a number of 
distinguishing features. In the former case it is 
easy to mark and count up the different forms, in the 
latter it is harder because the points of difference are 

However we have said enough for study of the 
differences between parts and between general 
characters. We must now speak of the methods of 
growth, for this subject comes naturally after what 
has been said. 

1 add. W. 

2 ivofta<rfi4pa tA irAcfw conj. Sch. ; utvoftcurfievwv irAc/w Aid. 


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Digitized by GoogI 


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I. At yeveaets to)v BevBpwv /ecu oA,g>9 t&v 
<f)VT&v fj avrofiarai fj dirb cnrepfiaTo? fj dirb 
pi£rj$ fj dirb Trapa<rirdBo<; fj dirb a/cpefiovos fj 
dirb /cA,a>i/09 fj air avTov rov areXe^ovs elatv, fj 
en rov %vXov KCLTdtcoirevT 09 et9 fiifcpd' teal yap 
ovt(d<s evia <f>v€Tai. tovtodv Bk fj jiev avTOjiaros 
Trpcorrj Tt9, at Be dirb (nrepfiaros /cat pCfos <f>v<ri- 
tccorarai Bb^aiev av &<rirep yap avrbfiarat /cat 
avrai* Bl b teal rot9 ay plots inrdp^ovaiv ai he 
aXXai Te'xyrjS fj Brj irpoaLpeaeoa^, 
2 * ' Kiravra Bk {JXaardvei, Kara riva r&v rpoTrow 
tovtcov, ra Be* 7ro\\a teaTa irXeiov^' iXda fiev 
yap TrdvToo? <f>v€rac ttXtjv airb rov tcXcovos' ov 
yap Bvvarai KaTairrjyvvfievrj, icaOdirep fj vvtcrj 
t^9 KpdBrj? teal fj poa rfj^ pdfiBov. tcatroi <f>aai 
ye rives fjBrj teal yapanos irayeLarjs teal irpbs rov 
tctrrbv cvji^i&aat teal yeveadat BevBpov dXXd 
airdviov Tt to tolovtov Odrepa Be vd iroXKa rfjs 
cf)V(T€co<;. avKrj Be rov? fiev aXXov? rpoirovs 

1 tvui Qfarai conj. Sch.; kvcupvcTat Aid. 


Digitized by 


Of Propagation, especially of Trees. 

Of the ways in which trees and plants originate. Instances of 
degeneration from seed. 

I. The ways in which trees and plants in general 
originate are these : — spontaneous growth, growth 
from seed, from a root, from a piece torn off, from a 
branch or twig, from the trunk itself; or again from 
small pieces into which the wood is cut up (for some 
trees can be produced 1 even in this manner). Of 
these methods spontaneous growth comes first, one 
may say, but growth from seed or root would seem 
most natural; indeed these methods too may be 
called spontaneous ; wherefore they are found even 
in wild kinds, while the remaining methods depend 
on human skill or at least on human choice. 

However all plants start in one or other of these 
ways, and most of them in more than one. Thus the 
olive is grown in all the ways mentioned, except 
from a twig ; for an olive-twig will not grow if it is 
set in the ground, as a fig or pomegranate will grow 
from their young shoots. Not but what some say 
that cases have been known in which, when a stake 
of olive-wood was planted to support ivy, it actually 
lived along with it and became a tree ; but such 
an instance is a rare exception, while the other 
methods of growth are in most cases the natural 
ones. The fig grows in all the ways mentioned, 


Digitized by 


<f>v€Tcu irdvTas, dirb Be t&v irpefivoov teal t&v 
^vXcov ov (frverac firfkea Be teal airios teal dirb 
t&v atcpe/JLOPoov crraviw. ov firjv dXXd rd ye 
iroXXd r) irdvS* a>9 eiirelv evBiyeadaL Botcel teal 
dirb TovTtov, idv Xeioi teal veoi teal evavgel? waiv. 
dXXd (f>vattc(OT€paL ireo? itcetvar to Be* evBexofievov 
a>9 Bvvarbv XyirTeov. 

3 f/ 0\ft>9 yap oXlya ra dirb t&v aveo jidXXov 
ftXaaTavovTa teal yeweb/xeva, tcaddirep afiireXo? 
dirb t&v tcXrjfjidTcov 9 avTrj yap oitc dirb Trfc 
Trpdopa? aU' dirb tov teXr)iuiTo<; <f>v€Tai, teal el By 
Tt toiovtov eTepov fj BevBpov fj <f>pvyav&Be<;, &<T7T€p 
Botcel to T€ inf/avov teal fj latvia teal to acavfi- 
fipcop teal 6 epirvXXos teal to eXeviov. tcowoTaTr) 
fiev otfV cctI irao-iv r\ T€ dirb Trj<; irapaairdBo^ teal 
dirb crrepiLaTO*;. diravTa yap 6 a a eyei airepfJiaTa 
teal dirb airepfuiTO^ yiveTar dirb Be irapaairdBo^ 
teal ttjv Bd<f>vrjv <j>aciv, idv t^9 Ta epvrf irapeXcov 
(f>VT€varj. Bel Be viroppi^ov eXvai fidXio'Td ye to 
Trapaaircofievov fj viroirpefivov, ov firjv dXXd teal 
avev tovtov deXei ftXacTaveiv teal poa teal fJLrjXea 
eapivr\ % fSXaaTavei Be teal dfivyBaXrj <f>VT€Vop.evrj. 

4 KaTa irXeCaTOvs Be* T/00V01/9 a>9 elirelv rj iXda 
fSXaaTavei* teal yap dirb tov GTeXe^ovs teal dirb 
tov irpifMvov tcaTatcoiTTOfievov teal airb t^9 pt&S 
[ko\ dirb tov f»vXov] teal dirb pdfiBov teal ydp aK °S 
&airep eiprjTai. t&v 8* aXXeov 6 fivpptvo^ teal 
yap o5to9 dirb t&v ^vXcov teal t&v irpifivoyv 

1 t<£ 7« no\\a wdvd' conj. Sch.; t) before vdvlP ins. St.; rd 
T€ ?ro A Act irdvd* Aid. 

8 tvav^Ts conj. H ; av|ets UMVAld. 
3 ovk I conj. ; ow5' MSS. 


Digitized by 


except from root-stock and cleft wood ; apple and 
pear grow also from branches, but rarely. However 
it appears that most, if not practically all, 1 trees may 
grow from branches, if these are smooth young and 
vigorous. 2 But the other methods, one may say, are 
more natural, and we must reckon what may 
occasionally occur as a mere possibility. 

In fact there are quite few plants which grow and 
are brought into being more easily from the upper 
parts, as the vine is grown from branches ; for this, 
though it cannot 3 be grown from the ' head/ 4 yet 
can be grown from the branch, as can all similar 
trees and under-shrubs, for instance, as it appears, 
rue gilliflower bergamot-mint tufted thyme cala- 
mint. So the commonest ways of growth with all 
plants are from a piece torn off or from seed ; for all 
plants that have seeds grow also from seed. And 
they say that the bay too grows 5 from a piece 
torn off, if one takes off the young shoots and plants 
them; but it is necessary that the piece torn off 
should have part of the root or stock 6 attached to it. 
However the pomegranate and ' spring apple ' 7 will 
grow even without this, and a slip of almond 8 grows 
if it is planted. The olive grows, one may say, in 
more ways than any other plant ; it grows from a 
piece of the trunk or of the stock, 9 from the root, 
from a twig, and from a stake, as has been said. 10 Of 
other plants the myrtle also can be propagated in 
several ways ; for this too grows from pieces of wood 

4 xpwpas, cf. Col. 3. 10. 1, caput iritis vocat xpwpav. Sch. 
restores the word, CP. 3. 14. 7. 

6 cf. CP. 1. 3. 2. 6 i.e. a 'heel' (Lat. perna). 

7 cf. CP. 2. 11. 6 ; Athen. 3. 23. 8 cf Oeop. 10. 3. 9. 

9 koI axb rov |uAow ora. Julius Pontedeva on Varro 1. 39. 3 : 
a gloss on axb rod xpefxvov Karate. 10 2. 1. 2. 


Digitized by 


efrverat,. Bel Be /cal rovrov /ecu rrj<; ekdas ret %v\a 
Biaipelv fir) eXdrreo cnrida/Maicov /cal rov <f>\oibp 
fit) irepiaipelv. 

fjicp ovv BevBpa ffXaardvei /cal yiverai /caret 
row etprjfjievovs rpoirov^ ai yap ipxfrvreiai /ca\ 
oi €vo(f)0a\fM<T/jLol icaddirep /ugeis rivi? eiaiv 
fj /ear aKkov rpoirov yeveaeis, irepl &v varepov 


II. Tcov Be (frpvyavcoB&p /cal troieoB&v ret fiev 
TrXeta-ra dirb airep^aro^ fj pifa? ra Be /cal 
dpxl>OT€pco<r evia he /cai dirb tg>v jSXaar&v, &cnrep 
elprjTai, poBeovia Be /cai /cpiveovia. KaraKoirevreov 
r&v /cav\a>v, <b<nrep /cal f] aypaxrrt^. (frverai Be 
rj KpwtovLa /cal rj poBwvLa /cal o\ov rov /cavkov 
redevTos. IBuoTdrr) Be rj dirb Ba/cpvov /cal yap 
ovreo Bo/cel to Kpivov <j>ve<rOai t orav IjrjpavOf} rb 
diroppvev. <j>aoi B& /cal eirl rov iiriroaeklvov 
/cal yap tovto d$lr)<ji Bd/cpvov. <f>verai Be ti? 
/cal /cdkafios, edv ti$ Biarijivcop rd? rfKa/caTa^ 
7r\aywi9 ndrj /cal /eara/epvyfry /co7rp<p /cal yfj. 
IBlw Be dirb pity)$ [t$] <j>veo-0ai /cal ra /ce<f>a- 

2 Toaavraxw Be over}? rrj<; Bvvdfiews ra fiev 
iroWa reov BevBpoav, &airep eXex^V trporepov, ev 
ir\eiocri Tpoirois <j>v€rar evta Be airb cnrepfiaro^ 

J ifxtyxnuai conj. R. Const.; l/j.<pv\€ai (with erasures) U; 
i/x<bv\tlat V; ift<pv\€?at Aid. 
8 2. 1. 3; cf. CP. 1.4. 4 and 6. 

8 i.e. bulbil, cf. 6. 6. 8 ; 9. 1. 4 ; CP. 1. 4. 6 ; Plin. 21. 24. 

4 M conj. W.; P 2 Ald. 

5 5^ ris irol Aid,; ris om. W. after Sch. 


Digitized by 


and also from pieces of the stock. It is necessary 
however with this, as with the olive, to cut up the 
wood into pieces not less than a span long and not to 
strip off the bark. 

Trees then grow and come into being in the above- 
mentioned ways ; for as to methods of grafting 1 and 
inoculation, these are, as it were, combinations of 
different kinds of trees ; or at all events these are 
methods of growth of a quite different class and 
must be treated of at a later stage. 

II. Of under-shrubs and herbaceous plants the 
greater part grow from seed or a root, and some in 
both ways ; some of them also grow from cuttings, 
as has been said, 2 while roses and lilies grow from 
pieces of the stems, as also does dog's-tooth grass. 
Lilies and roses also grow when the whole stem is 
set. Most peculiar is the method of growth from an 
exudation 8 ; for it appears that the lily grows in 
this way too, when the exudation that has been 
produced has dried up. They say the same of 4 
alexanders, for this too produces an exudation. 
There is a certain 5 reed also which grows if one cuts 
it in lengths from joint to joint and sets them 6 
sideways, burying it in dung and soil. Again they 
say that plants which have a bulbous root are 
peculiar in their way of growing 7 from the root. 

The capacity for growth being shewn in so many 
ways, most trees, as was said before, 8 originate in 
several ways; but some come 9 only from seed, as silver- 

6 cf. 1. 4. 4 ; Plin. 17. 145 ; CoL 4. 32. 2 ; ridy conj. Sch.; 
} Aid.; 

7 i.e. by offset bulbs. Text probably defective; cf. CP. 
1. 4. 1. t$U; rfcUMV. « 2. 1. 1. 

9 <t>6*Tai I conj. ; <prtolv 4(ttiv or <paalv 4<rriy MSS. ; ws <paaly 
iffTiv Aid. ; irapaylverai conj. W. 


Digitized by 

<f>v€Tai fiovov, olov iXdrr] neuter] ttltv? 0X6)9 vrav 

TO /CG>VO<f)6pOV €Tl 8k fCal <f>OLVL^, TrXrjV el &pa €V 

HaftvXcbvi /cal atrb r&v pdfiBow [0)9] <$>aai rive? 
fioXeveiv. KwrrapnTOS 8k irapd fiev Tofc a\\oi$ 
diro airkppxnos, ev]Trj 8k /cal diro rod areXe- 
X ov $> °^ ov €7rl T % opeia^ ev Tdppa' irapa tovtoi<$ 
yap ear cp r) Kovpi^ofievrj /cwirapunov avrrj Be cltto 
t?)9 TOfirjs ISXavrdvei iravra rpoirov refivofievrj 
/cal diro 7779 /cal diro rov fieaov /cal cltto tov dvoy- 
repw fiXacrdvei Be iviaxov /cal diro r&v pt^tov 
CTraPLG)? Be. 

He pi Be Bpvbs dfifaa /SrjTovaiv' oi fikv yap airo 
airepluiTOS <f>aat fiovov, oi Be teal diro pi£v? 
yXiaypw oi 8k Ka\ dir avrov rov areXexovs 
KoirevTos. diro irapaairdBo^ 8k zeal pifos oiBev 
<j>verai r&v fir) irapa ffXaaravovreov. 

'Airavrcov 8k oaoov irXeiovs ai yeveaet^, r) diro 
Trapao-TrdBo? teal en fwXKov r) diro 7rapa<f)vd8o$ 
raxio'Trj real evavgrjs, edv diro /m£i?9 r) 7rapa<f>vd<; 
j). /cal rd fiev ovt<o$ t) 0X0)9 diro ^vrevrrfprnv 

7T€<f)VT€Vfl€Va TTOVTa BofCel TOU9 KapTTOVS i^ofioiovv. 

oaa 8* diro rov /capirov r&v Bvvafievoav /cal ovtw 
fHXavrdveLVy diravff o>9 ehrelv %€&/oo>, rd Be /cal 
0X0)9 e^io-TaTai rov yevovs, olov afiireXo? firjXea 
av/cr) poid amor e/c re ydp t^9 tceyxpafuBo? oiBev 
yiverai yevos 0X0)9 rjfiepov, aXX' r) ipiveb? rj 
dypLa av/ci), SuLcfyepovaa iroXXd/ci? /cal rf) XP oia * 
/cal yap e/c fieXaivrjs Xev/cr) /cal e/c Xev/cfj? fieXacva 

1 fxoXtvtLv conj. Sch.; fiwXveiv MSS.; fio<rx*6*w conj. R- 
CJonst. {cf. CP. 1. 2 1). But cf. Hesych. a.v. ftoXcfciv. 

2 Plin. 16. 141. 8 4*1 conj. W.; rb UMVAld. 


Digitized by 


fir fir Aleppo pine, and in general all those that bear 
cones : also the date-palm, except that in Babylon it 
may be that, as some say, they take cuttings 1 from 
it. The cypress in most regions grows from seed, 
but in Crete 2 from the trunk also, for instance in 8 
the hill country about Tarra ; for there grows the 
cypress which they clip, and when cut it shoots in 
every possible way, from the part which has been cut, 
from the ground, from the middle, and from the 
upper parts; and occasionally, but rarely, it shoots 
from the roots also. 

About the oak accounts differ; some say it only 
grows from seed, some from the root also, but not 
vigorously, others again that it grows from the trunk 
itself, when this is cut. But no tree grows from a 
piece torn off or from a root except those which 
make side-growths. 

However in all the trees which have several 
methods of originating the quickest method and that 
which promotes the most vigorous growth is from a 
piece torn off, or still better from a sucker, if this is 
taken from the root. And, while all the trees which 
are propagated thus or by some kind of slip 4 seem to 
be alike in their fruits to the original tree, those raised 
from the fruit, where this method of growing is also 
possible, are nearly all inferior, while some quite lose 
the character of their kind, as vine apple fig pome- 
granate pear. As for the fig, 5 no cultivated kind is 
raised from its seed, but either the ordinary wild fig 
or some wild kind is the result, and this often 
differs in colour from the parent ; a black fig gives a 

4 (pvrtvT^pioy : a general term including *apa<pvds and 

5 cf. CP. 1. 9. 


Digitized by 


yiveTar etc T€ rfj? a/xirikov Trjs yevvaia? dyevvrj?' 
/ecu TToWd/ci? CTepov yevov ore Se oXco? ovSev 
rjpbepov dXX' aypiov iviore zeal toiovtov &<tt€ p,r) 
i/C7T€TT€iv tov Kapuov* ai S* &cne pujSe dSpvveiv 
dXXd pueyjpi tov dv0r)aai puovov d<f>iKveia0ai. 

5 <$>vovrai Se Kal i/c t&v rr}? iXdas irvprjvtov 
dypieXaios, /cat i/c t&v T779 poas kokkcov tcov 
yXvKecov dyewels, /ecu i/c tcov dirvprjvcov crKXrjpai, 
iroXXaKis Se /cal ogetat. tov airbv Se rpoirov 
zeal i/c tcov diricov /ecu i/c tcov purfXecov i/c puev yap 
tcov diricov p,o%0r)pd r) d%pd<;, i/c Se tcov firjXecov 
^eLpcov T€ T<p yevei /cal i/c y\v/ceia<; ogela, /cal i/c 
crTpovQiov JLvScovio?. "fcelpcov Se Kal r) dpLvySaXrj 
/cal tco %t>\£ /cal Tcp a/c\rjpa i/c paXa/cr}?* Si b 
/cal av^rjOeiaav iy/cevTpifciv KeXevovaiv, el Se pur) 
to pb6axevp,a pL€Ta<f>VT€veiv iroXkd/ci<s. 

6 Xeipcov Se Kal r) Spv$' dirb yovv tt)<; iv Uvppa, 
ttoXXoI <f)VT€vaavT€<; ov/c iSvvavff* 6/10 lav iroieiv, 
Sd(f>vr)v Se Kal pbvppivrjv Siaxfrepeiv ttotc <f>acriv, o>9 
iirl to iroXii ijjiaTaadat Kal oiSe to ^(pcofxa 
Siaacb£eiv, dXX? ii; ipvOpov Kapirov yiveaOat 
pbeXaivav, coairep Kal Trjv iv 'AvTavSpqy 7roXXdKt,$ 
Se Kal Trjv KvirdpiTTOV i/c OrjXeias dppeva. 
pbdXiaTa Se tovtcov 6 <f>oivi^ Sokci Siapueveiv 
coairep elirelv TeXeLco? t&v dirb cnreppjiTos, Kal 
irex/Krj r) Kcovocf>6po<; Kal 7r6TU? r) <f>0eipoTTOi6<;. 
TavTa puev ovv iv rofc rjfiepco/ievoi*;. iv Se rot? 

1 <p6ovTai conj. W. ; <f>vr€vovrai Ald.H.; <pverai Vo.cod.Cas. 

2 yXvicecov conj. St. ; yKauKtwv UMVAld. 

3 cf Athen. 3. 20 and 23. 4 cf. CP. 1. 9. 1. 
6 In Lesbos ; cf. 3. 9. 5. 6 cf. CP. 1. 9. 2. 


Digitized by 


white, and conversely. Again the seed of an excel- 
lent vine produces a degenerate result, which is 
often of quite a different kind ; and at times this is 
not a cultivated kind at all, but a wild one of such a 
character that it does not ripen its fruit ; with others 
again the result is that the seedlings do not even 
mature fruit, but only get as far as flowering. 

Again the stones of the olive give 1 a wild olive, 
and the seeds of a sweet pomegranate 2 give a 
degenerate kind, while the stoneless kind gives a 
hard sort and often an acid fruit. So also is it with 
seedlings of pears and apples ; pears give a poor sort 
of wild pears, apples produce an inferior kind which is 
acid instead of sweet ; quince produces wild quince. 8 
Almond again raised from seed is inferior in taste and 
in being hard instead of soft ; and this is why men 4 
bid us graft on to the almond, even when it is fully 
grown, or, failing that, frequently plant the offsets. 

The oak also deteriorates from seed ; at least 
many persons having raised trees from acorns of the 
oak at Pyrrha 6 could not produce one like the 
parent tree. On the other hand they say that bay 
and myrtle sometimes improve by seeding, though 
usually they degenerate and do not even keep their 
colour, but red fruit gives black — as happened with 
the tree in Antandros ; and frequently seed of a 
' female ' cypress produces a ' male ' tree. The date- 
palm seems to be about the most constant of these 
trees, when raised from seed, and also the ' cone- 
bearing pine ' 6 (stone-pine) and the ' lice-bearing 
pine/ 7 So much for degeneration in cultivated trees; 
among wild kinds it is plain that more in proportion 

7 Plin. 16. 49. The * lice ' are the seeds which were eaten. 
cf. Hdt. 4. 109, tpBttpoTpayiovai ; Theocr. 5. 49. 

VOL. I. I 

Digitized by 


dypLoi? hrjkov ore irXeieo /caret \oyov d>9 layvpo- 
repot,?* i*rrel Odrepov ye /cal droirov, el ht) xeipco 
/cal iv i/eeivoi? /cal o\g>? iv rot? airo airepfiaro? 
fiovov* el fir} rt rfj depaireia hvvavrai fiera- 

Aicupipovcn Be /cal roiroi roirtov /cal arjp aepor 
h)ia%ov yap i/c<f>ipeiv rj x<i>pa ho/cei ret op,oia, 
Kadarrep /cal ev Qfidrnroi,*; 9 avdirakiv oklya /cal 
okiyaxov Xafifidveiv fierafioXtfv, &o~re i/c airep- 
fiaro? dypiov iroielv tf/uepov fj i/c xelpovo? a7r\<5>9 
ftiknov rovro yap iirl rr}$ poa$ fiovov d/crj/coajiev 
iv Klyvirrep /cal iv KcXiklcl avfi/Saiveiv iv 
AlyvTTrtp fiev yap rrjv o%elav /cal airapelaav real 
fyvrevQelaav y\v/celav ylveadai wco? tj olvcbhrj* 
rrepl hi *Z6\ov$ rf}$ TZi\i/da$ irepl worafibv rbv 
TLivapov, ov 17 fidxv 7r/?o? Aapelov iyivero, iraaai 
yivovrai dirvprfvoc. 

EvXoyov hi /cal el Tt? rbv nap r/ficov <f>oivi/ca 
<f>vrevot iv Jia/3v\&vi, /cdprrifiov re yiveaOai /cal 
ifjofioiovcOat, Tot? i/cet. rbv avrbv hi rpoirov /cal 
el ri$ erepa irpocrdWrfKov 6%et Kapirbv roirtp 9 
/cpeirrcov yap ovros rr)$ ipyaaia? /cal tt}? Oepa- 
Treias. arffietov h' on fierat^epofjueva rd/celOev 
a/capira rh hi /cal o\a>? d^\aoT7j yiverai. 

MerafidWei hi /cal rfj rpo<f>fj /cal hict rrjv 

1 i.e. that they should improve from seed. 

2 Whereas wild trees are produced only from seed. 
8 i.e. improve a degenerate seedling. 

4 airX&s : ? om. Sch. 6 cf. CP. 1. 9. 2. 


Digitized by 


degenerate from seed, since the parent trees are 
stronger. For the contrary 1 would be very strange, 
seeing that degenerate forms are found even in 
cultivated trees, 2 and among these only in those 
which are raised from seed. (As a general rule these 
are degenerate, though men may in some cases effect 
a change 8 by cultivation). 

Effects of situation, climate, tendance. 

Again differences in situation and climate affect the 
result. In some places, as at Philippi, the soil seems 
to produce plants which resemble their parent ; on 
the other hand a few kinds in some few places seem 
to undergo a change, so that wild seed gives a 
cultivated form, or a poor form one actually better. 4 
We have heard that this occurs, but only with the 
pomegranate, in Egypt 6 and Cilicia ; in Egypt a tree 
of the acid kind both from seeds and from cuttings 
produces one whose fruit has a sort of sweet taste, 6 
while about Soli in Cilicia near the river Pinaros 
(where the battle with Darius was fought) all those 
pomegranates raised from seed are without stones. 

If anyone were to plant our palm at Babylon, it is 
reasonable to expect that it would become fruitful 
and like the palms of that country. And so would it 
be with any other country which has fruits that are 
congenial to that particular locality ; for the locality 7 
is more important than cultivation and tendance. 
A proof of this is the fact that things transplanted 
thence become unfruitful, and in some cases refuse 
to grow altogether. 

There are also modifications due to feeding 8 and 

8 Or * wine-like.' Cited by Apollon. Hist. Mir. 43. 

7 olros conj. W. ; avrbs Aid. 

8 tJ rpo<f>% conj. W. ; rrjs rpoQrjs UMVAld. 

1 1 5 

1 2 

Digitized by 


dXXrjv eirifieXeiav, oh teal to dyptov igrjfiepovTcu 
/cal avr&v Be t&v fjfiepcov evia cnraypiovTat,, olov 
poa teal dfivyBaXij. 77817 Be rives /cal e/c icpiQ&v 
dva^vval <j>aai irvpov? /cal e/c irvp&v /cpiOd? /cal 

10 eirl rov avrov irvdfievos afufxo. Tavra fiev ofiv 
d>9 fivdcoBeaTepa Bel Be^eaOai, fiera/SaXXei B 9 
ovv ra fieTafiaXkovTa rov rpoirov tovtov avro- 
fidrw igaXXayf) Be ^dopa?, &cirep ev Klyvirrcp 
teal JZtkifda irepl t&v po&v etirofiev, ovBe Bid 
fiiav Oepaireiav. 

c f2<7auTa)5 Be real ottov rd Kapirtfia a/capira 
yiveTcu, /caOdirep to irepaiov to eg AlyvirTov zeal 
6 <j>oivt^ ev Tjj 'tLXXaBt, teal el Brj t*9 /cofdaeie ttjv 
ev Kpifrr) Xeyofievrjv alyeipov. evioi Bi <f>aai /cal 
Trjv orjv edv eh dXeeivbv eXOrj crfyoBpa tottov 
a/capirov yiveadar (frvcrei yap yjrvypov. evXoyov 
Bk dfi<f>0Tepa avfiftaiveiv /card t«9 ivavridoaeis, 
eiirep firjB oXax; evia <f>vea0ai 9ek£i fieTafidX- 
XovTa tou9 T07TOU9. fcal /card fiev t^9 %«ty)a9 
ai TOiavTai fieTafioXaL 

11 Kara Be ttjv <f>VT€iav rd dirb t&v airepfidrtov 
<f>VT€v6fieva, KaOdirep eXe^V' iravToiai ydp ai 
igaXXayal teal tovtwv* tt} depairelq Be* /i€Ta- 
ftdXXei poa teal dfivyBaXrj* poa fiev /cbizpov veiav 
XafHovaa ical vBaTO? irXfjOos pVTOv* dfivyBaXij Bk 
OTav iraTTaXov TJ9 evOfj, teal to Bdicpvov a<f>atpfj 
to iirtppeov nrXelco yjpovov /cal ttjv aXXrjv diroBiBfy 

1 tvta biraypiovrai olov conj. W.; tvia kcl\ faopy re fi6a UV; 
i. Kal anopfi rk f>6a M ; i. koI hvoppu rh, j)6a Aid. 

2 i.e. cultivation has nothing to do with it. 

* 2. 2. 7. 4 cf. 3. 3. 4. 6 Plin. 17. 242. 

6 i.e. improve, cf. 2. 2. 6 ad fin. 


Digitized by 


attention of other kinds, which cause the wild to 
become cultivated, or again cause some cultivated 
kinds to go wild, 1 such as pomegranate and almond. 
Some say that wheat has been known to be produced 
from barley, and barley from wheat, or again both 
growing on the same stool ; but these accounts should 
be taken as fabulous. Anyhow those things which do 
change in this manner* do so spontaneously, 2 and the 
alteration is due to a change of position (as we said 3 
happens with pomegranates in Egypt and Cilicia), 
and not to any particular method of cultivation. 

So too is it when fruit-bearing trees become un- 
fruitful, for instance the persion when moved from 
Egypt, the date-palm when planted in Hellas, or the 
tree which is called e poplar* in Crete, 4 if anyone 
should transplant it. 5 Some again say that the 
sorb becomes unfruitful if it comes into a very warm 
position, since it is by nature cold-loving. It is 
reasonable to suppose that both results follow because 
the natural circumstances are reversed, seeing that 
some things entirely refuse to grow when their place 
is changed. Such are the modifications due to 

As to those due to method of culture, the changes 
which occur in things grown from seed are as was 
said ; (for with things so grown also the changes are 
of all kinds). Under cultivation the pomegranate 
and the almond change character, 6 the pomegranate 
if it receives pig-manure 7 and a great deal of river 
water, the almond if one inserts a peg and 8 removes for 
some time the gum which exudes and gives the other 

7 cf. CP. 2. 14. 2; 3. 9. 3 ; Plin. 17. 259 ; Col. 5. 10. 15 
and 16. 

8 cf. 2. 7. 6 ; CP. 1. 17. 10 ; 2. 14. 1 ; Plin. 17. 252. 


Digitized by 


12 OepaneLav. axxauTCt)? Bk BijXov otl teal o<ra 
iffyfiepovTeu t&v dypLwv rj diraypiovraL t&v 
r/jxepcov tcl p,ev yap Oepairela tcl S* dOepairevaiq 
fiera/SaWer ifsJqv et tl$ \eyoi firjBe fieTaftoXrjv 
dX\ y imhoaiv e£? to /34\tiov eivai teal %eipov ov 
yap olov re tov kotlvov iroieuv eXdav oiBe ttjv 
dyjpdBa Troielv airiov ovBe tov ipLvebv crvtcrjv. o 
yap ewl tov kotlvov <f>ao\ crvfiftaLveLv, &ct eav 
irepi/coTrel? ttjv OaXiav oXcw? fi€Ta<f>vT€v0fj <f>ep€Lv 
<f>av\[a$, fi€Ta/eLvr)crL$ ti$ yiv evai ov fieydXrj. 
TavTa fiev ovv oiroTepw? Bel \af3elv ovOev av 

III. <t>aal 6° ovv avTOfULTrfV Tivd yiveaOai t&v 
tolovtwv fi€Ta/36\r]v, ore fiev t&v Kapir&v oVe Be 
koX okw avr&v t&v BevBpcov, a /cal crrj/iela vofiL- 
tpvvw oi puavTew olov pbav ogelav yXvKeiav 
iljeveyteelv /cal yXvKeiav 6%elav /cal ttoXiv ait\&^ 
avTa Ta BevBpa fieTafidXXeiv, &aT€ eg o^eta? 
yXvKeiav yLveaOaL /cal i/c yXvKeia? ogelav yelpov 
Be to eh yXvKeiav fieTaftdWeiv. /cal i£ epiveov 
av/cfjv /cal e/c av/cf}$ epiveov yelpov Be to i/c 
av/crj*;. /cal eXaa? kotlvov xal ex kotlvov 
iXdav ffKLCTTa Be tovto. ttclXlv Be avKrjv €K 

1 icepiKoiccU conj. W. ; nrepurKoirrtis U ; 7C€piK6rm\s Aid. 

* <pav\las conj. Salm. ; <pa{t\ovs U ; 0d\os Aid. cf. Plin. 
16. 244. These olives produced little oil, but were valued 
for perfumery : see CP. 6. 8. 3 and 5 ; de odor., 15. 

» oh add. Salm.; om. MSS. (?) Ald.H. 


Digitized by Google 


attention required. In like manner plainly some wild 
things become cultivated and some cultivated things 
become wild ; for the one kind of change is due to 
cultivation, the other to neglect : — however it might 
be said that this is not a change but a natural 
development towards a better or an inferior form ; 
(for that it is not possible to make a wild olive pear 
or fig into a cultivated olive pear or fig). As to that 
indeed which is said to occur in the case of the wild 
olive, that if the tree is transplanted with its top- 
growth entirely cut off, 1 it produces e coarse olives/ 8 
this is no 8 very great change. However it can make 
no difference which way 4 one takes this. 

Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees, and of certain 

III. 5 Apart from these changes it is said that in such 
plants there is a spontaneous kind of change, some- 
times of the fruit, sometimes of the tree itself as a 
whole, and soothsayers call such changes portents. For 
instance, an acid pomegranate, it is said, may produce 
sweet fruit, and conversely; and again, in general, 
the tree itself sometimes undergoes a change, so that 
it becomes sweet 8 instead of acid, or the reverse 
happens. And the change to sweet is considered a 
worse portent. Again a wild fig may turn into a 
cultivated one, or the contrary change take place ; 
and the latter is a worse portent. So again a culti- 
vated olive may turn into a wild one, or conversely, 
but the latter change is rare. So again a white fig 

4 i.e. whether nature or man is said to cause the admitted 
change. 6 Plin. 17. 242. 

9 i.e. all the fruit are now acid instead of sweet, or the 
reverse. Sch. brackets o£e/as . . . o£etav. 


Digitized by 


XevKT)? fieXaivav Kal ite fieXaivT)? XevKrjV. ojjloicos 
Be rovro teal eirl dfiireXov. 

2 Kal ravra p,ev a>? re para zeal irapa <pvaiv vtto- 
Xap.fidvovo'iv ocr a Be avvrjOr} tcov toiovtcov ovBe 
Oavfid^ovaiv oXcor olov to ttjv Kairveiov dpbireXov 
KaXovfievrjv /cat etc fieXavos ftorpvo? Xcvkov Kal 
e/c XevKOv fieXava <pepeiv ovBe ydp oi fidvrei^ rd 
Toiavra Kpivovaiv eirel ovBe i/ceiva, irap oh 
7T€(j>VK€V 7} %dypa psraftdXXeiv, &anrep iX€%0r) 
irepl t^? poas ev Alyinrrcp' dXXd to evravOa 
dav/xacrov, Bid to fuav jjlovov rj Bvo, /ecu ravTas 
ev T<p iravrl Xpbvtp airavla^. ov /xrjv dXX* etirep 
crvp,/3aiv€i, fidXXov ev rofc Kapirol^ yivecrdai rrjv 
irapaXXayrjv i) ev 0X01$ toi$ BivBpois. 

8 'E7rel Kal Toiavrr) ti$ dragta yiverai irepl tovs 
Kapirovv olov yjBt) wore av/cfj tcl avtca e<f>vcrev eic 
tov oiriaOev t&v dpL&v Kal pba Be Kal dp,ireXo^ 
eK t&v o'reXex&v, Kal ap/ireXo*; dvev <f>vXX(ov Kaf)- 
7t6v rjveyKev, iXda Be rd /uev <j>vXXa dire/SaXe tov 
Bh Kapirov igrfveyKev b Kal ®€TTaXa> toS Heici- 
aTpdrov yeveaOai Xeyerai. avfifiaivei Be Kal Bid 
)(€ifi(ova<: tovto Kal Bi aXXa? atrial evia r&v 
Bokovvtwv elvai irapd Xoyov ovk ovtcov Be* olov 
iXda itot diroKavOela'a TeXeco? dvepXaarrjaev 
oXrj, Kal avTT) Kal r) OaXia. ev Bk rfj JSoKoriq, 
Kara/3 pcoOevrcov r&v ipv&v vit drreXefiav irdXiv 

1 i*\ conj. Sch.; *| Ald.H. 

2 cf. CP. 5. 3. 1 and 2 ; Arist. de gen. an. 4. 4 ; Hesych. 
8.v. Kaicvlas ; Schol. ad Ar. Veap. 151. 8 2. 2. 7. 

4 clicks has perhaps dropped out. Sch. 

5 $pta>v conj. R. Const., cf. CP. 5. 1. 7 and 8 ; 5. 2. 2 ; 
ipivcwv P 2 Ald. cf. also Athen. 3. 11. 


Digitized by 


may change into a black one, and conversely ; and 
similar changes occur in 1 the vine. 

Now these changes they interpret as miraculous 
and contrary to nature ; but they do not even feel 
any surprise at the ordinary changes, for instance, 
when the ' smoky ' vine, 2 as it is called, produces 
alike white grapes instead of black or black grapes 
instead of white. Of such changes the soothsayers 
take no account, any more than they do of those 
instances in which the soil produces a natural change, 
as was said 3 of the pomegranate in Egypt. But it is 
surprising when such a change occurs in our own 
country, because there are only one or two instances 
and these separated by wide intervals of time. How- 
ever, if such changes occur, it is natural 4 that the 
variation should be rather in the fruit than in the tree 
as a whole. In fact the following irregularity also 
occurs in fruits ; a fig-tree has been known to produce 
its figs from behind the leaves, 5 pomegranate and 
vinqs from the stem, while the vine has been known 
to bear fruit without leaves. The olive again has 
been known to lose its leaves and yet produce its 
fruit; this is said to have happened to Thettalos, 
son of Pisistratus. This may be due to inclement 
weather; and some changes, which seem to be 
abnormal, but are not really so, are due to other 
accidental causes ; 6 for instance, there was an olive 
that, after being completely burnt down, sprang up 
again entire, the tree and all its branches. And in 
Boeotia an olive whose young shoots 7 had been eaten 
off by locusts grew again : in this case however 8 the 

8 c/. Hdt. 8. 55 ; Plin. 17. 241. 

7 ipv&v conj. Sch. ; %pyuv P 2 Ald. ; KhdSwv mU. 

8 i.e. the portent was not so great as in the other case 
quoted, as the tree itself had not been destroyed. 


Digitized by Google 


dvefi\darr)ae* ra S* olov direireo'ev. r\/ciGra 8* 
taws ra roiavra aroira Bict to <f>avepas fyeiv rets 
atria?, aWa fiaXXov to fit) i/c r&v ol/ceicov rbrroav 
(f>€p€tv rovs /capirovs rj firf ol/celovs' /cal fidXiara S' 
el rrjs 0X779 <f>vaea)s yiverai fieraftoXrj, /caOdirep 
i\4x0r). ire pi pLGV ovv ra BevBpa roiavral 
rives el(Ti fiera/Soikal. 

IV. Twv Bh aWcov to re ciav/jufipiov els fiiv- 
Oav Bo/cet /AerafidWeiv, eav firj /carerfflrai rf) 
Oepaireia, Bt b /cal fjLercufrvrevovai iroWd/cts, /cal 
6 7rvpbs els alpav. ravra puev ovv ev rois BevBpois 
avrofidrcas, elirep yiverai. ra B 1 ev rois eirereiois 
Bia TrapaaKevrfS' olov fj rlcjyrj zeal 77 £eia fiera- 
fidXkovaiv els irvpov eav nriadeiaai cireipwvrai, 
/cal rovr oxjk eiOvs dWa t$ rpircp erei. o"X<eBbv 
Be irapairXtfaiov rovro ye r$ ra airepfiara Kara 
ras X € * > P a * fierafidXkew [terafidXkei yap /cal 
ravra /caO' e/cdarrjv yjhpav /cal ax^Bbv ev r<p ia<p 
XP<> V< P Ka ^ V Tb<f>r). fiera/3d\\ovai Be /cal ol 
dypioi Trvpol /cal al /cpi0al Oepairevbfievai /cal 
igrjfiepovfievat, /car a rbv caov yjpbvov. 
2 Kai TaOTa fiev eoi/ce %c6/oa9 re fieraj3o\fj /cal 
Oepaireia yvveaOar /cal evia dfi<f>orepois, ra Be rfj 
Oepanrela fiovov olov Trpbs to rd oairpia firj yive- 
aOai drepdfiova ^pk^avra /ceXevovaiv ev virpcp 

1 oiKelous- Kai I conj. ; oIkciovtcu UM V; olicetws Ald.H. ; ioucSras 
conj. W. 2 ci ins. Sch. 8 2. 3. 1. 

4 c/. 6. 7. 2; Plin. 19. 176. 

8 i.e. to prevent the change which cultivated soil induces. 

Digitized by 


shoots had, so to speak, only been shed. But after 
all such phenomena are perhaps far from strange, 
since the cause in each case is obvious ; rather is it 
strange that trees should bear fruit not at the places 
where it naturally forms, or else fruit which does not 
belong to the character 1 of the tree. And most 
surprising of all is it when, 2 as has been said, 3 
there is a change in the entire character of the 
tree. Such are the changes which occur in trees. 

Of spontaneous and other changes in other plants. 

IV. 4 Of other plants it appears that bergamot-mint 
turns into cultivated mint, unless it is fixed by special 
attention ; and this is why men frequently transplant 5 
it ; 6 so too wheat turns into darnel. Now in trees 
such changes, if they occur, are spontaneous, but in 
annual plants they are deliberately brought about : 
for instance, one-seeded wheat and rice- wheat change 7 
into wheat, if bruised before they are sown ; and 
this does not happen at once, but in the third year. 
This change resembles that produced in the seeds by 
difference of soil 8 ; for these grains vary according 
to the soil, and the change takes about the same 
time as that which occurs in one-seeded wheat. 
Again wild wheats and barleys also with tendance 
and cultivation change in a like period. 

These changes appear to be due to change of soil 
and cultivation, and in some cases the change is due 
to both, in others to cultivation alone ; for instance, 
in order that pulses may not become uncookable, 9 

8 But see reff. under aipa in Index. 

7 cf. CP. 5. 6. 12; Plin. 18.93. 

8 x<*P av conj. St. ; &pav Ald.H. 

9 irepdfAova conj. W.; Mpafiva UAld. cf. 8. 8. 6 and 7 ; 
CP. 4. 7. 2 ; 4. 12. 1 and 8 ; Geop. 2. 35. 2 ; 2. 41. 


Digitized by 


vvtcTa Tjj vcrrepaia aireipeLV iv %rjpa m <pa/coi><} Scrre 
dBpoit? yvveadai <f>vrevovaiv iv j3o\Lr<p' tou9 
ipefiivOovs Be; Sare fieyd\ov<;, avTols T0Z9 /ce\v- 
<f>€a't fipegavra aireLpeiv. /jLerafiaWovo-i Be /cal 
Kara tc&9 &pa$ rod criropov ?rpo9 fcov<f>6rrjTa /cal 
akviriav olov idv tk tov$ opofiov? iapivov? 
aireiprj Tpiaakvirob yLvovrai, /cal c!>9 oi fiero- 
irapivol ftapels. 

3 Tiverat Be /cal iv to?? Xaxdvoi? fierafioXr) 
Bia, tt)v Oepaireiav olov to aeXtvov, iav airapev 
/caraTraTrjdf} /cal /cvXtvSpaOfj, dva<f)vea0al <f>accv 
oi\ov. ixerafiaTsXei Be /cal ttjv ftcopav igcikXdr- 
rovra, /caddirep /cal TaXXa. /cal ra fiev roiavra 
tcoiva irdvTOiv iartv. el Be /card nva irripwaiv rj 
dfyaipeaiv fiepov? BevSpov ayovov yiverai, KaOd- 
irep to, £<ba, rovro a/ceirreov ovBev yovv <f>avepbv 
/card ye rrjv Bcaipeaiv el<% to irXeico /cal eXaTTcw 
<j>epeiv &airep /ca/covfievov, aU' rj diroXkvTai, to 
o\ov r) Biafievov /capiro^opel. to Be yrjpa? KOivr) 
Tt9 <j>0opa 7rao~iv. 

4 "Atottov B j av Bogete fiaWov el iv to 19 £00019 
ai rotavrai fieTafioXal <f>vai/cal /cal 7r\eiov<r /cal 
yap /caret ra<; &pa$ evia Bo/cel fierafidWeiv, &a- 
irep 6 iepa^ /cal eiroyft /cal aXXa r&v ofiolcov 
opvecov. /cat Kara Ta9 r&v tottcov dWoiddo-eis, 
wairep vBpos eU e%iv grjpatvofievav r&v \ifid- 

1 viiKT* I conj. ; vvktL MSS. 

2 Iv 0o\lr<p conj. Milas. on Oeop. 3. 27 ; fy&o\ov UMV 
Aid. c/. CP. 5. 6. 11 ; Col. 2. 10. 15; Plin. 18. 198. 

3 cf. CP. 5. 6. 11 ; Oeop. 2. 3. 6. 

4 kKvirlav conj. Sch.; 5t' b\vnlas M ; 8i* hXwnlav Aid. 


Digitized by 


men bid one moisten the seed in nitre for a night 1 
and sow it in dry ground the next day. To make 
lentils vigorous they plant the seeds in dung 2 ; to 
make chick-peas large they bid one moisten the 
seed while still in the pods, 3 before sowing. Also 
the time of sowing makes differences which conduce 
to digestibility and harmlessness 4 : thus, if one sows 
vetches 6 in spring, they become quite harmless and 
are not indigestible like those sown in autumn. 

Again in pot-herbs change is produced by culti- 
vation ; for instance, they say that, 6 if celery seed 
is trodden and rolled in after sowing, it comes up 
curly ; it also varies from change of soil, like other 
things. Such variations are common to all ; we must 
now consider whether a tree, like animals, becomes 
unproductive from mutilation or removal of a part. 
At all events it does not appear that division 7 is an 
injury, as it were, which affects the amount of fruit 
produced; either the whole tree perishes, or else, 
if it survives, 8 it bears fruit. Old age however is a 
cause which in all plants puts an end to life 9 

It would seem more surprising if 10 the following 
changes occurred in animals naturally and frequently ; 
some animals do indeed seem to change according to 
the seasons, for instance, the hawk the hoopoe and 
other similar birds. So also changes in the nature 
of the ground produce changes in animals, for instance, 
the water-snake changes into a viper, if the marshes 

6 cf. Plin. 18. 139 ; Col. 2. 10. 34. 

8 cf. CP. 5. 6. 7 ; Oeop. 12. 23. 2. 

7 76 conj. Sch.; rt Aid. 

8 ZiifLcvov conj. Sch.; Sia/x4vovra Aid. 

9 Something seems to have been lost at the end of § 3. 

10 €i ins. Sch.; rotavrai may however mean * the above- 
mentioned,' and refer to something which has been lost. 


Digitized by 


Scov. (fiavepcorara Se /ecu /caret, Ta? yeveaeis evict, 
Kal /AeraftdXXei Sici irXeiovcov ^cocov olov i/c 
/cdfnrrjs yiverac %pv<raX\ls elr i/c ravrrj^ yjrvxv* 
/cal iir aXXav 8* iarl rovro irXeiovcov, ovSev i<tg><; 
aroirov, ovS* ofioiov to tyrovfievov. aXA,' i/eeivo 
av/ifiaLvei irepl ra SevSpa /cal o\g>? iraaav ttjv 
vXtjv, &airep iXexOrj /cal irporepov, &<rr€ avrofid- 
rrjv /jLerafiXaardveiv fiera^oXrj^ twos ywofievq*; 
i/c t&v ovpavlcov roiavrr)^. ra fiev ovv irepl 
ra? yeveaei? /cal fiera/SoXa? i/c tovtg>v Oeeoprjreov. 

V. 'E7T€t Be /cal ai ipyaaiai real ai Oepatrelai 
fieydXa a-VfiftdXXovTai, /cal en irporepov at 
<f>vreiai /cal TTOiovai fieydXas 8ia<f>opd<;, XeKreov 
/cal irepl rovrtov. 

Kal irp&rov irepl r&v <f>vrei&v. ai fiev ovv 
&pac irporepov etprjvrac /caff* a? Set. ra 8% <f>vra 
Xafifidveiv /ceXevovaiv c!>9 KoXXiara Kal if; ofioias 
yfjs el? fjv fjLeXXei? fyvrevew, fj xeipovov tov? he 
yvpov? irpoopvrrew d>? irXeiarov %povov /cal 
fiadvrepov? alel Kal to?? iiwroXaioppi£orepoi<;. 

1 i.e. in the instance given the development of an insect 
exhibits, not one, but a series of changes from one creature 
to another. 

2 Whereas the metamorphoses mentioned above are inde- 
pendent of climatic conditions. 

* 5e conj. W.; T€ Aid. 

* KdWarra conj. W., cf. CP. 3. 24. 1 ; rdxurra M VAld. ; 
rh xffl"ra U. 


Digitized by 


dry up. Most obvious are certain changes in regard 
to the way in which animals are produced, and such 
changes run through a series of creatures 1 ; thus a 
caterpillar changes into a chrysalis, and this in turn 
into the perfect insect; and the like occurs in a 
number of other cases. But there is hardly any thing 
abnormal in this, nor is the change in plants, which 
is the subject of our enquiry, analogous to it. That 
kind of change occurs in trees and in all woodland 
plants generally, as was said before, and its effect is 
that, when a change of the required character occurs 
in the climatic conditions, a spontaneous change in 
the way of growth ensues. 2 These instances must 
suffice for investigation of the ways in which plants 
are produced or modified. 

Of methods of propagation, loith notes on cultivation. 

V. Since however methods of cultivation and ten- 
dance largely contribute, and, before these, methods 
of planting, and cause great differences, of these too 
we must speak. 

And first of methods of planting : as to the seasons, 
we have already stated at what seasons one should 
plant. Further 3 we are told that the plants chosen 
should be the best possible, 4 and should be taken 
from soil resembling that in which you are going to 
plant them, or else inferior 5 ; also the holes should 
be dug as long as possible beforehand, and should 
always be deeper than the original holes, even for 
those whose roots do not run very deep. 

5 i.e. the shift should be into better soil, if possible, cf. 
CP. 3. 5. 2. 

8 yvpovs irpoopvrrtiv conj. R. Const.; xvpous xpoaop6rr€iy 
UMVAld. cf. CP. 3. 4. 1. 


Digitized by Google 


Aeyovac Si rtz/e? d>s ovSefiia Karcorepco Suteveirai 
Tpi&v r)p,LTTo8i(ov Si b teal eTTLTifi&ai to?? ev 
fiei&vi ft&Oei <f>VT6vov<nv ovk ioUaai Se opOcos 
\iyeiv inl ttoWcov a\\' iav r) ^oapjvro^ iiriXd/S- 
rjrai y8a#€0? r) zeal %<»/oa? roiavrr]? fj zeal tottov, 
7ToWg> fiazcporipav &>6el to rfj (frvo'ei /3a0vppi%ov. 

TTeVK7]V Si TJ? €<j>T) fl€Ta(j)VT€VG)V /JL€fJLO)(X€V/livrjV 

fi€L%(o tt)v pL^av eyew OKTairriyyv Kaiirep ovy o\r)$ 
igcupedeiar)? a\V diroppayeLar]?. 

Ta 8k <\>VT€VTrjpia iav fiev ivSexyTai viroppL^a, 
€i oe firj, dec fiaWop airo twv zeaTW r\ rcov avco 
Xafifidveiv, irXrjv afiiriXov zeal ret fiev expvra 
/5££a? bpOa ififtdWetv, tcl Se firj e^ovra virofidX- 

\eiV TOV (j)VT€VT1]pLOV 6<TOV (T7TlO(lfJLTJV Tj JAlZCp& 

nfKelov. evioi 8k zceXevovai zeal t&v biroppitydv 
v7ro/3d\\€iv, Tbdivac Se zeal ttjv Oeaiv bp,om$ r\virep 
etyev iirl t&v SevSpcov tcl irpoafioppa zeal tcl 7rpb<; 
ea> zeal tcl 7T/oo? fieaTjfifipCav. oaa Se ivSeyeTaL 
r&v <f>VT&v zeal Trpofioaxeveiv tcl fiev eV avT&v 
t&v SivSp(ov, olov e\aa? diriov firfkea^ o-vzcf)<r tcl 
8' d<f>cupovvTa<;, olov dfiirekov* ravTrjv yap ovx 
olov T€ iir 9 avTrjs iioayeveiv. 

'Eap Se firj viroppi^a tcl (j>VTa firjSe inroirpefiva 

1 &AA* iky . . . roiofoov. fov fj fitv ffde/xaros M ; so V, but J ; 
^ om.JPAld.; x^/* aT0S H ; Ktvdofxaros for aw/xaros and cvfiiSSov 
for fi koI r6icov conj. W. x^P as refers to exposure, etc., 
r6rrov (sc. roiovrov) to quality of soil : so G. 

2 Plin. 16. 129 ; Xen. Oec. 19. 3. 8 cf. CP. 3. 6. 


Digitized by 


Some say that no root goes down further than a 
foot and a half, and accordingly they blame those who 
plant deeper. However there are many instances 
in which it appears that what they say does not 
hold good ; a plant which is naturally deep-rooting 
pushes much deeper if it finds either a deep mass 
of soil or a position which favours such growth or 
again the kind of ground which favours it. 1 In fact, 2 
a man once said that when he was transplanting a 
fir which he had uprooted with levers, he found that 
it had a root more than eight cubits long, though 
the whole of it had not been removed, but it was 
broken off. 

The slips for planting should be taken, if possible, 
with roots attached, or, failing that, from the lower 3 
rather than from the higher parts of the tree, except 
in the case of the vine ; those that have roots should 
be set upright, 4 while in the case of those which 
have none about 5 a handsbreadth or rather more ot 
the slip should be buried. Some say that part even 
of those which have roots should be buried, and that 
the position 6 should be the same as that of the tree 
from which the slip was taken, facing north or east 
or south, as the case may be. With those plants 
with which it is possible, shoots from the boughs 
should also, they say, be planted, some being set on 
the trees themselves, 7 as with olive pear apple and 
fig, but in other cases, as in that of the vine, they 
must be set separately, for that the vine cannot be 
grafted on itself. 

If the slips cannot be taken with root or stock 

4 cf. CP. 3. 6. 4 ; Xen. Oec. 19. 9. 

6 laov conj. Sch.; oTop PaAld. 

6 cf. CP. 3. 5. 2. 7 i.e. grafted. 


VOL. 1. K 

Digitized by 


Xafifidveiv, KaOdirep rrj<; eXaa?, vyiaavTa re to 
%vkov KUT(o6ev Kal \idov ififtaXovra <f>VTevew 
6/iota)? Be Kal TYj$ ekdas Kal avKf}? Kal t&v aX- 
\cov. <f>VT€V€Tai Be f\ (TVKTj Kal edv ri? KpdBrjv 
ira'xjelav diro^vva^ a<f>vpa iraLrj, a%/H o\) hv 
diroXLirr) fiiKobv virep rfj<; 7^?, elr avrfjs a/jbfiov 
ftaXobv dvcouev lTriyd><jr) % Kal ylveadai Brj <j>aac 
Kal KaX\l(o ravra tcl <j>vrd, peyjpi ov hv rj 

5 JlapaifX/qala Kal t&v dfi7re\o)v, orav diro 
tov irarraXov irpooBoiroiel yap 6 irdrraXo^ 
€K€iV(p t& KKrjfiaTL Bia ttjv daOeveiav <j>v- 
revovaiv ovtco Kal poav Kal a\Xa t&v BevBpcov. 
f\ avKrj Be, edv iv aKiWrj <j>VT€v0j), Qclttov irapa- 
yiv€Tai Kal f\TTOv virb (TKwXrjK&v KaTeaOieTai. 
oXo)? Bk ttclv iv CTKiXXri </>vT€v6fi€vov ev/3\aaT€$ 
Kal Qclttov avf;dv€Tai. oaa Be €K tov a-reXe^ou? 
Kal BiaKoiTTOfieva (f>VT€veTai, KaT(o TpkirovTa tt)V 
to/jltjv Bel (f)VT€V€iv, hiaKOTTTew Be firj ekuTTeo 
a-TTiOafiiaLODV, &airep eXe^&y, Kal tov (fikoibv 
irpoaelvar <f>v€Tai B ck t&v toiovtojv epvr]' fl\a- 
aTavovTcov 6° del irpoa^vvveiv, dyjpi ov hv yevrj- 
Tai apTiov avTt) fiev oiv tt}? e\aa? IBla Kal tov 
fivppuvov, ai 6° aWai KowoTepai iraaiv. 

6 ' kpiGTOV B\ Kal pi^coo-ao-Oai Kal <f>VT€ia<; fidXi- 
GTa T779 TV)(pvar]<i f) avKrj. <j>vT€vetv Be poa? fiev 

1 ti before rrjs om. W. 2 re rb conj. W. ; r6 t€ MVP. 

» Kal rrjs i\atas U ; i\das MVP ; so W. 

4 Plin. 17, 123. 5 cf. CP. 3. 12. 1. 

6 cf. 7. 13. 4 ; CP. 5. 6. 10 (where another bulb, o^o*, is 
mentioned as being put to the same use) ; Athen. 3. 13 ; 
Plin. 17. 87. 


Digitized by 


attached, as with the olive, 1 they say that one must 2 
split the wood at the lower end and plant with a 
stone on top ; and the fig and other trees must 
be treated in like manner with the olive. 3 The fig 4 
is also propagated by sharpening a stout shoot and 
driving it in with a hammer, till only a small piece of 
it is left above ground, and then piling sand above so 
as to earth it up ; and they say that the plants thus 
raised grow finer up to a certain age. 

Similar is the method used with vines, when they 
are propagated by the € peg ' 5 method ; for the peg 
makes a passage for that sort of shoot on account of 
its weakness ; and in the same manner men plant the 
pomegranate and other trees. The fig progresses 
more quickly and is less eaten by grubs, if the cutting 
is set in a squill-bulb 6 ; in fact anything so planted is 
vigorous and grows faster. All those trees which are 
propagated by pieces cut from the stem should be 
planted with the cut part downwards, 7 and the 
pieces cut off should not be less than a handsbreadth in 
length, as was said, 8 and the bark should be left on. 
From such pieces new shoots grow, and as they grow, 
one should keep on heaping up earth about them, 
till the tree becomes strong. 9 This kind of propa- 
gation is peculiar to the olive and myrtle, while the 
others are more or less common to all trees. 

The fig is better than any other tree at striking 
roots, and will, more than any other tree, grow by 
any method of propagation. 10 We are told that, 

7 cf. Oeop. 9. 11. 8. 

8 2. 5. 3, where however the method of propagation is 

9 iprtov Aid, ; &priT*Krj conj. W. (quoad satis corroboretur G ; 
donee robur planta capiat Plin. 17. 124) ; Apr new U ; &pri 
Ttuv MV; ftpri T€«* P 2 . 10 cf. CP. 3. 7. 

Digitized by 


/cal p,vppLvov<; /cal hdefyvas irv/cva^ /eeXevovai, /jltj 
irXeov &i€(rT(t><ra<i rj ivvea 7ro8a?, firfXeas he p,i/cp& 
fia/cporepov, airiovs he ical oyxyas en fiaXXov, 
dfivyhaXa? he ical av/ea? iroWq) irXeov, axravrcos 
he /cal rtjv iXdav. iroielaQai he /cal upas rbv 
roirov rd? diroardaew iv yap T0Z9 opeivoi? eXar- 
roi/9 r) iv rofc ireheivol?, 
7 M.eyiarov he a>? eiirelv to rrjv irpoa^opov 
e/cdartp xcopav airohihovac Tore yap evOevel 
jidXiara. a)? S' ajrX&s eiirelv iXda fiev /cal av/cy 
/cal dfiireXa) rrjv ireheLvrjV <j>acriv oi/ceiordrrjv elvai, 
rot? he a/cpohpvoi? ra? viraypeias. XPV KaL * v 
avrols T0Z9 ofioyeveai fir) dyvoelv Ta? oi/ceias, iv 
irXeiarrj he c!>9 eiirelv hia<f>opa ra r&v dfiireXcov 
iariv oaa yap iarc 7779 ethrj, roaavrd rive? (f>aac 
ical dfiireXcav elvai. fyvrevofieva fiev ovv Kara 
<f>vaiv dyad a yiveaOat irapd <f>vaiv he* a/capira. 
ravra fiev ovv &airep KOivd iravrcov. 

VI. T&v he <f>oivifccov thios r) <f>vrela irapd 
raXXa /cal r) fierd ravra Oepaireia. fyvrevovvi 
yap irXeiovs eh rairb riBevres hvo Karon Ka\ hvo 
avcodev iirihovvres, irpavels he irdvra?. rr)v yap 
e/ccf)vaiv ov/c etc r&v virricov teal /coiXcov irotelrai, 
/caOdirep rives <f>aaiv, dXX* i/c r&v aveo, hi Kal 
iv rfj iiri^ev^ei r&v iirinBefievcov ov hel irepi/ca- 
Xvirreiv rd$ a/o%a9 o6ev f) e/ccfyvaw (pave pal 6° 

1 i\dav conj. Bod. (c/. Plin. 17. 88) ; fioihv UAld.H. 

2 4\drropi conj. Sch. ; ^Karrov Aid. 

3 i.e. apples pears plums, etc. 


Digitized by 


in planting the pomegranate myrtle or bay, one 
should set two trees close together, not further 
than nine feet apart, apples a little further, pears and 
wild pears still further, almonds and figs further still, 
and in like manner the olive. 1 Again the distance 
apart must be regulated by the nature of the ground, 
being less 2 in hilly parts than in low ground. 

Most important of all, one may say, is it to assign 
to each the suitable soil ; for then is the tree most 
vigorous. Speaking generally, they say that low 
ground is most suitable for the olive fig and vine, 
and the lower slopes of hills for fruit trees. 8 Nor 
should one fail to note what soil suits each variety 
even of those closely related. There is the greatest 
difference, one may say, between the different kinds of 
vine : for they say that there are as many kinds of vine 
as there are of soil. If they are planted as their 
nature requires, they turn out well, if otherwise, they 
are unfruitful. And these remarks apply almost 
equally to all trees. 

Of the propagation of the date-palm ; of palms in general. 

VI. 4 The method of propagating date-palms is 
peculiar and exceptional, as also is their subsequent 
cultivation. They plant several seeds together, 
putting two below and two above, which are fastened 
on ; but all face downwards. 6 For germination starts 
not, as some say, from the ' reverse ' or hollow side, 6 
but from the part 7 which is uppermost ; wherefore 
in joining on the seeds which are placed above one 
must not cover up the points from which the growth 

• Plin. 13. 32. 

5 i. e. with the grooved side downwards. 

* i.e. the grooved side. 7 i.e. the round side. 


Digitized by 


elal rot? iinreLpois. Bid tovto S' eh to avrb 
irXeiovs TiOeaaiv on airo rov epo? aaBevr)*; rj 

<f)V7€La. TOVTCOV Be* <U T€ plt/CLl 7T/)0? aWrfXa? 

avprnXeicovTai teal evOvs al irp&rai fiXac'T^cei?, 
&<tt€ ev yLveaOai to o-TeXe^o?. 

C H fiev oZv airb tcov icapir&v <f>VT€ta TOiavrr) 
Ti9 # ri b a<p avTOv, orav acpeXcoai to ava) ev 
tpirep 6 ey/ctyaXor dfyaipovai Be oaov Biirrjxy* 
o")(i<ravTe<; he tovto /cutco TiOeaai to vypov </>iXei 
Be X&pav dX/jLcoBrj* Bi b zeal oirov firj ToiavTrj 
Tvyxdvei ifcpiTrdrrovo'iv aXa? ol yeeopyoi* tovto 
Be Bel iroielv firj irepl avTct? t^? pifa? aXX' airoOev 
aTTOGTrfaavTa irepnraTTeiv oaov rjiiieicTOV oti Be 
ToiavTrjv £t]T€C y&pav KaKelvo ttoiovvtcli arjfielov* 
travTaxpv yhp oirov irXrjOos (fioivl/ccov dXficoBeis al 
X&f> aL * KC ti> jap & Hafiv\&VL <f>aaiv, oirov ol 
(f)OLvi/c€$ irecfyvfcacri, kcu ev Aifivg Bk koX ev AlyvirTtp 
leal ^olviktj fcal tj}? %vpla$ Bk t^? koLXt}^, ev rj y 
ol irXelaTOi Tvyxdvovo'iv, ev Tpial fiovois tottoi? 
dXficoBeaiv elvai to£>? Bvva/nevov? drjaavpl^eaOar 
tou9 6° ev to?? aXXo^9 ov Biafieveiv dXXa arjireaOai, 
XXcopov? 8* rjBeis elvai koX /caTavaXta/ceiv ovtw. 

<i>iXei Bk koX vBpeiav o-(j>6Bpa to BevBpov TrepX 
Be icoirpov Bcafi(j>i f ar/3r)TOVO'LV' ol fiev ydp ov fyaai 
Xaupeiv aXX' evavTidnarov elvai, ol Be teal 
Xprjo'Oai koX eirlBoaiv iroXXrjv iroielv. Belv 8 
vopeveiv ev fidXa tcaTa t?}? Koirpov, /caBdirep ol ev 

1 i.e. ' cabbage.' 

2 rovro . . . \>yp6v : I have inserted 8e, otherwise retaining 
the reading of Aid.; tovtov k<£tw rtOeaai 5* tvvypov conj .W. 
cf. Plin. 13. 36. rb vyp6v, viz. the cut end. 

3 aA/i<65?j conj. W.; a^^rj P 2 Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


is to come ; and these can be recognised by experts. 
And the reason why they set several together is that 
a plant that grows from one only is weak. The roots 
which grow from these seeds become entangled 
together and so do the first shoots from the very 
start, so that they combine to make a single stem. 

Such is the method of growing from the fruits. 
But propagation is also possible from the tree itself, 
by taking off the top, which contains the 'head.' 1 
They take off about two cubits' length, and, splitting 
it, set the moist end. 2 It likes a soil which contains 
salt 3 ; wherefore, where such soil is not available, 
the growers sprinkle salt about it ; and this must not 
be done about the actual roots : one must keep the 
salt some way off and sprinkle about a gallon. To 
shew that it seeks such a soil they offer the following 
proof ; wherever date-palms grow abundantly, the 
soil is salt, 4 both in Babylon, they say, where the tree 
is indigenous, in Libya in Egypt and in Phoenicia ; 
while in Coele-Syria, where are 5 most palms, only in 
three districts, they say, where the soil is salt, are 
dates produced which can be stored ; those that grow 
in other districts do not keep, but rot, though when 
fresh they are sweet and men use 6 them at that 

7 The tree is likewise very fond of irrigation ; as 
to dung there is a difference of opinion : some say 
that the date-palm does not like it, but that it is most 
injurious, others that it gladly accepts 8 it and makes 
good growth thereby, but plenty of water should be 

4 oA/uc65ei» conj. W. ; b/A/xdoSeis Ald.H. 

* iffY ol conj. W.; U* "lv*oi U; V *luZoi MVAld. 

1 KaTava\l<rK€iv Aid. ; KaravaXicrKevBai conj. W. 

7 Plin. 13. 28. 

8 koI xpqtrftai conj. Sch.; /cexp^^^ai Aid.; ? K€X<fy>»?<r0a<. 


Digitized by 


'PoSp. tovto pev ovv eTTMr/ceTTTeov i<r<o$ ydp oi 
pev outo)? oi 8* i/ceivw Oepairevovaiv^ ical fiera 
/jl€V tov vSaro? dxj>eXipov f) /c6iTpo<; avev 8k tovtov 
fiXaftepd. orav 8k iviavaio? yivrjrai, fiera- 
(fyvrevovo-i /cal t&v dX&v avfnrapa/3aWov<ri, /cal 
trdXiv orav Sier^* %aipei yap 0(f) 68 pa rfj fiera- 


4 'Mera^vrevovo'i 8e oi pev aXXoi tov ffpov oi 8e 
iv TSa/3vX&vi irepl to aarpov, ore /cal o\o)? o r i ye 
iroXXol (pvTevovaiv, co? /cal irapaywopevov /cal 
avf*avopevov 9arrov» veov pev ovtos ov% cltttov- 
tuc, ttXyjv dva8ovai ttjv /coprjv, 07Tg>9 6p9o<^vrj r rj 
ical ai pdftSot, prj dirapr&PTai. peTd 8e ravra 
Trepulpvovcnv, oworav d8pb$ 77877 yevrjrai /cal 
irajfo? extf. diroXeiirovai 8k ocrov o'TnOaprjv t&v 
pdj38a>v. cfrepei 8e em pev &v y veo<; dirvprpfov top 
/capirov, perd 8e tovto irvprjvcoSrj. 

5 "AXXoi 8e Tives Xeyovaiv a>? 0% ye /caTd Xvpiav 
ov8eplav TTpoadyovaiv ipyaalav dXhJ r) 81a- 
tcaOaipovcri /cal eirifipkrxpvaiv, iiri\j)Teiv 8e paXXov 
to vapaTiaZov v8a>p rj to i/c tov Ai6<r elvai 8e 
ttoXv tolovtov iv T(p aiX&vi iv c5 /cal Ta <f>oivi- 
/c6(f)VTa Tvyydvei, tov avX&va 8e tovtov Xeyeiv 
tou9 %vpov 9 otl 8iaTelv€c Sea T?)? * Apaftlas pe%pi 
7779 ipvOpds OaXdaarj? ical iroXXovs tydariceiv 
iXrfXvdivac tovtov 8e iv t$> /coiXoTdTtp Tre<f>v- 
/cevai row? <f>otvi/ca<i. TavTa pev ovv Tax dp<f>o- 
Tepm &v eiT)* /caTd ydp t^9 ^copa?, c&GTrep ical 

1 cf. 7. 5. 1. 2 Plin. 13. 37. 

8 <rvfiirapa&d\Kov<ri coni. Sch. from G ; cvuirajaXau&di'ovffi 
UAld. « cf. Plin. 13. 38. 


Digitized by 


given, after manuring, as the Rhodians use. This 
then is matter for enquiry ; it may be that there are 
two distinct methods of cultivation, and that dung, 
if accompanied by watering, 1 is beneficial, though 
without it it is harmful. 2 When the tree is a year 
old, they transplant it and give plenty 8 of salt, and 
this treatment is repeated when it is two years old, 
for it delights greatly in being transplanted. 

4 Most transplant in the spring, but the people of 
Babylon about the rising of the dog-star, and this is 
the time when most people propagate it, since it 
then germinates and grows more quickly. As long 
as it is young, they do not touch it, except that they 
tie up the foliage, so that it may grow straight 6 and 
the slender branches may not hang down. 6 At a 
later stage they prune it, when it is more vigorous 
and has become a stout tree, leaving the slender 
branches only about a handsbreadth long. So long 
as it is young, it produces its fruit without a stone, 
but later on the fruit has a stone. 

However some say that the people of Syria use no 
cultivation, except cutting out wood and watering, also 
that the date-palm requires spring water rather than 
water from the skies ; and that such water is abundant 
in the valley in which are the palm-groves. And 
they add that the Syrians say that this valley 7 
extends through Arabia to the Red Sea, 8 and that 
many profess to have visited it, 9 and that it is in the 
lowest part of it that the date-palms grow. «Now 
both accounts may be true, for it is not strange that 

5 bpQcxpvT) t' f conj. W. ; 6p6o<p^rirai P 2 Ald. 

6 airaprSovrai conj. R. Const.; itiropOuvrai P 2 MAld. 

7 c/. Diod. 3. 41. 

8 i.e. the Arabian Gulf. 

9 4\ri\v04vcu Aid. ; hie\Ti\vOtvai conj. W. 


Digitized by 


avrd ra BevBpa, Bia<f)€peiv /cal tA? ipyaalas oi/c 

« Tevrj Be r&v <j>oivi/c(ov iarl TrXeieo' irp&Tov fiev 
/cal &airep iv fieylaTrj Biacfyopa to fiev /cdpirifiov 
to Be a/capirov, e£ &v oi irepl J$a/3vXa>va Ta9 T€ 
icXlvas /cal T&XXa cr/cevr) iroiovvrac. eireiTa t&v 
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Be dXXrjXav, icad* a 6 fiev apprjv dvQos irp&rov 
<f>ep€i ivrl t% <J*iraQv\$> ^ Be OrfXeia /capTrbv ev6v 
fiiKpov. avr&v Bh t&v /capir&v Bia<f>opal TrXeiov?' 
oi fiev yap dirvprjvoL oi Se* fiaXa/coTrvfyrfvor ra$ 
Xpota<; oi fiev Xev/col oi Bk fieXaves oi Bk %avQo'v 
to h* oXov oi/c ekaTTto y^pcofiaTa <f>acriv elvai t&v 
gv/c&v ovB? airX&s yevrj' Bia<f>epeiv Be /cal /card 
rd fieyedrj /cal icaTa tcl or^rffiaTa* /cal yap afyai- 
poeiBei? iviovs &aavel firjXa /cal t& fieyeOt] ttjXi- 
kovtov 9 a>9 t€tt apas €69 rbv irrfyyv elvai, \hrTa 
/cal einroBov?]' aXXov? Be fii/cpov? rjXi/cov? ipe- 
/3iv0ov$. /cal T0Z9 %vXo?9 Bk iroXv Bia<f>epovTa<;. 

7 YLpaTiaTOv Be /cal t&v Xev/c&v /cal t&v fieXdvav 
to fiaaiXi/cov icaXovfievov yevos iv etc are pep /cal 
fieyeOei /cal dpeTjj' airdvia 8' elvai TavTa Xeyovar 
afteBbv ydp iv fiovcp T<p Jiaycoov /crjirq* tov 
traXaiov irepl HaftvX&va. iv Kvirptp Be IBiov ti 
761/09 <f>oivLK(ov icrTlv b oi irerralvei tov /capTrov, 
dXX* d>fib$ &v r)Bv$ a (f) 6 Spa /cal yXv/cv? icTi* ttjv 
yXv/cvTTjra iBLav ex 61 * evioi o° ov fiovov Bia- 

1 Plin. 13. 39. 

2 lrpSorov conj. Sch. ; irpuros UMVAld. 

3 trrjxvv conj. R. Const, from Plin. 13. 45. and G, c/. Diod. 
2. 53; ffrdxw UMVAld. 

4 €itto leal €vx65ovs UM V : the words perhaps conceal a 


Digitized by 


in different soils the methods of cultivation should 
differ, like the trees themselves. 

1 There are several kinds of palm. To begin with, 
to take first the most important difference; — some 
are fruitful and some not ; and it is from this latter 
kind that the people of Babylon make their beds 
and other furniture. Again of the fruitful trees 
some are ' male,' others ' female ' ; and these differ 
from one another in that the ' male ' first 2 bears a 
flower on the spa the, while the ' female ' at once 
bears a small fruit. Again there are various differences 
in the fruits themselves ; some have no stones, others 
soft stones ; as to colour, some are white, some black, 
some yellow ; and in general they say that there is 
not less variety of colour and even of kind than in 
figs ; also that they differ in size and shape, some being 
round like apples and of such a size that four of them 
make up a cubit 3 in length, ... 4 while others are 
small, 5 no bigger than chick-peas ; and that there is 
also much difference in flavour. 

The best kind alike in size and in quality, whether 
of the white or black variety, is that which in either 
form is called ' the royal palm ' ; but this, they say, 
is rare ; it grows hardly anywhere except in the 
park of the ancient Bagoas, 6 near Babylon. In 
Cyprus 7 there is a peculiar kind of palm which does 
not ripen its fruit, though, when it is unripe, it is 
very sweet and luscious, and this lusciousness is of a 
peculiar kind. Some palms again 8 differ not merely 

gloss on *rjxvv f 6.g. cfs riixvs 5wo ic6$es (Salm.) ; om. G ; ivlor* 
koI in\ ir<*5a conj. W. 8 Plin. 13. 42. 

6 Bay^ov : B<£ttov MSS. corr. by R. Const, from Plin. 13. 
41. rod waXalov apparently distinguishes this Bagoas from 
some more recent wearer of the name. 

7 Plin. 13. 33. 8 Plin. 13. 28. 


Digitized by 

(fripovai Tot? /capirols dXXa /cal avrw rq> BevBp<p 

KCLTCL T€ TO flT]KO<Z KCU T7)V AXXrjV pLOp(f>^V' OV yap 

fieyaXoi /cal fia/cpol dXXd panels, ere Be /capiri- 

fJL(0T€pOl T&V aXXcJV KoX /Cap7TO^>OpOVVT€S €V0V<i 
Tpl€T€l<f TToXXol Be KOL OVTOl 7T€/ol KvTTpOV. eld 

Be /cal irepl ILvpLav /cal ire pi Aiyvirrov <f)oivi/ee<; 
oi <f>epovai rerpaerels zeal irevraerels dvBpofitftceis 

8 "JLrepov S* en yevos iv Kv7rpa), o zeal to <f>vXXov 
irXarvrepov e^ei /cal rbv /capirbv fieC^co iroXXep 
/cal lBi6fiop<f>ov fieyeOei fiev rjXL/cos pba rep ayr)- 
fiarc Be Trpopbij/crjs, ovk ev^yXos Be &airep aXXoi 
a\V ofjLocos rals poais, coare firj tcaraBexecrOcu 
dXXa BiafiacrrjaapLepov^ iKfidXXeiv. yevrj p,ev ovv, 
GKrirep etprjrai, TroXXd. dr)<ravpi%€<r0cu Be /jlovov? 
BvvaaOcu §acri t&v iv %vpla rovs iv T<p avX&vi, 
Toi>9 B' iv Alyvirrtp real Kvirpcp /cal irapa T0Z9 
a\Xo*9 %\(opov<; avaXiar/ceadai. 

9 v Eo*t^ Bk 6 <f>olvL^ ci)9 fiev dirX&s eiirelv fMOVo- 
areXe^es /cal pbovo^ves' ov p,rjv dXXd yivovrai 
rive? /cal Bi<f>veis, coenrep iv AlyvirTtp, /caOairep 
BiKpoav e^ovre^' to B' dvdaTrjfia rod (rreXe'Xpvs 
d(j> ov rj Gyiais; /cal nev TdTTtj^v * 717709 aXXrjXa Be 
7ra)9 l<rd£ovTa. (j>acrl Be /cal to£>9 iv Kp^rrj 
7r\etov9 elvai tovs Bevels, iviovs Be /cal Tpi<f>vei<;* 
iv Be rfj AairaLa riva /cal Trevra/ce^aXov ovk 
aXoyov yovv iv rah €vrpo<f) core pais %a>/HM9 TrXeiay 
yLveaOai tcl roiavra /cal to oXov Be ret eiBrj irXeLay 
/cal Ta9 Bia<j)opd<;. 

1 Sfioios conj. Bod.; 6/xotws UMVAld. 2 c/. §5. 
* Plin. 13. 38 ; c/. 4. 2. 7, where the name (t<ovKi6<popov) of 
this tree is given. 


Digitized by 


in their fruits but in the character of the tree itself 
as to stature and general shape ; for instead of being 
large and tall they are low growing ; but these are 
more fruitful than the others, and they begin to bear 
as soon as they are three years old ; this kind too is 
common in Cyprus. Again in Syria and Egypt 
there are palms which bear when they are four or 
five years old, at which age they are the height of 
a man. 

There is yet another kind in Cyprus, which has 
broader leaves and a much larger fruit of peculiar 
shape ; in size it is as large as a pomegranate, in 
shape it is long ; it is not however juicy like others, 
but like 1 a pomegranate, so that men do not 
swallow it, but chew it and then spit it out. Thus, 
as has been said, there are many kinds. The only 
dates that will keep, they say, are those which grow 
in the Valley 2 of Syria, while those that grow in 
Egypt Cyprus and elsewhere are used when fresh. 

The palm, speaking generally, has a single and 
simple stem ; however there are some with two 
stems, as in Egypt, 3 which make a fork, as it were ; 
the length of the stem up to the point where it 
divides is as much as five cubits, and the two 
branches of the fork are about equal in length. They 
say that the palms in Crete more often than not 
have this double stem, and that some of them have 
three stems ; and that in Lapaia one with five heads 
has been known. It is after all not surprising 4 
that in more fertile soils such instances should be 
commoner, and in general that more kinds and more 
variation should be found under such conditions. 

4 ovk &\oyop yovv conj. W. {ovk &\oycp h* Sch. ) ; ou kolKws 
yovp Ald.MU (marked doubtful). 


Digitized by 


10 "AWo Be ti yevo? iarlv 6 <f>aai yiveaOai 
TrXeiarov irepl ttjv PdOioirtav, o /caXovai Koiicw 
ovtoi Be dafivdoBeis, oi>xl ev to o-reXe^o? e^oz/re? 
aXXa TrXeico /ecu iviore avvrjpTrjfAeva p>expi TW/ °? 
€t9 <h>, ra9 8k pd/3Bov<; ov fiaKpd? fikv aU' oaov 
trrjxvaLa?, dWd \eta9, eirl Bk t&v atcpcov rrjv 
KOfxrjv. exov<ri Be zeal to <f>v\\ov irXarv /ecu &a- 
irep ix Bvoiv avy/ceifievov i\axi<TTOiv. tcaXol Be 
Kal tjj oyfrei (f>aivovTar tov Be Kapirov Kal t$ <?XV' 
yjvri Kal t$ yueyeOei teal to5 Bid<f>opov e%oiw 

arpoyyvXeorepov ydp Kal fie'ifa Kal evaTOfJucarepov 
fjTTOv 8k ykvKvv. TrewaLvovai Be ev rpialv l-reo-iv 
&<tt del teapTTOV e%ew, eiriKaTaXafi^dvovTO^ 
tov veov tov k*vov iroiovat Be /calaprov? igavT&v 
irepl fikv otrv tovtwv eiriaiceirTeov. 

n Ot Be x a f JLai Pp l ' ( l> € ^ KaXovfievoi t&v (poivi/ccov 
erepov ti yevo? iaTiv &<nrep ifuovvfiov Kal yap 
if-aipeOevTo? tov eyK€<f>d\ov £&ai Kal KoirevTes 
diro t&v pi£&v TrapajSKaGTavovai. Bia<f>epov<ri 
Be Kal t§) Kapirw Kal to?9 (frvWow ifXaTV ydp 
Kal fiaXatcbv ^x oval T0 <f>v\\ov, 8i 8 Kal irXe- 
Kovaiv ig a&TOv Ta9 tc trirvpLBas Kal tou9 
<popfiov$* iroWol Be Kal ev Tjj YiprfTji yivovTai Kal 
eTi fidXKov ev XifceXta. TavTa fiev ovv eVi 
ifkelov eiprjTai T779 viroOeaecos. 

1 Plin. 13. 47. 

2 icSticas conj. Salm. c/. 1. 10. 5, and the probable reading 
in Plin. Lc. 

3 <rvvnprrj/j.4ya /x4xpi rivbs eh %v conj. W.; <rwi)priin4vas fikv 

Digitized by 


1 There is another kind which is said to be 
abundant in Ethiopia, called the doum-palin 2 ; this 
is a shrubby tree, not having a single stem but 
several, which sometimes are joined together up to 
a certain point 8 ; and the leaf-stalks are not long, 4 
only the length of a cubit, but they are plain, 6 and 
the leafage is borne only at the tip. The leaf is 
broad and, as it were, made up of at least two 
leaflets. This tree is fair to look upon, and its fruit 
in shape size and flavour differs from the date, 
being rounder larger and pleasanter to the taste, 
though not so luscious. It ripens in three years, so 
that there is always fruit on the tree, as the new 
fruit overtakes that of last year. And they make 
bread out of it. These reports then call for 

7 The dwarf-palm, as it is called, is a distinct kind, 
having nothing but its name 8 in common with other 
palms. For if the head is removed, it survives, 
and, if it is cut down, it shoots again from the 
roots. It differs too in the fruit and leaves; for 
the leaf is broad and flexible, and so they weave 
their baskets and mats out of it. It is common in 
Crete and still more so in Sicily. However in 
these matters we have said more than our purpose 

els tv U ; ffvvi)priiixtva fi4xpi riv6s ei«n Aid. ; avvrjpTTj/xcvas fity 
fi*XP l fivta cUv MV. 

4 fihv ins. W. after Sch. (omitted above). 

5 i.e. without leaflets, except at the tip. 

6 4\axt<rroiv Bas. ; 4Aaxi<rru>v U. cf. Arist. Eth. N. 5. 3. 3, 
iv i\axl<TTois Bvfflv. 

7 Plin. 13. 39. 8 For b^w^ov cf. 9. 10. 1 n. 

9 A dwarf palm is now abundant at Selinunte : c/. Verg. 
A en. 3. 705, pcUmosa Sclinus. 


Digitized by 


12 'Ep hk rat? t&v aXXcov <f>VT€iai<; avdwaXiv 
TiOevTai tcl <f>VT€VTi]pia, KaOdirep f&V tc\r)fJLa,TC0V. 
oi /lev ovv ovOev hia^epeLV <f>aalv TjKKTTd he eirl 
t&v dfnreXav evioi he poav haavveadai teal 
GKiatpiv fidWov tov /capnov en he fjrrov airo- 
ftaXkew tou9 revrivovs. avfifiaiveiv hk tovto (j>aai 
teal enrl t?)? av/cr)?* oi yap dirofidWeLV dvdiraXiv 
tyvTevOeiaav, ert S* evfiaraTepav yiveaOai* oitc 
dirofidWeiv hk oih* idv W diroKkdari (frvofievrj? 
eiOvs to atcpov. 

At fiev ovv (f>VT€tcu /cal yevecreis op rpoirov 
eypvtri a^ehov c!>9 Tvir<p irepCkafieiv eiprjvrai. 

VII. Uepl he T^? ipyaaia? teal tt}? Bepaireia^ 
tcl fiev iaii kolvcl tcl he thia icaff* e/cacrTov. kolvcl 
fiev fj T€ c KOLirdvi) /cal r) vhpeLa /cal f] /coirpacris, 
€Ti he 7) hia/cdOapais kcl\ d<f>aipeai<; t&v avow. 
hia(f)epovai he t& fiaXXov /cal fjTTOV. Ta fiev 
<f)L\vhpa /cal <j>i\6/co7Tpa tcl 8' oi% ofioias?, olov rj 
KVirdpiTTos, rjirep oi (^/Xo/coirpov ovhe <f)i\vhpov, 
dWd teal diroXkvaOat <f>ao-LV idv ye veav ovcrav 
i<f)vhp€VQ)ai ttoWQ. poa he ical afiireXo? <f)i\vhpa. 
av/crj he evfiXaaTOTepa fiev vhpevofievrj tov he 
/capnov Xayei %eip<o ttXtjv t?}9 Ka/cfovL/crjV avTrj he 

1 avdwaXtv conj. Sch.; rbvdiraXiv Aid. c/. CP. 2. 9. 4 ; 
Oeop. 10. 45; Plin. 17. 84. 2 olv ins. H. 

3 Sa<ri>V€<rdai : see LS. reflf. s.v. Jacruj. 

4 cf. CP. 2. 9. 3. 

6 €h$arwr4pav (i.e. 'more manageable'). The reference is 
to a method of keeping the tree dwarf (Bod.). Plin. I.e. has 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. vi. 12-vn. 1 

Further notes on the propagation of trees. 

To return to the other trees : — in propagating them 
they set the cuttings upside down, 1 as with vine-shoots. 
Some however* say that that makes no difference, 
and least of all in propagating the vine ; while others 
contend that the pomegranate thus propagated has 
a bushier growth 8 and shades the fruit better, and 
also that it is then 4 less apt to shed the flower. This 
also occurs, they say, with the fig; when it is set 
upside down, it does not shed its fruit, and it makes 
a more accessible 5 tree ; and it does not shed its fruit, 
even if one breaks off the top 6 as it begins to grow. 

Thus we have given a general sketch of what 
we find about methods of propagation, and of the 
ways in which these trees are reproduced. 

Of the cultivation of trees. 
VII. 7 As to cultivation and tendance some require- 
ments apply equally to all trees, some are peculiar to 
one. Those which apply equally to all are spade- 
work watering and manuring, and moreover pruning 
and removal of dead wood. But different trees differ 
in the degree. Some love moisture and manure, 
some not so much, as the cypress, 8 which 9 is fond 
neither of manure nor of water, but actually dies, 
they say, if it is overwatered when young. But the 
pomegranate and vine are water-loving. The fig 
grows more vigorously if it is watered, but then its 
fruit is inferior, except in the case of the Laconian 
variety, which is water-loving. 10 

scansilem (so also G), which seems to be a rendering of cv&ar. 
cv&aroTfpav U. 

8 rb Hicpov conj. R. Const, after G ; rhv icapirby UMVPjAld. 
7 Plin. 17. 246. 8 Plin. 17. 247. 

9 fjirep conj. W. from G ; &aw€p Aid. 10 cf. CP. 3. 6. 6. 


VOL. I. L 

Digitized by 


Aia/cadaipeaOai he irdvra forei* ^eXrito yap 
r&v avcov d(j>aipovfievcov &<rirep dWorpicov, a Kal 
rd? atif-foeis koI Ta? rpo(f>a<; ifiirohu^ei. hi 8 
Kal . . . orav rj yepdvhpvov oXcos Koirrovaiv f] yap 
jSXdarrjai^ via yiverai rov hivhpov. irXeiarrj^ he 
hiareaQapaedds <f>r)<riv 5 Avhporicov helaOai fivppivov 
Kal iXdav oatp yap av iXdrra) KaraXiirj)*;, dfieivov 
fSXaarrjarei Kal rov Kapirov otaei irXeiay irXyv 
dfiiriXov hfjXov on* ravrrj yap dvayKaiorepov 
Kal irpos ftXaarrjaiv Kal irpbs evKapiriav. dirX&$ 
he Kal ravrrjv Kal rrjv aXXrjv Oepaireiav 7T/0O9 rr\v 
ihiav <f>v<riv eKaartp iroirjriov. 

AeiaOai hi <f>rj<riv 1 Avhporicov Kal Koirpov 
hpifivrdrr)? Kal irXeiarrj^ vhpela?, wairep Kal 7*79 
hiaKaOdpaeax;, eXdav Kal fivppivov Kal poav % ov 
yap e^eiv fir\rpav ovhk voarffia Kara 7779 ovhiv 
dXX* eireihdv iraXaibv f) to hivhpov, dirorifiveiv 
helv tou9 aKpefiova? iireira to ariXexos Oepa- 
ireveiv wairepdv ef dp^f}? <f)vrev0iv oirco hi 
<f>aai iroXvxpovicorepa Kal Iwyvporara fivppivov 
elvai Kal iXdav. ravra fiev ovv iiriaKiyfrair 
av ri$, el Kal fit) irdvra dXXa irepi ye T779 

n he Koirpo? ovre iraaiv o/u>ta>9 ov0* rj airrj 
iraaiv dp/iorrer ra fiev ydp hpifieias heir at ra 
8* ffrrov Ta hh iravreX&<; KOv<f>7)<;. hpifivrdrr\ he 
f) rov dvOpdoirov KaBdiTep Kal Xaprohpas 
dpio-rrjv fiev ravrrjv elvai <f>r)ai, hevripav hk rrjv 
veuav, rpirrjv he alyos, rerdprt)v he irpofidrov, 

1 Plin. 17. 248. 2 Name of tree missing. Soh. 

8 c/. CP. 3. 10. 4. * ra<,r V conj. W.; ratrris Aid. 


Digitized by 


1 All trees require pruning ; for they are improved 
by removal of the dead wood, which is, as it were, a 
foreign body, and prevents growth and nourishment. 
Wherefore when the (tree) 2 becomes old, they cut 
off all its boughs : for then the tree breaks afresh. 
Androtion 8 says that the myrtle and olive need more 
pruning than any other trees ; for the smaller you 
leave them, the better they will grow, and they will 
bear better fruit. But the vine of course needs 
pruning even more ; for it is in the case of this tree 4 
more necessary for promoting both growth and 
fruitfulness. However, speaking generally, both 
this and other kinds of tendance must be suited to 
the particular natural character in each case. 

Androtion further says that the olive the myrtle 
and the pomegranate require the most pungent 
manure and the heaviest watering, as well as the 
most thorough pruning, for that then they do not 
get ' softwood ' 5 nor any disease underground ; but 
when the tree is old, he adds, one should cut off the 
boughs, and then attend to the stem as though it 
were a tree just planted. Thus 6 treated they say 
that the myrtle and olive are longer lived and 
very robust. These statements might be a subject 
for further enquiry, or, if not all of them, at least what 
is stated of the ' softwood.' 

Manure does not suit all alike, nor is the same 
manure equally good for all. Some need it pungent, 
some less so, some need it quite light. The most 
pungent is human dung: thus Chartodras 7 says 
that this is the best, pig-manure being second to it, 
goat-manure third, fourth that of sheep, fifth that of 

6 i.e. effete sap-wood. 6 ofrrw conj. W. ; oi Aid. 
7 Name perhaps corrupt. 


l 2 

Digitized by 


rrefnrrrjv Be #069, e/crrjv Be rr)v Xofyovptov. r) Be 
(TvpfiaTLTi? dXXrj teal aXXoos* r) fikv yap daOeve- 
arepa ravrrjs t) Be Kpelrrwv. 

5 Trjv Bk (TfcaTrdvrjv rraaiv oitovrai avp^epeiv, 
&o~irep Kal ri)v oaKaXaiv T0I9 eXdrroaiv ebrpa- 
(j>earepa yap yuveaffai. rpe<f)€iv Be Bo/cei Kal 6 kovi- 
oprb? evia teal OdXXeiv iroielv, olov rbv fiorpvv, Si 
b xal VTTOKOvCovai rroXXdw oi Be Kal riis <tvkcl$ 
virocrKaitTovaiv evOa rovrov Bee. Meyapol Be 
Kal tou9 (tikvov? Kal ra$ KoXoKvvras, orav oi 
irrjaiai irvevacoai, aKaXXovre? kov 10 proven Kal 
ovto) yXvKvrepov? Kal diraXarepovs iroiovaiv 

01>X vBj)€VOVT€S. TOVTO fxkv ot>V 6fwXoyOVfJL€VOV. 

ri)v 8' afirreXov ov <j>aai rives Selv [rf] vttokovUiv 
ovB* o\ft>9 arrreaOat, rrepKatpvros rod fiorpvos, 
dXX* elrrep orav drrofieXavOfj, oi Be to oXov fArjSk 
rore ttXtjv oaov hirorZXdi rrjv ftordvrjv virep phf 
oiv rovrcav d/jxjiio'firjrovo'iv. 

6 'Eav Be ri fir) <f>epr) Kapirbv dXX eU /3Xdo*rr)aiv 
rpeirryraiy axi^ovai rov areXexpy^ ro Kara yfjv 
xal XiOov evriOeaaiv 07rco9 av payf), tcaL (f>aai 
<f)epeiv. 6/jloi(o$ Be xal eav ri$ r&v pi^&v rivas 
irepirefiy, Si h Kal r&v dfiireXcov orav rpay&ai 
rovro rroiovai rct$ irrnroXrfi. r&v Sh gvk&v 
7T/0O9 T(p irepirefiveiv Kal re<f>pav rrepntdrrovGi 
Kal Karaaya^ovai ret areXexv Ka ^ <f>a<rt> <f>epeiv 
fiaXXov. dfixjyBaXfj Be Kal irdrraXov iyKoyjravres 

1 Lit. * bushy tails/ i.e. horses asses mules. 

* cf. CP. 3. 16. 3. * »€? ins. H ; so apparently G read. 

4 Bctv vwokovUiv oi>8' $\<as conj. W. (so Sen., but keeping 
[^] after faiv) ; Belv vxoKivieiv oi/B* 8a«s UMVj Hciv xtkoko- 
vi*i v 1) 3a«j Aid. 6 Plin. 17. 253 and 254. 


Digitized by 


oxen, and sixth that of beasts of burden. 1 Litter 
manure is of different kinds and is applied in various 
ways : some kinds are weaker, some stronger. 

Spade-work is held to be beneficial to all trees, 
and also hoeing for the smaller ones, as they then 
become more vigorous. Even dust 2 is thought to 
fertilise some things and make them flourish, for 
instance the grape ; wherefore they often put dust to 
the roots of the vine. Some also dig in dust about 
the figs in places where it is deficient. 8 In Megara, 
when the etesian winds are past, they cover the 
cucumber and gourd plants with dust by raking, and 
so make the fruits sweeter and tenderer by not 
watering. On this point there is general agreement. 
But some say that dust should not be put to the vine, 4 
and that it should not be meddled with at all when 
the grape is turning, or, if at all, only when it has 
turned black. Some again say that even then nothing 
should be done except to pluck up the weeds. So 
on this point there is a difference of opinion. 

5 If a tree does not bear fruit but inclines to a 
leafy growth, they split that part of the stem which 
is underground and insert a stone corresponding 6 to 
the crack thus made, and then, they say, it will bear. 
The same result follows, if one cuts off some of the 
roots, and accordingly they thus treat the surface 
roots of the vine when it runs to leaf. In the case 
of figs, in addition to root-pruning, 7 they also sprinkle 
ashes about the tree, and make gashes in the stems, 
and then, they say, it bears better. 8 Into the almond 
tree they drive an iron peg, and, having thus made 

8 8ir«j hv frayy Aid.: so G ; ? Hirov; 8ir«s hvtuyri oonj.W. 
cf. Otop. 5. 35. 7 Plin. I.e. 

* cf. 2. 2. 11 ; CP. 1. 17. 10 ; 2. 14. 1 ; Plin. 7. 253. 


Digitized by 


aiBrjpovv orav tct pdvmaiv aWov avrefifidWovai 
Bpvivov teal ttj yfj fcpvTrrovaw b teal tcaXovai 
rives tcoXd^eiv co? v/3pi£ov to BevBpov. 
7 Tavrbv Be tovto teal eVi rrjs diriov teal eV 
aXXwv Tivh TToiovaiv. ev 'AptcaSia Be teal 
evdvveiv tcaXovai ttjp oav 7roXv yap to BevBpov 
tovto Trap 9 aurofc eo-Ti. tcai <f>ao-iv, OTav irdOrj 
tovto, t^9 fiev fjuf) <f>epovo-a<} <f>epeiv ras Be firj 
ireTTOvaa? etcireTTeiv /ca\a>9. dfivyBaXrjv Be zeal 
etc Triicpas yuyveaOai yXvteeiav, edv t*9 irepiopvl-as 
to <TT€\e^09 teal Tvrpdvas oaov tc TraXaiaTiaZov 
to TravTaxoOev diroppeov Bdtepvov inl TavTo ia 
icaTappelv. tovto fiev ovv ctv eirj rrp6<; re to <f>epeiv 
a/ia zeal irpbs to evtcapjreiv. 

VIII. ' AiroftdXXei Be irpo tov 7reyfrai tov tcap- 
ttov dfivyBaXfj fJurfXea poa airios Kal fidXiaTa Bff 
irdvTtov avtcrj teal <j>olvil;, Trpos a teal t^9 fiorjOela? 
%r)Tovar oOev real 6 epivaap,6<r etc yap t&v 
etcet tepefiavvvfievwv epiv&v yfrijve? etcBvo/juevoi tcaTe- 
aOiovai teal iriaivovai, Ta9 tcopv$d<;. Bia<j>epovai 
Be teal at X&pai irpb^ Ta9 diro^oXd^ irepl yap 
*lTaXiav ov <f>aaiv dirofidXhjGw, Bi h obB' epi- 

1 The operation being performed at the base of the tree, 
c/. § 7. 2 iKvtrrfty conj. R. Const. ; uan4rr€ty UMAld. 
8 Plin. 17. 252. 

4 rb iravrdxoOev conj. W.; travrdxoBey rb MSS.; so ap- 
parently G. cf. G. P. 2. 14. 4. 

5 vtyai conj. Sch.; iriptyat Aid. 

6 4fctt Kptfiavuvfi4vo»y iptvStv I conj. ; iicei Kpcpavvvfifruv Aid. ; 
4iriKptfMfji4iKay ipivStv conj. W. : but the present partic. is used 
CP. 2. 9. 5. 


Digitized by 


a hole, insert in its place a peg of oak-wood and 
bury it 1 in the earth, and some call this 4 punishing ' 
the tree, since its luxuriance is thus chastened. 

Some do the same with the pear and with other 
trees. In Arcadia they have a similar process which is 
called e correcting ' the sorb (for that tree is com- 
mon in that country). And they say that under 
this treatment those trees that would not bear do 
so, and those that would not ripen their fruit now 
ripen 2 them well. 5 It is also said that the almond 
becomes sweet, instead of bitter, if one digs round 
the stem and, having bored a hole about a palms- 
breadth, allows the gum which exudes from all 
sides 4 to flow down into it and collect. The object 
of this would be alike to make the tree bear and to 
improve the fruit. 

Of remedies for the shedding of the fruit : caprification. 

VIII. Trees which are apt to shed their fruit before' 
ripening 5 it are almond apple pomegranate pear 
and, above all, fig and date-palm ; and men try to 
find the suitable remedies for this. This is the 
reason for the process called ' caprification ' ; gall- 
insects come out of the wild figs which are hanging 
there, 6 eat the tops of the cultivated figs and so 
make them swell. 7 The shedding of the fruit differs 
according to the soil : in Italy 8 they say that it 
does not occur, and so they do not use caprification, 9 

7 viaivovffi MVAld.; $itipov<ri conj.W. ? vcwatvovfft, 'ripen,' 
which is the word used in the parallel pass. 0. P. 2. 9. 6, the 
object of the process being to cause the figs to dry. 

8 Plin. 15. 81. 'Italy' means South Italy, cf 4. 5. 5 and 
6 ; 5. 8. 1. 

9 ipivd£ov<riv conj. Bod.; iptvovfftv Ald.H. 



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vd^ovaiv ovB' iv rots tcarafiopeCoi? teal Xcttto- 
yewis, olov iirl <f>aXvK<p Tf}$ MeyapiBov ovBe t?)? 
Kopiv0ua<; ev Tiai tottow. axravTO)^ Be teal i) 
t&v TTvevfidrayv KaTaaTaaiv fiopetois yap p,aXXov 
rj votloi? aTToftaXkovai, kov yfrv^porepa /cal 
TrXeCco yevqrai paXXov €Ti S' aifT&v t&v BevBptov 
f) <f>v<rw tcl irpdala yap diroftdXXei, tcl 8* oyfria 
ovk i/cfidWei, KaOdnrep f) AaKwviKrj /cal ai aXXai. 
Bi b Kal ovk epivd^ovai Tavras. ravra puev 

otfV €V T€ TO?? T07TO*9 KOL TOi? yevcai KOL TTf 

fcaraardaei rod depos k\ei tcl? Biafyopds. 

2 Oi Be yjrfjve? itchvovrai puev Ik tov epiveov, 
KaOdirep eiprfrar yivovrai £' ck t&v Keyxpap,iBcov. 
arjp,eiov Be Xeyovaiv, oti eireiBdv eKBvtoaiv ovk 
kveiai K€y^pap,iBe<;. ixSvovTai Be oi woXXol 
iyKaraXnrovTe? fj iroBa ?; irrepov. yevo? Be n 
Kal Irepov ian t&v ^Jrrfv&v, b KaXovai Kevrpivav 
ovtoi £' dpyol KaOdnrep Kr\$r\ve<} % Kal tou? elaBvo- 
p,evov$ t&v erepav Kreivovaiv avrol Be* ivairo- 
OvrfaKovaiv. iiraivovai Be p^dXiara t&v epiv&v 
tcl p*ekava tcl ire t&v ireTpoaB&v %G)/otG)i/' vroXXd? 

3 yap e%e* TavTa Keyxpa^iBa^. yiyv&GKeTai B\ 
to epivaap,evov t& epvOpov elvai Kal itoikiXov Kal 
laxvpov to 8' dvepivaaTOV XevKov Kal daOevev 
TTpoo-TiOeaai Be to?9 Beopuhoi^: OTav varj. oirov 
Be irXeZaTO? KOviopTos, evTavQa TrXeiaTa Kal 

1 cf. 8. 2. 11. 

2 ^fvxp^repa Kal vXcloo conj. Sch.; re\vor4pa koL irXclwv MV 
Aid. ; r expire pa koL irAefw U. 

8 wpwfa conj. Sch. from G ; irpwra Ald.H. 
4 Plin. 17. 255 and 256. 


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nor is it practised in places which face north nor in 
those with light soils, as at Phalykos 1 in the 
Megarid, nor in certain parts of the district of 
Corinth. Also conditions as to wind make a differ- 
ence ; the fruit is shed more with northerly than 
with southerly winds, and this also happens more 
if the winds are cold and frequent. 2 Moreover the 
character of the tree itself makes a difference ; for 
some kinds, such as the Laconian and other such 
kinds, shed their early 3 figs but not the later 
ones. Wherefore caprification is not practised with 
these. Such are the changes to which the fig 
is subject in respect of locality kind and climatic 

4 Now the gall-insects come, as has been said, out 
of the wild fig, and they are engendered from the 
seeds. The proof given of this is that, when they 
come out, there are no seeds left in the fruit ; and 
most of them in coming out leave a leg or a wing 
behind. There is another kind of gall-insect which is 
called kentrines; these insects are sluggish, like drones, 
they kill those of the other kind who are entering 
the figs, and they themselves die in the fruit. The 
black kind of wild fig which grows in rocky places 
is most commended for caprification, as these figs 
contain numerous seeds. 5 A fig which has been 
subject to caprification is known by being red and 
parti-coloured and stout, while one which has not 
been so treated is pale and sickly. The treatment 
is applied to the trees which need it, after rain. 
The wild figs are most plentiful and most potent 

5 i.e. and so should produce more gall-insects: in CP. 
2. 9. 6 it is implied that the insect is produced by putrefac- 
tion of the seeds of the wild tig. 



Digitized by 


ia'xyporaTa ret ipiva ytverai. <f>a<rl Se ipivd&iv 
teal to irokiov, OTTorav avT& Kapirb? y iro\v^ 9 Kal 
rot»? t^? 7TT€\ea5 KtopvKow iyyiveTai yap Kal iv 
tovtois OrjpihC arra. Kvlires otov iv Tafc avKal? 
yiv(ovrai KareadLovai toi>9 yfrfjvas. a/co? Se tovtov 
<f>a(rlv elvai rov? tcapicLvovs irpoairepovav *irpo<; 
yap tovtov? rpeireadai tov? Kvlira?. aXKa 
yap Srj rat? fiev <rv reals avrai fioijOeiai. 
4 Tot9 $e <j>oivil;iv al airo t&v appevcov irpb? tov? 
OrfKew ovtoi yap elaw oi iirifjuiveiv ttocovvtc? 

Kal ifC7T€TT€iV, $ Ka\0V<TL TIV€? €/C T7]? OfJLOlOTfJTO? 

6\vv0d%€iv. ytverai Se Tovbe tov rpoirov. orav 
dvOfj to appev, diroTkpjvovai ttjv (nrddrjv i(f>* 

^9 TO &V0O? €V0V? &<HT€p 6%€fc, TOV T€ "tfVOVV Kal 

to av6o? Kal rbv KOviopTov KaTaceiovat KaTa 
tov Kapirov Trj? drfKeia?' k&v tovto 7rddy, BiaTfjpet 
Kal ovk CLTTofidiXkei. fyaiveTOi 8' dp^olv dirb tov 
appevo? TOt9 OrfKeai ftotfOeia yiveo-dar Orjkv yap 
KaXovai to KapTTo<f)6pov a\V rj fikv olov fil^L?' 
f] Be KaT SXKov Tpoirov. 

1 b*6r* ttv . . . iroAtfs conj. W. from G, cum copiose fmcti- 
*icat ; 6ir6rap alylirvpos $ iroXvs MSS. U adds #cai before 

2 KwpvKovs I conj. In 3. 14. 1. the elm is said to bear 
KcopvxlSes which contain gnat-like creatures ; these growths 
are called KwpvKwSrj riva koiKu 3. 15. 4 ; and in 3. 7. 3. the 

1 54 

Digitized by 


where there is most dust. And they say that 
hulwort also, when it fruits freely, 1 and the ' gall- 
bags ' 2 of the elm are used for caprification. For 
certain little creatures are engendered in these also. 
When the knips is found in figs, it eats the gall-insects. 
It is to prevent this, it is said, that they nail up 
the crabs ; for the knips then turns its attention to 
these. Such are the ways of assisting the fig- 

With dates it is helpful to bring the male to the 
female ; for it is the male which causes the fruit to 
persist and ripen, and this process some call, by 
analogy, 'the use of the wild fruit.' 8 The process 
is thus performed : when the male palm is in flower, 
they at once cut off the spat he on which the flower 
is, just as it is, and shake the bloom with the flower 
and the dust over the fruit of the female, and, if this 
is done to it, it retains the fruit and does not shed 
it. In the case both of the fig and of the date it 
appears that the ' male ' renders aid to the € female/ 
— for the fruit-bearing tree is called € female' — 
but while in the latter case there is a union of the 
two sexes, in the former the result is brought about 
somewhat differently. 

same thing is referred to as rb BvXaKwfes tovto, where tovto 
= *the well-known'; cf. also 9. 1. 2, where Sch. restores 
Kwpvfcovs ; cf. Pall. 4. 10. 28. Kvwaipovs (?) U ; K\nr*povs MV; 
K^wtpiv Aid. ; KVTTdpovs conj. W. 

8 b\w0d(*iv 9 from 6kvv$os, a kind of wild fig, as ipivdfav, 
from ipivSs, the wild fig used for caprification. cf. C.P. 
3. 18. 1. 


Digitized by Google 

Digitized by Google 


Digitized by Google 


I. 'E7T€t iT€p\ t&v rjfiipcov SevBpcov elprjrai, 
Xetcreov o/iotft)? teal irepl t&v dypicov, el t4 ti 
ravrbv teal erepov e^ovai to?9 r/fiepoi? et 0* o\g>? 
Xhiov t?J? <f>v crews. 

Ai fiev oZv yeveaei? dirXal nves avr&v elar 
irdvra yap rj dirb aTrepfiaro^ fj dirb pl£rj<; (frverai. * 
tovto S' ovjt c!)? ov/c ivSexofievov teal aXXax;, dXX* 
tam Sea to fJLT] ireipaaOai firjSeva firjSe <f>vrevew 
€K(f)voLro 8* av el Xa/i&dvoiev tottov? iTriTiySeiovs 
/cat depaireiav ttjv dpfJLOTrovaav &air€p zeal vvv 
ra dXacoSr} /cal <f>[XvBpa, TUyco S' olov irXdravov 
Ireav Xev/crjv alyeipov irreXeav* diravra yap 
ravra teal ra roiavra <f>vrev6fieva /SXaardvet koX 
Ta%*o"ra teal fcaXXiara dirb t&v irapaairdhtov, 
&are koX /ucydXa? ovaas rj&y /cal laoSiv&povs av 
Ti? fi€radfj Sia/xeveiv <f)VT€V€rai 8e tH woXXd 
avr&v zeal /caraTrrjyvvfieva, tcaddirep 17 Xevtcq teal 
7) aXyeipos. 

2 Tovtmp fiev oZv 7r/oo? rfj aire p par ucfj teal TTj 
dirb t&v pi^&v teal avTrj yiveafc iarr t&v Si 

1 iK<pvotro conj. W.; ivupvotTo UMVAld. 


Digitized by 


Op Wild Trees. 
Of the ways in which wild trees originate. 

I. Now that we have spoken of cultivated trees, 
we must in like manner speak of wild ones, noting 
in what respects they agree with or differ from 
cultivated trees, and whether in any respects their 
character is altogether peculiar to themselves. 

Now the ways in which they come into being are 
fairly simple ; they all grow either from seed or from 
a root. But the reason of this is not that they 
could not possibly grow in any other way, but merely 
perhaps that no one even tries to plant them other- 
wise ; whereas they might grow 1 from slips, if they 
were provided with a suitable position and received 
the fitting kind of tendance, as may be said even 
now of the trees of woodland and marsh, such as 
plane willow abele black poplar and elm ; all these 
and other similar trees grow very quickly and well 
when they are planted from pieces torn off, so that 2 
they survive, even if at the time of shifting they are 
already tall and as big as trees. Most of these are 
simply planted by being set firmly, for instance, the 
abele and the black poplar. 

Such is the way in which these originate as well 
as from seed or from roots ; the others grow only 

3 &<rre koI ftcy, conj. Sch. ; koI &arc ku\ fity. UM ; koI &<rrc 
H*y. PAld. 


Digitized by 


aXX<op i/ceipac ttXtjp oaa jjlovov diro crirepp^aTo^ 
<f>v€TCU, /caOdirep iXdrr} Trev/crj ttLtv?, oaa 8k eyei 
aneppxi /ecu /capjrop, kclv dirb pt£»79 yivrjTai, /cal 
airo tovtoov ijrel real to, So/covpTa a/capwa elvai 
yepvav <j>aaip f olov irreXeap ireap. arj/xeiov he 
Xeyovaw ov /jlopop oti <f)V€Tat iroXXa t&p pi£&p 
airripTrjiieva icaG* ou? av y tottovs, dXXa /cal ra 
avfiftaivopTa Bewpovpres, olop ip <Pepeq> tt}9 
'Ap/cahias, a>9 e1*eppdyr} to avpaO poiaOev vhcop ip 
r& irehitp $paydkpT<op t&p ftepeOpw owov fiep 
€77^9 r\aap It ecu, ire<f>v/cvlai rod KcnairoQ ep-ro<} 
T07TOV, rq> varepep erei fxera rrjp dpat;ripapaip 
ipravda aZ6i$ ava^vvaL <j>aacp ireap' ottov he 
irreXAat aJ>0i<; irreXeas, /cdddirep /cal qirov irev/cai 
/cal eXarai irev/cas /cal iXdra?, &anrep /nifiovp^pcop 


3 'AXXa tt)p ireap rafti/ Trpo/caTafiaXXeip irpb 
rod reXevw ahpvpai /cal ireyfrai top /capirop* 
oV h /cal top 7roirjTr)p ov /ca/c&s irpoaayopevew 
avTrjp wXeo-i/capTTOp. 

T779 hi irreXea^ /cd/ceipo arjfiecop vwoXafifid- 
povaip* otop yap ano t&p irpevpArap eh to £9 
exop<€POV$ T07TOU9 o Kapirbs direpe^Ofj , <f>vea0ai 
aai. irapaTrXrjGLOP he eoi/cep elpai to avpufialpop 
teal eirl t&p <j>pvyapi/c&p ical Tromh&p tipwp 
ecTLP' ov/c iftoPTcop yap airipfia <\>apepop, dXXa 

1 c/. 5. 4. 6. 

8 * Katavothra' (now called 4 the devil's holes,' see Lawson, 
cited below) ; c/. Paus. 8. 14 ; Catull. 68. 109 ; Plut. de sera 
numini8 vindicta, 557 c ; Plin. 31. 36 ; Frazer, Pau&anias and 
other Greek Sketches, pp. 315 foil. ; Lawson, Modem Greek 
Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, p. 85. 


Digitized by 


in these two ways — wnile some of them, such as 
silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine grow only from seed. 
All those that have seed and fruit, even if they grow 
from a root, will grow from seed too ; for they say 
that even those which, like elm and willow, appear 
to have no fruit reproduce themselves. For proof 
they give the fact that many such trees come up at a 
distance from the roots of the original tree, what- 
ever the position may be ; and further, they have 
observed a thing which occasionally happens ; for in- 
stance, when at Pheneos 1 in Arcadia the water which 
had collected in the plain since the underground 
channels 3 were blocked burst forth, where there 
were willows growing near the inundated region, the 
next year after it had dried up they say that willows 
grew again ; and where there had been elms, elms 3 
grew, even as, where there had been firs and silver- 
firs, these trees reappeared — as if the former trees 
followed the example 4 of the latter. 

But the willow is said to shed its fruit early, before 
it is completely matured and ripened; and so the 
poet 5 not unfittingly calls it " the willow which loses 
its fruit." 

That the elm also reproduces itself the following 
is taken to be a proof : when the fruit is carried by 
the winds to neighbouring spots, they say that young 
trees grow from it. Something similar to this 
appears to be what happens in the case of certain 
under-shrubs and herbaceous plants ; though they 
have no visible seed, but some of them only a sort of 

8 itt€\€o$ alQis *T*\tas conj. St. ; urcXlaf kvrl **\4as U ; 
vrt\4as hvri irreA/as MV; irrc\4as aid is ttcA&s P; wTfX&i 
aldis irrthcas Aid. 

4 i.e. by growing from seed, as conifers normally do. 

5 Homer, Od. 10. 510 ; cf. Plin. 16. 110. 


VOL. I. M 

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tcov fiev olov *)(yovv tcov S' avOos, coairep to Ovfiov, 
ofico? diro tovtcov jSKaaravovaw. iirel r\ ye 
Trkaravos e%€i <f>avepco<; teal diro tovtcov <j>verai. 
tovto 8* ig aXKcov re BrjXov nd/celvo fieyiarov 
arjfieiov co<j>0rj yap tfSrj ttotc ire<\>VKvla ifKaravo*; 
iv rpLTToht %a\/cco. 

4 Tavra? re 8rj ra? yeveaeis VTroXrjTrreov elvai 
tcov dypicov teal en ra? avTOfjudrovs, as /cal oi 
<j>v<Tio\6yoi Xeyovaiv 3 Avafjayopas fiev tov depa 
irdvTcov <f>dcr/ccov eyew cnrepjiaTa /cal ravra 
avy/caTa<j>ep6fieva Tcp vBari yevvav rd cfrvTa* 
Aioyevr]? 8e a-rj7rofi€vov rod vSaro? /cal ylfyv 
nvd XafifidvovTO? 777)09 ttjv yfjv KXeiBrj/jLo? 8e 
avveardvai, p,ev i/c tcov avTcov roh £g>o*9, occp 
8k 6o\epcoTepcov /cal yjrvxporepcov toctovtov drrre'xeiv 
tov %coa elvat. [Xeyovcn 8e Tive? /cal aXXoi wepl 
T/79 yevecrecos.] 

6 'AXX' avTf) fiev dTrrjprrjfiivr) ttg)? iari t?J? 
ala0r)creco<;. aXkai 8e ofioXoyovfievai /cal ipxf>a- 
vels, olov orav e<f>o8o<; yevrjrai Trorajiov irape/cfidv- 
to? to peWpov rj /cal oXa>9 errepcoQi iroirjaafievov, 
/caddjrep 6 Necro? iv rfj *A/38r)piTi8i woXkd/cis 
fjuerafiaivet, /cal dfjua rrj fieTaftdcrei roaavrrjv 
v\t)v avyyevva rot? tottois, &are tco Tpvrcp erec 
avvrjpefyeiv. /cal irakiv orav iirofifipiai icard- 
a%coai ifkeLco ypovov /cal yap iv Tavrais /SXaaTi]- 
(7€t9 ylvovrai <\>vtcov. eot/ce 8e fj fiev tcov iroTaficov 
e<f>o8o$ iirdyeiv airepfiara /cal /capTrovs, /cal tov? 
o%6toi5<? <j>aai rd tcov ttoicoBcov f) 8* iirofifipia 

1 cf. CP. 1. 5. 2. 

2 Sc. of Apollonia, the ' Ionian ' philosopher. 

3 cf. C.P.I. 10. 3 ; 3. 23. 1 ; Arist. Meteor. 2. 9. 


Digitized by 


down, and others only a flower, such as thyme, young 
plants nevertheless grow from these. As for the 
plane, it obviously has seeds, and seedlings grow 
from them. This is evident in various ways, and 
here is a very strong proof — a plane-tree has before 
now been seen which came up in a brass pot. 

Such we must suppose are the ways in which wild 
trees originate, apart from the spontaneous ways j 
of which natural philosophers tell. 1 Anaxagoras l 
says that the air contains the seeds of all things, / 
and that these, carried down by the rain, produce 1 
the plants; while Diogenes 2 says that this happens 
when water decomposes and mixes in some sort with 
earth. 8 Kleidemos maintains that plants are made 
of the same elements as animals, but that they fall 
short of being animals in proportion as their com- 
position is less pure and as they are colder. 4 And 
there are other philosophers also who speak of 
spontaneous generation. 

But this kind of generation is somehow beyond 
the ken of our senses. There are other admitted 
and observable kinds, as when a river in flood gets 
over its banks or has altogether changed its course, 
even as the Nesos in the district of Abdera often 
alters its course, and in so doing causes such a 
growth of forest in that region that by the third 
year it casts a thick shade. The same result ensues 
when heavy rains prevail for a long time ; during 
these too many plants shoot up. Now, as the 
flooding of a river, it would appear, conveys seeds 
of fruits of trees, and, as they say, irrigation channels 
convey the 5 seeds of herbaceous plants, so heavy 

4 \4yovffi . . . yevcffivs apparently a gloss (W.). 
6 rAconj. W.; rVMAld. 


M 2 

Digitized by 


tovto iroiet TCLVTo' avy/caraQipei yap 7ro\Xa 
r&v (nrepfidrcDV, /cal afia aipfriv viva T779 7*7? /cal 
rod vBaro?' iirel /cal f) flints airy) t?}? KlyvTrrla<; 
6 7979 So/cel nva yevvctv vXrjv. iviaypv Be, av fiovov 
vTrepydaaypTac /cal Kivqaaxriv, evdv? avafUXaaravet, 
ra ol/cela T779 xa>pa<;, &a7rep iv KpijTij /cwirdpvnoi. 
yiverat, Sk TrapairXtfaiov ri tovt<p /cal iv to£? 
ikdrroaiv a /ml yap /civovfievr}? dvafiXaaTavet, 
iroa ti<; iv etcdcrrot,?. iv Be rofc rj/Mftpoxpis iav 
virovedays <j>aiv€(T0ai (f>aai rpifidkov. avrai fiev 
ovv iv ttj fi€Ta/3o\fj %Gty)a9 elavv, €lt€ koX 
ivvTrapftovTcov aTrepfidreov ecre teal avrrj? 7ro)9 
Siandefiivrj^ oirep taw ov/c aroirov iy/cara- 
/cXeiofiivoov dfia tg>v vyp&v iviaxov Se teal vharcov 
iTnyivofiivcov ISioorepov dvareiXai ftXrj? ifKrjOos, 
&a7rep iv JZvpijvrj 7UTTtt>&>V9 two? yevopAvov /cal 
TraXGor ovtco? yap avefUXdarrjaev f) tt\t\gLov vXtj 
nrporepov ov/c oJ/aa. <f>a(rl Se /cal to ye <riX(f)iov 
ov/c ov nrporepov i/c Toiavrr}? two? atria? <f)avf}- 
vau rpoiroL fiev oJ/v tolovtol t&v toiovtcov 

II. Tldvra /cdpirifia rj d/capira, teal detyvWa 
r) fyvWojUoka, teal dvdovvra r) dvavffrj* /coival 

1 rj 8* . . . rafah conj. W.; t) 8* &r. toOt' ad ivoUi rabr6 
UMV (5' al marked doubtful in U) ; ^ 8' *ir. tout' ainb iiroUt 
Aid. 2 Plin. 16. 142. 

3 i.e. and is released by working the ground. 

4 cf. CP. 1. 5. 1 ; Plin. 16. 143, who gives the date 
a.u.c. 130; cf. 19. 41. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. i. 5-11. 1 

rain acts in the same way 1 ; for it brings down 
many of the seeds with it, and at the same time 
causes a sort of decomposition of the earth and of 
the water. In fact, the mere mixture of earth with 
water in Egypt seems to produce a kind of vegeta- 
tion. And in some places, if the ground is merely 
lightly worked and stirred, the plants native to the 
district immediately spring up; 2 for instance, the 
cypress in Crete. And something similar to this 
occurs even in smaller plants ; as soon as the earth 
is stirred, wherever it may be, a sort of vegetation 
comes up. And in partly saturated soil, if you 
break up the ground, they say that caltrop appears. 
Now these ways of origination are due to the change 
which takes place in the soil, whether there were 
seeds in it already, or whether the soil itself some- 
how produces the result. And the latter explanation 
is perhaps not strange, seeing that the moist ele- 
ment is also locked up in the soil. 3 Again, in some 
places they say that after rain a more singular 
abundance of vegetation has been known to spring 
up ; for instance, at Cyrene, after a heavy pitchy 
shower had fallen : for it was under these circum- 
stances that there sprang up the wood 4 which is 
near the town, though till then it did not exist. 
They say also that silphium 5 has been known to 
appear from some such cause, where there was none 
before. 6 Such are the ways in which these kinds 
of generation come about. 

Of the differences between wild and cidtivated trees. 

II. All trees are either fruit-bearing or without 
fruit, either evergreen or deciduous, either flowering 
5 c/. 6. 3. 6 roiovroi MSS. ; roffovroi conj. W. 


Digitized by 


yap rives hicupeaeis eirl wdvrcov elaiv 6fiolco<; 
fjfiepcop re /cal dypicop. ihia he 7r/>o? tcl fffiepa 
t&p dypicop oyfrL/capirla re teal la^ps teal ttoXv- 
/capiria rep Trpo<\>aLveiw ireiraLpeL re yap oyfrtal" 
T€pov teal to oXop dpQel /cal /3\aardv€i ft)? Ctrl to 
tt&v teal la'xyporepa rfj <f>vaer /cal irpofyaivu 
fiev TrXeio) /capirbp iKirirrei 8' fjTTOp, el /jltj /cal 
wavja dXXd ye ra 6p,oy€Prj, olov eXaa? /cal diriov 
kotlvo? /cal dxpd$. diravra yap ovto)?, ttXtjp 
et tl airdviov, &<rrrep eVl t&p /cpapelcop ical t&p 
ovcov ravra yap hrj <f>aaL treiraiTepa ical rjBvrepa 
tcl dypia t&p f)p,ep<ov elvar /cal el hrf tl aXXo p,r) 
Trpoahe^eTai yecopyiav fj hevhpop f( /cal tl t&p 
eXaTTovcov, olov to aLXfaop /cal r) /cdinrapLS ical 
t&p xehpoir&p 6 0epp,o$, a /cal pAXiaT av rt? 
2 aypia ttjp <j>vaLP eiwoi. to yap p,rj irpoahexop^epop 
7]pAp(oaLV y &airep ev to£? JaW?, tovto dypiov tt) 
<\>vaeL. /caiTOL <f>rjalv "Ittttcdp airav /cal rjpuepop 
/cal aypcop elvaL, /cal Bepairevopuepov flip fj/iepop 
p,rj depairevofjiepop he aypLOP, tt) fiep bpd&s Xeycop 
Trj he ov/c 6p6&<;. i^afieXovpuepop yap airap 
X*lp ov ylveTaL /cal diraypLovTai, Oepairevo^epop 
he ov% airap fteXTLOp, &airep etprfTaL. o htj 
XcopLaTiop /cal tcl puep ctypLa Ta S' rjp,epa Xc/ctcop, 

1 et fiii . . . dpoycvrj conj. W.; €i fi)) koI Trdvra rh &\\a ical 
t& dfiotoyevi} UMVAld.H. 

2 cf. CP. 3. 1. 4. 3 cj. 1. 3. 5n. 

4 i.e. the terms 'cultivated' and 'wild' do not denote 
distinct ' kinds.' 


Digitized by 


or flowerless ; for certain distinctions apply to all trees 
alike, whether cultivated or wild. To wild trees, as 
compared with cultivated ones, belong the special 
properties of fruiting late, of greater vigour, of 
abundance of fruit, produced if not matured ; for they 
ripen their fruit later, and in general their time of 
flowering and making growth is later ; also they are 
more vigorous in growth, and so, though they produce 
more fruit, they ripen it less ; if 1 this is not universally 
true, at least it holds good of the wild olive and pear 
as compared with the cultivated forms of these trees. 
This is generally true with few exceptions, as in the 
cornelian cherry and sorb ; for the wild forms of these, 
they say, ripen their fruit better, and it is sweeter 
than in the cultivated forms. 2 And the rule also does 
not hold good of anything which does not admit of 
cultivation, whether it be a tree or one of the smaller 
plants, as silphium caper and, among leguminous 
plants, the lupin ; these one might say are specially 
wild in their character. For, as with animals which 
do not submit to domestication, so a plant which does 
not submit to cultivation may be called wild in its 
essential character. However Hippon 8 declares that 
of every plant there exists both a cultivated and a 
wild form, and that c cultivated ' simply means 4 that 
the plant has received attention, while ' wild ' means 
that it has not ; but though he is partly right, he is 
partly wrong. It is true that any plant deteriorates 
by neglect and so becomes wild ; but it is not true 
that every plant may be improved by attention, 6 as 
has been said. Wherefore tf we must make our 
distinction and call some things wild, others culti- 

5 i.e. and bo become * cultivated.' 

6 b MSS.; Bib conj. Sch. from G. 


Digitized by 


&crirep t&v ^cocov to, avvavOpcoirevofieva zeal tcl 
Se^Sfieva ridaaeCav. 

'AXXA tovto fiev ovBev ?<tg>9 8ia<f>€pei TroTepa)? 
prjTeov. dirav Se to &%aypLOVfievov rofc re 
Ka^iroL? x&pov ylverai /ecu avTo fipayyTepov 
Kai <f>vXXoi<; teal kXcoctI Kai (f>XoL(p /ecu rrj oXy 
fiopefrfj* zeal yap irvievorepa kcu ovkorepa teal 
crkXrjpoTepa leal ravra Kai oXrj 7) efrvat,? yLveTai, 
<J>9 iv tovtol? fidXiara T779 Siaefropa? t&v rj/xepcov 
teal twv dypLcov ywofievrjs. Sc b kcu ocra t&v 
f/fiepovfievoov roiavra Tvy^dvei, ravra aypid 
<f>acnv elvat, KaOdirep ttjv nrevK^v kcu ttjv levixd- 
ptTTOv, rj 0X0)9 rj Tr)v appeva, teal ttjv xapvav Se 
kcu ttjv SiocrfidXavov. 

v Et* t€ rep faXoyfrv'ypa kcu opeiva fiaXXov elvar 
kcu yap tovto Xap,pdveTcu 7rpo? ttjv dypcoTrjTa 
t&v SivBpcov Kai 0X0)9 t&v <f>vT&v, clt ovv Kaff 
clvto Xcififiavofievov ehe koto, avfijUeftriKo*;. 

f O fiep ovv t&v dypicov adopter fios eiff* ovtcd? 
fj teal aXXw? XrjTTTeos, oiBh &v ?ctg>9 SieveyKoi 
717)09 ia vvv €K€ivo Se dXrjdes, (5 9 76 t& tvttw 
Kai a7rX(W9 eiirelv, oti fiaXXov opetva tc\ aypia Kai 
eidevel tcl irXelco Kai fiaXXov iv tovtolj; rofc 
T07rot9, iav fir} Ti9 Xafiftdvrj tcl cfrlXvSpa Kai 
irapairoTdfiia Kai dXacoSrj. TavTa yap Kai to. 
TOLavTa Tvy^dveL ireSeiva, /jlclXXov. ov firjv aXX' 
ev ye rofc fjueyaXoL? opecriv, olov Hapvrjcr& ts 
Kai KvXXtfvrj Kai 'OXvfnrcp t$ TLiepiKfp re Kai 
t& Mvcricp Kai et ttov tolovtov €T€pov, awavTa 

1 Tteaaclav conj. W., c/. Plat. Pol. 264 C ; ndaffiov UMAld. 

Digitized by 


vated — the latter class corresponding to those animals 
which live with man and can be tamed. 1 

But perhaps it does not matter which way this 
should be put. Any tree which runs wild deteriorates 
in its fruits, and itself becomes dwarfed in leaves 
branches bark and appearance generally ; for under 
cultivation these parts, as well as the whole 
growth of the tree, become closer, more compact 2 
and harder ; which indicates that the difference 
between cultivated and wild is chiefly shown in these 
respects. And so those trees which show these 
characteristics under cultivation they say are really 
wild, for instance fir cypress, or at least the ' male ' 
kind, hazel and chestnut. 

Moreover these wild forms are distinguished by 
having greater liking for cold and for hilly country : 
for that too is regarded as a means of recognising 
wild trees and wild plants generally, whether it is so 
regarded in itself or as being only incidentally a 
distinguishing mark. 

So the definition of wild kinds, whether it should 
be thus made or otherwise, perhaps makes no 
difference for our present purpose. But it is certainly 
true, speaking 3 broadly and generally, that the wild 
trees are more to be found in hilly country, and that 
the greater part of them flourish more in such regions, 
with the exception of those which love water or grow 
by river sides or in woods ; these and such-like trees 
are rather trees of the plain. However on great 
mountains, such as Parnassus Cyllene the Pierian and 
the Mysian Olympus, and such regions anywhere 

2 ov\6r€pa conj. W. from G, spissiora ; 6pB6r€pa MSS. c/. 
CP. 6. 11. 8. 

3 &s 7« conj. Sch.; &ar* UM ; «s iv Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


<f>V€Tcu hict TTfV uoXveihiav r&v roircov' eypvat 
yap Kal Xifiv<bhei<; /ecu ivvypovs /ecu grjpov? zeal 
yedohei? /ecu 7T€Tp(bhei<; /cat rov? ova fieaov Xet- 
ficova? zeal a^ehov oacu hiafyopal T779 7*79* en he 
rou? fiev kolXov? Kal evhieivov? tovs he* fierecopovs 
/cal irpoarjveiJLow &are hvvaaOac navTOia Kal tc\ 
iv to £9 Trehloi<; fyepecv. 
6 Ovhev 8' aroirov ovh* el evict firj ovtcd irdp^opa 
tcop opcov, aXX' thicoTepa? twos vXrj? fj irdar}? rj t^9 
7rX6t(7T7/9, olov iv rfi 'K.prjrri tc\ 'ISata* KVirdpnTOS 
yap e/eet* Kal ra irepl KiXtKiav Kal ^vpiav, ei' 
oh /feS/)09* ivia^ov he t>}9 Xvpia? repfiivOo^. ai 
yap hia(f>opal T779 %ft)/)a9 ttjv thiorrjTa iroiovaiv. 
aXX' eipTjrac to chiov C09 iirl irav* 

III. "Ihia he ra TOidhe t&v opeiv&v, a iv T0Z9 
7rehCoi<; ov <f>veTai, [nepl ttjv MaKehovtav] iXdrrj 
TrevKrj ttltv? dypCa <f>iXvpa %uyia <f>rjyb<; irv^o^ 
avhpd')(\rj /^Xo9 apKevdo? reppuvOo^ iptveo^ 
<f>t\vK7] d<f>dpKr} xapva hcoafidXavos irpivo?. tcl 
he Kal iv to?9 irehloi^ /MvpLKrj ureXea XevKrj Irea 
alyeipo? KpaveLa OrjXvKpaveia KXrjOpa hpvs XaKa- 
PV uXpfo firjXea oarpva KqXaarpov fieTua ira- 
XLovpos o%vdKav6o<; <<r<f>evhap,vo<;,> fjv iv fiev t£ 

1 iv . . . 'I5ata conj. W. (after Sch., who conj. ra iv) ; t& 
iv Kp"f}rr} Ty) 'l5a(<y UAld. 

2 i.e. it is not meant that a tree which is * special ' to 
Mount Ida {e.g.) occurs only there. 

3 it€pl r^v Mok.? a gloss ; irepf tc tV Mok. MP 2 Ald. ; re om. P. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. n. 5-111. 1 

else, all kinds grow, because of the diversity of 
positions afforded them. For such mountains offer 
positions which are marshy, wet, dry, deep-soiled or 
rocky ; they have also their meadow land here and 
there, and in fact almost every variety of soil ; again 
they present positions which lie low and are shel- 
tered, as well as others which are lofty and exposed 
to wind ; so that they can bear all sorts, even those 
which belong to the plains. 

Yet it is not strange that there should be some 
mountains which do not thus bear all things, but 
have a more special kind of vegetation to a great 
extent if not entirely ; for instance the range of Ida 
in Crete 1 ; for there the cypress grows ; or the hills 
of Cilicia and Syria, on which the Syrian cedar 
grows, or certain parts of Syria, where the terebinth 
grows. For it is the differences of soil which give 
a special character to the vegetation. 2 (However 
the word ' special ' is used here in a somewhat 
extended sense.) 

Of mountain trees : of the differences found in wild trer*. 

III. The following trees are peculiar to mountain 
country and do not grow in the plains ; 8 let us 
take Macedonia as an example. Silver-fir fir ' wild 
pine ' lime zygia Valonia oak box andrachne yew 
Phoenician cedar terebinth wild fig alaternus hybrid 
arbutus hazel chestnut kermes-oak. The following 
grow also in the plain : tamarisk elm abele willow 
black poplar cornelian cherry cornel alder oak lakare 
(bird-cherry) wild pear apple hop-hornbeam holly 
manna-ash Christ's thorn cotoneaster maple, 4 which 

4 <r<pev$afwos add. Palm, in view of what follows ; h^vdnapra 
&KarBos UPAld.Bas.; &kw0os Y v 


Digitized by 


6 pet 7T€<f>vKviav £vyiav koXovgiv, iv Be t& ireBitp 
ykelvov. oi 8' aWew? Biaipovai Kal erepov ttoi- 
ovaiv elBo<z acftevBdfjLvov zeal £vyia<z. 

2 " Anravra Be oaa koivcl t&v bp&v Kal t&v 
ireBicov, /jl€i£(o fiev Kal kciWlco ttj oyfret ra iv to?9 
Trehloi<; ylverai, KpeiTTCO Be ttj XP €La rfi re t&v 
gvkeov Kal rfj t&v Kapir&v tcl opewd* irKrjv 
axpdBos Kal clttlov Kal firfheas* avrai B J iv rofc 
TreBioi? Kpeirrovs ov fiovov to?? Kapirol^ dXka Kal 
T069 £u\o*9* ev yap rot? opeac /uxpal Kal d£cbBeL<z 
Kal ctKavOdoBei? ylvovrar iravra Be Kal iv tol<s 
opeaiv, orav iirikd/ScovTai t&v oLKeioov tottcov, Kal 
koXXlco <f>v€Tai Kal evOevel fiaXXov &>9 Be a7rXw9 
elirelv tcl iv row ofiaXeai t&v op&v Kal fidXiara, 
t&v Be aXKcov tcl iv rofc KaTco Kal Ko'ikow tcl 8* 
iirl t&v aKpcov xeipiaTa, ir\r}v ev tl ttj (f>v<rei 

3 <f>i\6ylrv%pov ep(ei Be Kal TavT aZ Tiva Bia<f>opav 

iv T<H9 dvOJJbOlOL^ T&V T07TCDV, V7T€p &V VGTepOV 

XeKTeov vvv Be BiaipeTeov CKaaTOv KaTa ra9 Bia- 
fyopa? ra9 elprjfievas. 

Aei<f)vWa fiev oftv i<TTi t&v dyplcov a Kal 
irpoTepov eke^Or], ekdWrj irevKt] ttltv? dypia 7ru£o9 
dvBpdxkr) fu\o$ apKevOos TepfiwOo*; (f>i\vKrj 
d<f>dpK7) Bdxf)VYj (peWoBpvs KrfKaaTpov 6^vaKav6o<; 
irplvo? fivpLKT)' tcl Be dXka irdvTa <f}vWo/3o\er 
ifKrjv et tl irepLTTov iviaypv, KaOdirep iXexOrj irepl 
T779 iv ttj Kp^Tj) ifKaTavov Kal Bpvos Kal eX irov 

T07T09 TJ9 0\ft)9 eVTpofyo?. 

1 5' &\\cos conj. Sch. from G ; 5* ad Aid. 2 Plin. 16. 77. 
3 i.e. are not always of the poorest quality, ravr a? rtva 
conj.W.; ravra avrSov Ald.H. 4 1. 9. 3. 


Digitized by 


when it grows in the mountains, is called zygia, 
when in the plain, gleinos : others however, 1 classify 
differently and make maple and zygia distinct trees. 

2 All those trees which are common to both hill 
and plain are taller and finer in appearance when 
they grow in the plain ; but the mountain forms are 
better as to producing serviceable timber and fruits, 
with the exception of wild pear pear and apple ; 
these are in the plain better in fruit and also in 
timber ; for in the hills they grow small with many 
knots and much spinous wood. But even on the 
mountains all trees grow fairer and are more vigorous 
when they have secured a suitable position ; and, to 
speak generally, those which grow on the level parts 
of the mountains are specially fair and vigorous; 
next to these come those which grow on the lower 
parts and in the hollows ; while those that grow on 
the heights are of the poorest quality, except any 
that are naturally cold-loving. But even these shew 
some variation 3 in different positions, of which we 
must speak later; for the present we must in our 
distinctions in each case take account only of the 
differences already mentioned. 

Now among wild trees those are evergreen which 
were mentioned before, 4 silver-fir fir ( wild pine ' box 
andrachne yew Phoenician cedar terebinth alaternus 
hybrid arbutus bay phellodrys 5 (holm-oak) holly 
cotoneaster kermes-oak tamarisk ; but all the others 
shed their leaves, unless it be that in certain places 
they keep them exceptionally, as was said 6 of the 
plane and oak in Crete and in any other place which 
is altogether favourable to luxuriant growth. 

8 <t>€\\6$pvs conj. Bod., cf. 1. 9. 3 ; <pe\\bs Spvs UMV(?)Ald. 
6 1. 9. 5. 

1 73 

Digitized by 


JZdpTn/iia 8k ra fiev aXXa iravra' irepl Bk Irea? 
/cal alyeipov /cal irreXea^, &(nrep iXe^drj, 8iafjL<f)icr~ 
fSi)Tov<Tiv. evioi Be rfjv alyeipov fiovrjv cucapirelv 
fyaaiv, &<T7T€p /cal oi iv 'Ap/caBia, ra Be aXXa 
irdvra ra iv tol$ opeai /capiro<f>opeiv. ev Kp^ry 
Be /cal atyeipoi /cdpirifioi irXeiov? eld* [iia fiev iv 
t$ aro/iitp rov avrpov rov ev rfj "IBy, iv eS ret 
dvadtffiara dvd/ceirai, aXXrj Be fii/cpa TrXrjo-iov 
aTTcoT&pco Be fidXiara 8d)8e/ca araSiov? irepi riva 
Kpr\vt]v %avpcv /caXovfievrjv iroXXai. eial Be /cal 
iv rq> TrXrjaiov 6 pet T779 "1 8*79 iv tg> Kiv8piq> 
fcaXovfievqy /cal ire pi Upaio'iav Be iv to 49 opeaiv. 


elvai <f>a<ri, /caOdirep oi irepl WlaiceBovLav. 

MeydXrj Be 8ia<f)opa 7J-/009 /capirov /cal d/capiriav 

teal f] T&V TOTTCOV <£>U<W, &airep ilTL T6 T??9 7T€/X7€a9 

e%et /cal t&v <f>oivifCQ)v f\ fiev iv Alyv*jrT<p Kapiro- 
<popei /cal et irov t&v ttXtjclov tottcov, iv 'PoBcp Be* 
fie^pi rov dvdelv fiovov dff>i/cveiTai. 6 8k <f>oivi[j 
irepl fiev J$a/3vX&va davfiaaro^, iv rfj 'FiXXdBi 8k 
ovBk Treiraivei, trap iviois Be o\c»9 ovBe *ir po<\>aivei 

f O)LtotG)9 8k Kal erepa irXeico roiavr iarlv iirel 
/cal t&v eXaTTovwv iroapicov /cal vXrjfidrcov iv rf) 

1 2. 2. 10. 

2 cf. 2. 2. 10. It appears that the buds of the poplar were 
mistaken for fruit (Sch.); cf. Diosc. 1. 81. Later writers 
perpetuated the error by calling them k6kkoi. 

8 rov iv ttj "I5|7 conj. Sch.; rov iv t$ "ISt; U; rod iv r$ ^IStjj 
MV ; iv rj) *% Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


Most trees are fruit-bearing, but about willow 
black poplar and elm men hold different opinions, 
as was said 1 ; and some, as the Arcadians, say that only 
the black poplar is without fruit, but that all the 
other mountain trees bear fruit. However in Crete 
there are a number of black poplars which bear fruit 2 ; 
there is one at the mouth of the cave on mount Ida, 8 
in which the dedicatory offerings are hung, and 
there is another small one not far off, and there are 
quite a number about a spring called the Lizard's 
Spring about twelve furlongs off. There are also 
some in the hill-country of Ida in the same neigh- 
bourhood, in the district called Kindria and in the 
mountains about Praisia. 4 Others again, as the 
Macedonians, say that the elm is the only tree of this 
class which bears fruit. 

Again the character of the position makes a great 
difference as to fruit-bearing, as in the case of the 
persea 5 and the date-palm. The persea of Egypt 
bears fruit, and so it does wherever it grows in the 
neighbouring districts, but in Rhodes 6 it only gets 
as far as flowering. The date-palm in the neighbour- 
hood of Babylon is marvellously fruitful ; in Hellas it 
does not even ripen its fruit, and in some places it 
does not even produce any. 

The same may be said of various other trees : in 
fact even 7 of smaller herbaceous plants and bushes 
some are fruitful, others not, although the latter are 

* Upaialav conj. Meurs. Greta ; npaaiav UMVAld. 

5 cf. 4. 2. 5. Tccpatat conj. R. Const. ; ntpacias U ; vcpaias 

6 *?6t<p conj. R. Const, from G, so too Plin. 16. Ill ; p6a 
Aid. cf. 1. 13. 5. for a similar corruption. 

7 tircl koI conj. Sch. from G ; i-rcl 5e koI Aid. 


Digitized by 


avrfj xdapcL /cal awopop X^P a ™ K dpirtpba rd 
S' aicapiTa yiverar tcaOamep teal to KevTavpcov iv 
rfj 'HXeia, to fiev iv ttj opeivfj Kapiri/jiov, to 8* iv 
t& irehLw aicapirov aXka fiovov dv6el y to 8' iv T0Z9 
kolXoi? t6ttoi<; ouS' ai>#€£ 7rX^i/ fCd/CG)?. 8o/C€i 8* 
ovv /ecu t&v dXKcov t&v o/juoyev&v Kal iv pud 
Trpoarjyopia to pukv aicapirov elvai to Be /cdpirifAOv, 
olov irplvos 6 fjiev fcdpirifio? 6 S* dicapiro^ Kal 

7 KXrjOpa h\ (baavTW dvOel 8' dfufico. &x e ^ ov 8e 
oca kclKov<tlv appeva t&v 6fioyev&v aicapircv Kal 
tovtcov rd fiev 7roXkd dvOelv <f>a<ri rd 8' okiyov 
rd 8* oXg>9 ovS' dvdeiv rd 8e dvairaXtv, rd fiev 
appeva fwva KapiroKfropeiv, oi firjv aXX' diro ye 
t&v dvO&v <f>v€<T0ai rd SevBpa, Kaddirep /cal diro 
t&v Kapir&v oaa Kapirifia* koX iv dfi(f>oLV ovtcos 
ivioTe TTUfcvrjv elvai ttjv eKcfrvaiv &<tt6 tou? 
opeoTvirov? ov BvvaaOai hilevai firj oSoiroir}- 

8 ' AfJL<f)ia/3r)T€iTai Se Kal ire pi t&v dvO&v ivioov, 
&airep eiirofiev. oi fiev yap Kal Spvv dvdeiv 
oXovTai Kal ttjv *HpaK\e&Tiv Kapvav Kal Bioa- 
ftdXavov, gtl he irevKrjv Kal ttItvw oi 8* ovSev 
tovtcov, dXkd tov tovXov tov iv Tai<$ Kapvai? Kal 


1 x<fy>? Aid. ; fi Kal conj. St. 

2 i.e. the * males' are sterile whether they flower or not. 
Kal rovTosv ra jmhv rroAAefc I conj. ; rotiruv ra wo\\a ra fitv Aid. 

3 ? i.e. the flowers of the ' female ' tree. 

4 i.e. (a) in those trees whose 'male' form is sterile, 
whether it bears flowers or not ; (6) in those whose ' male ' 


Digitized by 


growing in the same place as the former, or 1 quite 
near it. \Take for instance the centaury in Elea; where 
it grows in hill-country, it is fruitful ; where it grows 
in the plain, it bears no fruit, but only flowers ; and 
where it grows in deep valleys, it does not even 
flower, unless it be scantily} Any way it appears 
that, even of other plants which are of the same 
kind and all go by the same name, one will be 
without fruit, while another bears fruit ; for instance, 
one kermes-oak will be fruitful, another not ; and the 
same is true of the alder, though both produce 
flowers. And, generally speaking, all those of any 
given kind which are called c male ' trees are without 
fruit, and that though 2 some of these, they say, 
produce many flowers, some few, some none at all. 
On the. other hand they say that in some cases it is 
only the ' males ' that bear fruit, but that, in spite 
of this, the trees grow from the flowers, 8 (just as in 
the case of fruit-bearing trees they grow from the 
fruit). And they add that in both cases, 4 the crop 
of seedlings 5 which comes up is sometimes so thick 
that the woodmen cannot get through except by 
clearing a way. 

There is also a doubt about the flower of some 
trees, as we said. Some think that the oak bears 
flowers, and also the filbert the chestnut and even 
the fir and Aleppo pine ; some however think that 
none of these has a flower, but that, — resembling 6 
and corresponding to the wild figs which drop off 
prematurely, we have in the nuts the catkin, 7 in the 

form alone bears fruit, but the fruit is infertile. The passage 
is obscure : W. gives up the text. 
5 iiupvaiv. cf. 7. 4. 3. 

8 Zfxoiov conj.W.; Sfxolav UAld. cf. 3. 7. 3. 
7 cf. 3. 5. 5. 


VOL. I. N 

Digitized by 


Ivov ojjlolov teal dvdXoyov elvai to?9 TrpoaTro- 
ttt&tol? ipivois, ol Be irepl Ma/ceBovCav ovBe 
ravrd (f>aatv dvOelv ap/cevOov ofjvrjv dpLav a<f>ev- 
Bafivov. evioi Be t<x9 dptcevOovs Bvo elvai, teal rrjv 
fiev erepav dvOelv fiev aKapirov 8' el vac, ttjv 8k 
erepav ovk dvOelv fiev Kapirbv Be fyepeiv eiOv? 
Ttpo§aivb\Juevov> &airep icai rd<; cvtccis ret epivd. 
(TVfifiaivei 8' ovv &<rre eirl Bvo errj tov icapirov 
%X etv H'ovov tovto t&v BevBpcov. ravra fiev ovv 

IV. f H Be flXdo-TTjais t&v fiev a/ia ylvercu zeal 
t&v rjfiepcov, t&v Be fii/cpbv iTriXenrofievrj, t&v 8' 
778*7 irXeov, airdvTcov Be /cara ttjv rjpivfjv &pav, 
dWd t&v Kapnr&v rj irapaXkayrj jrXeioov &<rirep 
Be tcai irpoTepov elirofiev, oi kclto, t^9 ftXaaTijo-eis 
at ireirdvaeis dWd iro\v Bia<f>e'povaiv t eirel real 
t&v dyfnKapTTOTepayv, a Btf Tives (fraaiv iviavTO- 
(fropeiv, olov ap/cevOov teal irplvov, 8fico<z ai /8\acr- 
Trjaei<; tov ffpo<;. avTa B* avT&v tcl ofioyevrj t$ 
irpoTepov icai vaTepov Biafyepei kcltcc tov? tottovs* 
irp&Ta fiev yap f3\aaTavei T(i ev rofc eXeacv, &>? 
oi irepl MaxeBoviav \eyovai, BevTepa Be tcl ev toI$ 
TreBiois, eayaTa Be tcl ev rofc opeaiv. 
2 Avt&v 8% t&v Ka6 y e/caaTa BivBpeov tcl fiev 

1 i.e. the male flower, cf. Schol. on Ar. Vesp. 1111. 
Gc6<ppa<nos Kvplws \4yet tevrrapov r^y irpoavBrjatv rrjs irlrvos : 
but no explanation of such a use of the word suggests itself. 
cf. 3. 3. 8; 4. 8. 7. 

2 iiplav conj. Sch., cf. 3. 4. 2; 3. 16. 3; 3. 17. 1 ; otfvyv ayplav 


Digitized by 


oak the oak-moss, in the pine the ' flowering tuft/ 1 
The people of Macedonia say that these trees also 
produce no flowers — Phoenician cedar beech aria 2 
(holm-oak) maple. Others distinguish two kinds of 
Phoenician cedar, of which one bears flowers but 
bears no fruit, while the other, though it has no 
flower, bears a fruit which shows itself at once 3 — 
just as wild figs produce their abortive fruit. How- 
ever that may be, 4 it is a fact that this is the only 
tree which keeps its fruit for two years. These 
matters then need enquiry. 

Of the times of budding and fruiting of wild, as compared 
with cultivated, trees. 

IV. Now the budding of wild trees occurs in some 
cases at the same time as that of the cultivated forms, 
but in some cases somewhat, and in some a good 
deal later; but in all cases it is during the spring 
season. But there is greater diversity in the time of 
fruiting ; as we said before, the times of ripening do 
not correspond to those of budding, but there are 
wide differences. For even in the case of those 
trees which are somewhat late in fruiting, — which 
some say take a year to ripen their fruit — such as 
Phoenician cedar and kermes-oak, the budding 
nevertheless takes place in the spring. Again there 
are differences of time between individual trees of 
the same kind, according to the locality ; those in 
the marshes bud earliest, as the Macedonians say, 
second to them those in the plains, and latest those 
in the mountains. 

Again of particular trees some wild ones bud 

3 i.e. without antecedent flower. 

4 5* olv conj. W.; trx^v UMVAld. 


N 2 

Digitized by 


o-vvavafiXaardvei Tofc rjfiepots, olov dvBpd'xXrj 
a<f>dp/cr)* axpci? Be fii/cp<p varepov Trj? dmov. ra 
Be Kal irpb ^€(j>vpov /ecu fiera irvoas ev6v ^€(f>vpov. 
Kal irpb ^€(f>vpov fiev Kpaveia Kal OrjXvKpaveia, 
fiera £e<j)vpov Be Bdfyvrj Kkrjdpa, irpb larjfiepLas Bk 
putepbv (plXvpa fyyia (prjybs av/cf)' TrpcotfiXaara 
Be /ecu Kapva Kal Bpv$ /cat aKreo^ en Be fiaXXov 
ra afcapTra BoKovvra zeal dXacoBrj, XevKrj irreXea 
Irea alyeipov irXdravo? Be fiiKpfy o^friairepov 
rovreov. ra Be aXXa wairep iviarafievov rov 
77/009, olov epivebs (friXvKrj b1;vdicavdo$ iraXiovpo? 
ripfiivOos Kapva BioaftdXavo? 9 firfXea 8' oyfrC- 
fiXaaTOV oyfnftXao-TOTaTov Be cryeBbv iyJro$ dpLa 
rerpaycovia dveia filXos. ai fiev o\)v ftXaarrjo-eis 
ovrax; eypvaiv. 

3 Ai Be dvOtfaeis d/co\ov0ovai fiev a>9 elirelv Kara 
Xoyov, ov firjv dXXa TrapaXXdrrovai, fiaXXov Be 
Kal eirl irXeov r) r&v Kapir&v reXeLGXTL^. Kpaveia 
fiev yap d*iroBLB<DGi irepl rpoira<; depiva? r) Trpcbio? 
ayeBbv &<nrep irptaiov* fj B* oyjrio^, fjv Br] Tive? 
KaXovai OrfXvKpavelaVy fier avrb to fieroirtopov 
ecrTL Be 6 ravTT)? Kapirb^ aftpcoTO? Kal to gvXov 
daOevks Kal yavvow roaavrrj Br) Bia<f>opa irepl 

4 afufxa. Tep/iivOo? Be irepl irvpov dfirjrbv r) fiiKpq* 

1 See below, n. 4. 

2 rh. &k. Sok. Kal &\cr. conj.W.; t& &k. Kal tioic. koI &\(r. U 
MP ; tA die. t& So*. **<r. Aid. 

3 &aw€p apologises for the unusual sense given to Ivurr. 


Digitized by 


along with the cultivated forms, as andrachne and 
hybrid arbutus ; and the wild pear is a little later 
than the cultivated. Some again bud both before 
zephyr begins to blow, and immediately after it has 
been blowing. Before it come cornelian cherry and 
cornel, after it bay and alder ; a little before the 
spring equinox come lime zygia Valonia oak fig. 
Hazel 1 oak and elder are also early in budding, and 
Still more those trees which seem to have no fruit 
and to grow in groves, 2 abele elm willow black 
poplar ; and the plane is a little later than these. 
The others which bud when the spring is, as it were, 
becoming established, 3 are such as wild fig alaternus 
cotoneaster Christ's thorn terebinth hazel 4 chestnut. 
The apple is late in budding, latest of all generally 
are ipsos 5 (cork-oak) aria (holm-oak) tetragonia 
odorous cedar yew. Such are the times of budding. 

The flowering times in general follow in proportion ; 
but they present some irregularity, and so in still 
more cases and to a greater extent do the times at 
which the fruit is matured. The cornelian cherry pro- 
duces its fruit about the summer solstice ; the early 
kind, that is to say, and this tree is about the earliest 
of all. 8 The late form, which some call ' female 
cornelian cherry ' (cornel), fruits quite at the end of 
autumn. The fruit of this kind is inedible and its 
wood is weak and spongy ; that is what the difference 
between the two kinds amounts to. The terebinth 
produces its fruit about the time of wheat-harvest or 

(usually 'beginning'). t& 5* &Wa fixrirtp ivitrr. conj. W.; rh 
5' &\\ws ir€p* U ; rk 5c AAAws ircpifviaraficvov MAlcLH. 

4 Kapva can hardly be right both here and above. 

5 See Index. 

8 trxethv &<rir€p irpSnov not in G, nor in Plin. (16. 105) ; text 
perhaps defective. 


Digitized by 


o-tyiairepov diroBiBmat /cal fieXia teal a^ivBajJivos 
tov Oepovs tov /capirbw /cXrjdpa Be /cal /capva /cal 
axpdScov ti yevo<$ pLeroirdypov* Bpv<? Bk /cal Bioa- 
fidXavos dyfnairepov en irepl TIXeidBo? Bvo'iv, 
a>aavTa><; Be /cal <f>tXv/crj ical irplvo^ /cal iraXlovpo^ 
/cal 6%va/cav6os /jl€T(l HXeiaBos Bvaiv r] 8' dpia 
Xeifi&vos dpxofievov /cal rj firjXea fiev rofc 7rpa>Toi<; 
*tyv)(e<TiVy a%/o«9 Be dyfrla ^etytwiw dvBpd')(X f q Be* 
/cal dfydpicr) to fiev irp&Tov ireiralvovaw dfia T<p 
fiorpvl 7T€p/cd%ovTi, to Be varepov, Bo/cel yap ravra 
BUapira, dpypfievov tov xeifi&vos, eXaTt) Be /cal 

5 fjuiXos dvdovai fju/cpbv irpb t/Xlov Tpoir&v [/cal t?/? 
76 eXaTrj? to avdo<$ /cpo/civov /cal aXXco? icaXov] 
tov Bk /capirbv dtpiao'i fieTa Bvaiv HXeidBos. 
irev/crj Be ical ttltv^ irpoTepovai ttj fiXaGTrjGei 
fit/cpov, oaov irevTe/caiBe/ca rjfiepaw, tou? Be /cap- 
7Tov<$ diroBiBoao-i fieTa TlXeidBa /caTa Xoyov. 

TavTa fiev ovv fieTptcoTepav fiev e^ei irapaXXa- 
yr\v % irdvTcov Be irXeiaTr^v rj a^KevOo^ /cal rj /crjXaG- 
/cal f] TTplvov i) fiev yap apicevdo<; evutvaiov 
Bo/cel' irepi/caTaXafifidvei yap 6 veo<; tov irepv- 
aivov. ft>9 Be Tives (paciv, ovBe ireiraivei, Bi b ical 
Trpoa<f)aipovai kol xpovov Tivd Trjpovaiv edv Be id 

6 €7rl tov BevBpov t^9, dirofyqpalveTai. (f>acrl Be /cal Trjv 
irplvov oi irepl 'Ap/caBiav eviavT$ TeXeiovv a/jui 
yap top evov ireiraLvei /cal tov veov viro^alver 
&&T€ rofc ToiovTOi? avfi^aivei avve^w tov /capirbv 
eyeiv. (f>aal Be ye /cal Ttjv tcrfXaaTpov xnrb tov 

1 airoS. ical nc\la U ; airo5f5«<rr fic\la Aid. Some confusion 
in text, but sense clear. 

2 tyfa : ? j^tyfa W. 


Digitized by 


a little later, manna-ash 1 and maple in summer ; alder 
hazel and a certain kind of wild pear in autumn ; 
oak and chestnut later still, about the setting of the 
Pleiad ; and in like manner alaternus kermes-oak 
Christ's-thorn cotoneaster after the setting of the 
Pleiad; aria (holm-oak) when winter is beginning, 
apple with the first cold weather, wild pear late 2 in 
winter. Andrachne and hybrid arbutus first ripen 
their fruit when the grape is turning, and again 3 
when winter is beginning ; for these trees appear to 
bear twice. As for 4 silver-fir and yew, they flower 
a little before the solstice ; 5 (the flower of the silver- 
fir is yellow and otherwise pretty) ; they bear their 
fruit after the setting of the Pleiad. Fir and Aleppo 
pine are a little earlier in budding, about fifteen 
days, but produce their fruit after the setting of the 
Pleiad, though proportionately earlier than silver-fir 
and yew. 

In these trees then the difference of time is not 
considerable ; the greatest difference is shewn in 
Phoenician cedar holly and kermes-oak ; for Phoe- 
nician cedar appears to keep its fruit for a year, the 
new fruit overtaking that of last year ; and, accord- 
ing to some, it does not ripen it at all ; wherefore 
men gather it unripe and keep it, whereas if it is left 
on the tree, it shrivels up. The Arcadians say that 
the kermes-oak also takes a year to perfect its fruit ; 
for it ripens last year's fruit at the same time that 
the new fruit appears on it ; the result of which is that 
such trees always have fruit on them. They say also 

3 After vartpov Aid. adds &v$ovvti (so also H and G) ; Plin. 
13. 121. omits it ; om. W. after Sch. 

4 ybpAXd.; 5* conj. W. 

5 Probably an early gloss, W. cf. Plin. 16. 106. 


Digitized by 


'XeL/JLtovo? airo^aXKeLV, b-^riKapira Be <r<f>6Bpa kcu 
(f>lXvpa kcu 7rufo9. [top Be Kapirbv afipcorov 
eyei iravrl fewo) <f>[Xvpa OrjXvKpaveia irvgos. 
dyfri/capTra 8k kcu kitto? kcu apKev6o<; kcu 
irevKrj teal avhpd f )(\r).~\ c!>9 Be oi irepl 'Ap/caSiav 
fyaaiv, en tovtcov oyfri/capirorepa axeBbv 
Be irdvrcov o-^nairepa rerpaycovLa Oveia pi- 
Xo?. al fiev oiiv tg>v Kapir&v diro^oXal kcu 
ireTrdvaeis tcov wyplwv roiavras eypvai 8ia$opa<$ 

OV pLOVOV 7T/0O9 TCL tfpL€pa dXXa KCU 7T/0O9 €CLVTa. 

V. %vp,/3aiv€t, 8' orav apgcoprcu ftXaardvew 
rh pbkv aXXa awe^r} rtjp re pXdaTTjaiv kcll ttjv 
avfyaw iroieiadcu, irevKrjv Be /ecu iXaTrjv /ecu 
Bpvv BiaXeLireiv, kcu rpeis 6pp,a<; elvcu /cat rpei? 
dfyievcu ftXaarovs, 81 b kcu rpCaXoiror irav ycip 
Brj BevBpov orav /3Xaardvrj Xoira* irp&rov p,kv 
aKpov eapo? evdix; iarapuivov tov SapyiyXuvvos, 
ev Be rfj "lBy irepl TrevreKaiBeKa pidXiara fipuepa^ 
fi€Tci Be ravra BiaXnrovra irepl rpiaKOvra fj 
piKptp irXeiovs einfidXXeTai irdXiv aXXovs ftXaa- 
tou9 d'n aKpas t^9 KOpwrjaews r^9 eirl to5 irpo- 
repa> fSXaarfp* kcu tcl pkv avco ra 8' e/9 ra 
irXdyia kvkXg* iroievrav rrjv fiXdo-rrjaiv, olov ybvv 

1 <ptkvpa Aid.; <pi\vpta conj. Sch. 

2 rhv he ... . &v$pdx*ri' Apparently a gloss, W. 

3 rcTpayuvla conj. Sch. {rerpa- omitted after -T€/>a) : c/. § 2 ; 
yoovla MV ; ycovUta U. 

4 tuv byplay after irewavffcis conj. Sch.; after $j/*cpa Aid. 

5 Plin. 16. 100. 


Digitized by 


that holly loses its fruit owing to the winter. Lime 1 
and box are very late in fruiting, (lime has a fruit 
which no animal can eat, and so have cornel and 
box. Ivy Phoenician cedar fir and andrachne are 
late fruiting 2 ) though, according to the Arcadians, 
still later than these and almost latest of all are 
telragonia 3 odorous cedar and yew. Such then 
are the differences as to the time of shedding and 
ripening their fruit between wild 4 as compared 
with cultivated trees, and likewise as compared with 
one another. 

Of the seasons of buddiny. 

V. 5 Now most trees, when they have once begun 
to bud, make their budding and their growth con- 
tinuously, but with fir silver-fir and oak there are 
intervals. They make three fresh starts in growth 
and produce three separate sets of buds ; wherefore 
also they lose their bark thrice 6 a year. For every 
tree loses its bark when it is budding. This first 
happens in mid-spring 7 at the very beginning of the 
month Thargelion, 8 on Mount Ida within about 
fifteen days of that time ; later, after an interval of 
about thirty days or rather more, the tree 9 puts on 
fresh buds which start from the head of the knobby 
growth 10 which formed at the first budding-time; and 
it makes its budding partly on the top of this, 11 partly 
all round it laterally, 12 using the knob formed at the 

• rpi<r\<ywoi conj. Sch. ; rpiaXonroi UM V; rplaKtiroi MjAld. 
qf. 4. 15. 3; 5. 1. 1. 

7 fapos conj. R. Const.; kipos VAld. c/. Plin. I.e. 

8 About May. 

9 What follows evidently applies only to the oak. 

10 Kopwrjfftus conj. Sch.; Kopvvri* UMV; Kopv<pr\s tens 

11 cf. 3. 6. 2. 12 t& add. Sch. 


Digitized by 


7roir)<rd/j,€va ttjp rod 7rpa>Tov j3\a<TTov Kopvprjp, 
&<T7T€p /ecu i) irpcorrj /3\ dart] a is e%e*. yiperai Be 
tovto irepl top H/cippofopicbva XrjyopTa. 

2 Kara Be ravrrjv ttjp ^Xaarrjaiv teal r) /crj/cls 
<bvercu irdaa, tcai rj Xev/crj teal rj pbiXaipa' <j>v€Tcu 
Be o>9 iirl to 7ro\v pvkto? dOpoov i(f> rjfiepav Be 
piav av^rjOelaa, ttXtjv t^9 m ttociBovs, cap virb 
tov /eavfiaTos XrjipOfj ^paiverai, real avav%r)<; iirl 

TO /JL€l£oP, ijLP€TO jap OLP fl€L^(DP T<p fl€y€0€l. 

Bioirep ripe? avrcop ov p,ei£op e^ovat, /evdfiov to 
jxeyedos. f) Be pueXcupa teal iirl irXeiovs f/fiepas 
eyxXeopos €<tti, koX av^dpovrai kol Xapb/Sapovaip 
epiai pAyedos pbrjXov. 

AiaXeiiropTa Be puera tovto irepl irePTeicalBeKa 
r/puepas irdXip to TpiTOP €7ri/3dXXeTai ^XaaTOV^ 
'E/eaToptfiai&pos, eXa^to-TO,*; r/piepas t&p irpoTe- 
pop* iacos yhp e£ r) €7ttA to irXeicrTOP* f) Be 
fiXdcTTrjais o/jlolcl /ecu top clvtov Tpoirop. irapeX- 

OoVCTtoP Be TOVTCOP OVKCTL 669 /-w}#09 €t9 

irdyps f] av^rjens TpkireTai. 

3 Tlacri piep ovp Tofc BepBpois ai fiXacrTrjo-eis 
<f>apepai, pudXiaTa Be ttj eXaTrj zeal ttj Trev/cr) Bia 
to aTOL^elv tcl yopciTa /ecu e£ tcrov tov$ o£b t>9 
eyew* &pa he real irpos to TepvevQai tc\ gvXa 
tot€ Blcl to XoiraP' ep yap toi$ aXXois /ccupoi? 
ovte €V7T€pia[p€T0<} 6 (fiXoios, dXXa teal itepiaipe- 
devTos p,€Xap to £vXop ywerai teal ttj oyfrei "fcelpop* 
eirel lecCi irpos ye ttjp \peiap ovBep, aXXct /eai 

1 About June. 

2 cf. 3. 7. 4 ; 3. 8. 6 ; Plin. 16. 27. 

3 iyx^vp * conj. Coraes ; etfxAwpos Aid. 

4 8mAfl*wa conj. St.; fctaAf Uovtrai Aid. H, 


Digitized by 


first budding as a sort of joint, just as in the case of 
the first budding. This happens about the end of 
the month Skirrophorion. 1 

2 (It is only at the time of this second budding that 
the galls also are produced, both the white and the 
black ; the liquid forming them is mostly produced in 
quantity at night, and, after swelling for one day 
— except the part which is of resinous character — it 
hardens if it is caught by the heat, and so cannot grow 
any more ; otherwise it would have grown greater in 
bulk ; wherefore in some trees the formation is not 
larger than a bean. The black gall is for several 
days of a pale green 8 colour ; then it swells and some- 
times attains the size of an apple.) 

Then, after an interval 4 of about fifteen days, the 
tree for the third time puts on buds in the month 
Hekatombaion 5 ; but this growth continues for fewer 
days than on either of the previous occasions, perhaps 
for six or seven at most. However the formation ot 
the buds is as before and takes place in the same 
manner. After this period there is no increase in 
length, but the only increase is in thickness. 

The periods of budding can be seen in all trees, 
but especially in fir and silver-fir, because the joints 
of these are in a regular series and have the knots 
at even distances. It is then the season also for 
cutting the timber, because the bark is being shed 6 ; 
for at other times the bark is not easy to strip off, 
and moreover, if it is stripped off, the wood turns 
black 7 and is inferior in appearance ; for as to its 
utility 8 this makes no difference, though the wood 

5 About July. 

6 \01eav conj. Sch.; Aonrav UMV; \iirai> Aid. 

7 c/. Plin. 16. 74. 

8 yt conj. Sch.; tc Aid. 


Digitized by 


lo-'xyporepov, eav fiera rrjv ireiravcriv t&v fcapircov 

4 Tavra p,ev ovv XSia rtov wpoeiprjfiepoov SevSponv. 
ai Se /3\a(TTiia€i<; ai eirl Kvvl teal ' kptcrovptp yivo- 
fievai fi€Ta ttjv eapivrjv a^eSbv fcoival irdvroav* 
evSrjXoi Se puaXKov iv to?9 r)p£poi<; teal tovtcov 
fjuaXiara (Tv/cfj /ecu dfiireKco Kal poia xal o\a>9 oaa 
evrpafyr) tcaX ottov X^P a Toiavrr)* Si b teal ttjv 
€7r 'ApKrovprn ifKeLcFTTjv (f)aal yLveadai 7T€pl ®6T- 
Tcfidav teat Ma/ceSoviav dfia yap avpi^aivei Kal 
to fieroTTcopov teaXhv yLveadai teal fiatcpov, &are 
teal rrjv fxaXaKOTqra av/jb/SdWeaOai rov depos. 
inel teal iv Alyvirr<p Sia rovff* e!>9 elirelv alel 
/SXaardvei ra SevSpa, rj zeal fiucpov riva SiaXeLirei 

5 'AUa ra /jl€v irepl Ta9 ein^>\a<nrj<Te^ s coawep 
etprjTai, Koivd, ra Se irepl ra? SiaXetyeis diro rr)<; 
TrpdoTr)? XSia rcov Xe^devrcov. tSiov 8 ivioi? 
virdpyei Kal to T779 KaXov/jLevrj? Kay^pvos, olov 
ro?9 [re] TTpoeLprj/ievow eyei yap Kal iXdrrj zeal 
irevKt] Kal Spvs, Kal en <j>L\vpa Kal /capva Kal 
SioafidXavo? Kal ttitvs. avrai Se yivovrai Spvl 
fjiev irpb r^9 l3\a<TT / r](T€(o<; VTro<f>aivovcrr)<$ T779 
rjpivf}? co pas. eari S' iiairepel Kvr\avi <J)vWiKr) 
fiera^v irvinovaa TT79 dp%r}<; iiroiSrjaea^; Kal 
TT79 <f>vKkiKrfc ftXaaTrjaew ttj S* orj earl rov 

1 hivUpoov conj. R. Const.; Kapuwv Ald.H. 

2 cf.G.P. 1. 10. 6; 1. 12. 4; I. 13. 3; 1. 13. 5; 1. 13. 10; Plin. 
16. 98. » cf. CP. 1. 14. 11. 4 cf. 5. I. 4 ; Plin. 16. 30. 


Digitized by 


is stronger if it is cut after the ripening of the 

Now what has been said is peculiar to the above- 
mentioned trees. 1 2 But the buddings which take 
place at the rising of the dog-star and at that of 
Arcturus after the spring budding are common to 
nearly all, though they may be most clearly seen in 
cultivated trees, and, among these, especially in fig 
vine pomegranate, and in general in all those that 
are luxuriant in growth or are growing in rich soil. 
Accordingly they say that the budding at the rising 
of Arcturus is most considerable in Thessaly and 
Macedonia 8 ; for it also happens that the autumn in 
these countries is a fair and a long season ; so that 
the mildness of the climate also contributes. Indeed 
it is for this reason, one may say, that in Egypt too 
the trees are always budding, or at least that the 
process is only suspended for quite a short time. 

Now the facts as to the later buddings apply, as 
has been said, to all trees alike ; but those which 
belong to the intervals after the first period of 
budding are peculiar to those mentioned above. 
Peculiar to some also is the growth of what are 
called ' winter buds/ 4 for instance in the above- 
mentioned trees ; silver-fir fir and oak have them, and 
also lime hazel chestnut and Aleppo pine. These 
are found in the oak before the leaf-buds grow, when 
the spring season is just beginning. This growth 
consists of a sort of leaf-like formation, 5 which occurs 
between the first swelling of the leaf-buds and the 
time when they burst into leaf. In the sorb 6 it 

6 iari . . . <pv\\iK^: i<rrt conj. R. Const.; &<nrtpcl conj. Sch.; 
Irt 5e SoffTrep 77 Kvrjais <pv\aK^ UAld.H. ; <f>v\\iK^ mBas. etc. 

6 Tji 5' tip €<rrl conj. W. (c/. the description of 6ri t 3. 12. 8) ; 
rjj 5' itii6Ttrri Aid. 


Digitized by 


fierowwpov fiera rrjv <j>vXkofto\Lap eiOvs \nrapd 
T*9 teal &airep iircoStj/cvLa, tcaQairepavel fieXKova-a 
fHXaaraveiv, teal hiapbepei top xeipL&pa pfypi tov 
fjpo<;. f) he 'Hpa/cXecoTt/cr) fiera ttjp airoffokrjv tov 
tcapirov <f>vei to fforpvcoSe? ffidtcov (TkcoXtj^ eifie- 
yiOrjs, if; €1/09 yla^pv ifKem hrj, a tcaXovai rive? 
6 lovXovs* tovtwv etcaaTOP etc /xitcp&p avytceiTat 
flop loop (f>o\i8a)T&v tt) ra%ei, tcaOdirep ol arpofiikoi 
rfj? 7T€VK7)<;, &are firj avofioiav elvai ttjp oyfrip 
arpo^i\(p veto ical x\(op<p 7r\rjp 7rpop,T)Keo'T€pov 
kclX cr%ehbp laoTra^e^; htoXov. tovto he av^rai 
rov x eL H , ™ va ' ( KC d CLfm rq> fjpi ydatcei ra <f>o\i- 
Soyra teal %av6a yiperai), teal to jArjtco? Xa/xftdvei 
teal TpiBd/CTvXov oTav he tov fjpo? to <j)v\\op 
p\aaTdvrj t TavT aTToiriirTei teal to, tov tcapvov 
tca\vtcd)hr] irepitcdpina yiveTat av/Afie/xvtcoTa tcaTa 
tov fjiLo-'Xpv, TocavTa ocra teal ffp to, avdrj* tovtmv 
8* ev €tcdaT<p tcapvov ei>. irepl he 1-779 <f>i\vpa$ 
eiTiG tcetTTeoV) teal el Tt aXKo tcaxpvo(f>6pop. 

VI. "EtO'Ti he teal tc\ fiev eiav^rj Ta he hvaavgf). 
evavgrj fiev Ta tc irdpvhpa, olop iTTeXia irXaTapos 
Xevicrj alyeipo? Wea* tcai toi irepl TavTrjs d/A^io-- 
ftrjTovo-i Tipes a>9 hvaav^om* teal tcop Kapirofyopcov 
he iXaTrj Trevtcr) hpv$. evav^eaTaTOP he . . . /#\o9 

1 cttOvs \iirapa conj. Sch. ; rt j add. W. ; c vOvs at trapa tt\s U. 

2 <p6(t conj. W.; Qvtrai Aid. 3 i.e. catkins, cf. 3. 3. 8. 
4 icXclw H conj. Sch.; ir«$5rj UMVAld.; irKelova U ?. 

6 c/. 3. 10. 4. 

6 avfifitfivKdra Kara rov p.: G evidently had a different 
text ; ? <Tvfnre<pvK6ra W. 


Digitized by 


occurs in the autumn after the shedding of the 
leaves, and has from the first a glistening look, 1 as 
though swelling had taken place, just as if it were 
about to burst into leaves; and it persists through 
the winter till the spring. The filbert after casting 
its fruit produces 2 its clustering growth, 3 which is 
as large as a good-sized grub : several 4 of these grow 
from one stalk, and some call them catkins. Each 
of these is made up of small processes arranged 
like scales, and resembles the cone of the fir, so that 
its appearance is not unlike that of a young green 
fir-cone, except that it is longer and almost of the 
same thickness throughout. This grows through the 
winter (when spring comes, the scale-like processes 
open and turn yellow) ; it grows to the length of three 
fingers, but, when in spring the leaves are shooting, 
it falls off, and the cup-like 5 fruit-cases of the nut 
are formed, closed all down 6 the stalk and corre- 
sponding 7 in number to the flowers ; and in each ot 
these is a single nut. The case of the lime and 
of any other tree that produces winter-buds needs 
further consideration. 

Of the comparative rate of growth in trees, and of the length oj 
their roots. 

VI. Some trees are quick-growing, some slow. 
Quick-growing are those which grow by the waterside, 
as elm plane abele black poplar willow ; (however 
some dispute about the last-named, and consider it 
a slow grower :) and of fruit-bearing trees, silver-fir 
fir oak. Quickest growing of all are . . . 8 yew lakara 

7 8<ro koI l\v Ta ivOn conj. W. ; Zaa iced Kara &v$rj Aid. 

8 Lacuna in text (Sch. W.). The following list of trees also 
appears to be in confusion, and includes some of both classes. 


Digitized by 


/cal Xd/capa $17709 aptcevOos a<f>iv8a/j,vo<; oarpva 
%vyia fieXia tcXrjdpa tt'itv? avBpd^Xn] xpaveia 
Trvgos a^pas. KapTTofyopel 8* evOvs iXdrrj irev/crj 
7TiTV9, fcav oirrjXiKovovv fieyeBo? Xdfi&criv. 

2 'H 8k avgrjai? Kal r) ^Xdavqai^ t&v fiev aWcov 
araiCTOs Kara tou9 T07rov9 t&v ftXaaT&v, rr)? 8' 
iXdrr)? &pia /nivrj Kal awexh^ Ka ^ varepov. orav 
yap €K tov areXe'Xpv 9 ra irpSyra o-^iadfj, irdXiv i£ 
ircelvov 7) iripa o")(1<ti<; yiverai Kara tov avrov 
TpoTrov, Kal tovt del iroiel Kara irdaa^ ras iiri- 
fSXcLaTrjceis. iv 8k roU aXXoi? ov8* oi o£oi /car 
dXXtfXov? irXr)v eiri tlvcov dXlyoov, olov kotLvov 
xal aXXcov eyei 8k Kal rfjSe 8ia<f>opav r) avgrjai? 
Koivfj irdvToav 6/iotft>9 r)fiipcov re Kal ayplw rd 
fikv yap Kal €K tov dtcpov t&v /3Xa<rr&v Kal e/c 
t&v irXayieov (fyverat,, KaOdirep amos poa avKrj 
fLvppivos o"%e8ov rd irXeiara* rd 8* 4k tov axpov 
fiev ovk dvLr)Giv €k 8k t&v irXayieov, Kal avTo 
irpocoOelTat to virdpypv, &airep Kal to oXov <7T€- 
\e^09 Kal oi aKpefioves. avfifiaivei 8k tovto iwl 
ttjs TlepaiKrjS Kapva? xal rr}$ 'VLpaKXecoTiKt)*; Kal 

3 aXXcw. dirdvTODV 8k t&v tolovtcdv et9 h> <f>vXXov 
diroTeXevT&o-iv oi PXaaToi, 81 b Kal eiXoyco? ovk 
iirL/SXaaTavet Kal av^dverai fir) e^ovra dpfflv. 
(pfioia 8k Tpoirov Tivd r) avgrjat,? Kal tov a (tov 

1 /caret . . . $\a<rruv conj. W.; /cowa robs rp6vovs (corrected 
to rSirovs) Kal fiXaarovs U ; MVP insert tows before ($\ciitto6s. 

2 iiceivov . . . Kara conj. W.; intlvov 77 kripa ff\l(trai raiaa 

3 &\\<av : ? i\das W. ; I suggest &\\cop i\awv. 

Digitized by 


(bird-cherry) Valonia oak Phoenician cedar maple 
hop-hornbeam zygia manna-ash alder Aleppo pine 
andrachne cornelian cherry box wild pear. But 
silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine bear fruit from the very 
first, whatever size they have attained. 

While the growth and budding of most trees are 
irregular as regards the position in which the buds 
appear, 1 the growth and budding of the silver-fir 
follow a regular rule, and its development afterwards 
is also in a regular sequence. For, when the trunk 
first divides, then again from the divided trunk the 
second division 2 takes place in like manner, and so the 
tree goes on with each fresh formation of buds. In 
other trees not even the knots are opposite to one 
another, except in some few cases, as wild olive and 
others. 8 Here too we find a difference in the 
manner of growth which belongs to all trees alike, 
both cultivated and wild : in some cases the growth 
is from the top of the shoots and also from the side- 
buds, 4 as in pear pomegranate fig myrtle and the 
majority of trees, one may say : in some cases the 
growth is not from the top, but only from the side- 
buds, and the already existing part is pushed out 6 
further, as is the whole trunk with the upper 
branches. This occurs in the walnut and in the filbert 
as well as in other trees. In all such trees the buds end 
in a single leaf 6 ; wherefore it is reasonable that 
they should not make fresh buds and growth from this 
point, as they have no point of departure. (To a 
certain extent the growth of corn is similar ; for it 

4 in rov . . . icKayiwv : ? 4k tov &Kpov teal 4k tS»v trKayluv 
&Xa<rrwp. cj. 3. 5. 1. 

6 i.e. grows without dividing, cf. Plin. 16. 100. (of dif- 
ferent trees). 

* <f>i\\op perhaps conceals some other word. 


VOL. I. O 

Digitized by 


teal yap ovto$ del rfj irpocoaei rov virdp^pvro^ 
avgdverai, kclp /coXoftcoBj} ret <f>vXXa, /caOairep ev 

T019 eTTlftoG KOfl€POt$' TtXtJP OUT09 76 OVK €K TOV 

irXayvov 7rapa<f>vei t tcaddirep epia t<op xehpow&p.) 
avTrj ji€V o\)v hiatpopd res dp eirj 0XaaT7jaeco^ 
dfm real avgrfaecos. 

4 Jia0vppi£a hk ov <f>aai rive? elvai ra aypia Bid 
to (f)vecr0ai irdvra diro airepfmro^, ovk ayap 
6p0w Xeyopre?. ephemeral yap orap ififtidxrrj 
Troppw fcaOievat rd$ pi^av eirel fcal twv Xa^avtov 
TCt TTOXXd TOVTO 7TOl€l, Kaiirep dcOepiarepa OVTa 
ical ivapy&$ (pvofiepa <ev> rfj yfj. /3a0vppi^6raTov 
8' oZv cokcI r&v dypieop elvai r) irplvo^* eXdrr) he 
real irevKt] fxerpiw, eTrnroXaioTarop he ffpavira- 
\o9 Kal kokkv firjXea koX Girohid^ avrrj 8' early 
&<nrep dypla kokkv /MrfXea. ravra fiev oJ>v Kal 
oXtyoppi^a* 6 he OpaviraXo? iroXvppityv. av/x- 
fiaLvGi he to?9 aXXois toi? pJq Kara ftddov? e^pvai, 
Kal ovx rjKiara eXarrj Kal 7revKrj, irpoppL^o^ viro 
r&v Trvevpbdrmv eKirLirreLV, 

6 OI p,ev oiv wepl 'KpKahiav ovtcd Xeyovaip. oi 
h y eK 1-979 * / ISi;9 /3a0vppi£6repop eXdrrjP hpvb? dXX' 
iXdrTOvs e^eip Kal evOyppitprkpap elvav ftaOvppi- 
^orarov he Kal rtjp KOKKvpurjXeap Kal ttjp 'VLpa- 
KXecoTLKrjv, t^9 he pL^as XeTrrds Kal lo")(vpd<; T7JV 
* H paKXewTiKrjv, ttjp he kokkv pwjXeap iroXvppi^op, 
a/Kfxo h* ififtiwvai heip* hvacoXeOpop he rrjv 
KOKKvp,rjXeav. eTwroXf)? he* a<f>ephafiPOp Kal 

1 tow vTrdpxovros conj. Sch. from G ; rp virapxo^(rn Aid. 

2 ov5* : ? obK W. 8 Plin. 16. 127. 
4 irfiJxrri : cf. 3. 6. 5 ; CP, 1. 2. 1. 


Digitized by 


also regularly increases by pushing forward of the 
already existing part, 1 even if the leaves are mutilated, 
as in corn which is bitten down by animals. Corn 
however does not 2 make side-growths, as some 
leguminous plants do.) Here then we may find a 
difference which occurs both in the making of buds 
and in the making of fresh growth. 

3 Some say that wild trees are not deep rooting, 
because they all grow from seed ; but this is not a 
very accurate statement. For it is possible that, 
when they are well established, 4 they may send 
their roots down far; in fact even most pot-herbs 
do this, though these are not so strong as trees, and 
are undoubtedly grown from seed planted in the 
ground. 5 The kermes-oak however seems to be the 
deepest rooting of wild trees ; silver-fir and fir are 
only moderately so, and shallowest are joint-fir plum 
bullace (which is a sort of wild plum). The last 
two also have few roots, while joint-fir has many. 
Trees which do not root deep/ and especially silver- 
fir and fir, are liable to be rooted up by winds. 

So the Arcadians say. But the people who live 
near Mount Ida say that the silver fir is deeper 
rooting 7 than the oak, 8 and has straighter roots, 
though they are fewer. Also that those which have 
the deepest roots are plum and filbert, the latter 
having strong slender roots, the former having 
many : but they add that both trees must be well 
established to acquire these characters ; also that 
plum is very tenacious of life. Maple, they say, 

5 kvapyws . . . 7fj : so G ; iv add. W. 

6 QdOovs conj. Sch.; &d6os Aid. 

7 &a6oppi(6T€pov conj. W.; fiaevppi(6rarop UMVAld. 

8 Proverbial for its hold on the ground ; c/. Verg. Aen. 4. 
441 foil. 


o 2 

Digitized by 


oXiyas* rrjv he fxeXiav TrXeiov? Kal elvai irvKVop- 
pitpv Kal ftaOvppifrv. iTrnroXrjs he Kal apicevOov 
Kal /cehpov teal KXrjOpas Xeirra^ teal ofiaXels* 
In S' 6f;vr)v Kal yap tovt eirnroXaioppityv Kal 
oXiyoppi&v. Ttfv he ovav eimroXaiov^ puev layy- 
pas he Kal TtayeLas Kal hvacoXeOpov? TrXrjdei, hk 
fjL€Tpia$. /3a0vppi£a fiev oiv Kal ov ftadvpptfc 
ra joiavT £<ttlv. 

VII. * KiroKOirevTos he rov oreA^ov? ra fiev 
aXXa iravd' elirelv irapafiXaardvei, irXrjv eav 
ai pVCflii irporepov Tvy&Gi ireirovTjKvlar TrevKt) 
he Kal eXdrrj reXea)? ex pi£&v avroeret^ avaivovrai 
Kal eav to aKpov eiriKOTrf). crvjjifiaivei he thiov 
tl irepl ttjv iXdrrjv orav yap KOirrj fj KoXovafffj 
vtto TrvevfiaTo? rj Kal aXXov rivb? irepl to \elov 
rov areXe'Xpv^ — e^ei yap fiexpi ruvbs Xelov Kal 
aofrv Kal 6p,aXbv iKavbv Xar(p wXoiov — irepi- 
<j>veTai fxiKpov, viroheearepov eh vyfros, Kal Ka- 
Xovgiv ol fiev apxf>av^iv ol he a/jL<f>i<f>vav, r<p fxev 
Xpdbfiari fieXav rf) he o-KXrjpoTrjri virep/3dXXov f 
e£ ov tol>? Kparrjpas ttoiovgiv oi irepl 'ApKahiav 
2 to he irdyps olov av tvxV to hevhpov, oc<pirep 
civ iayypbrepov Kal ey^vSjojepov 'fj iraxvrepov. 
cvfifiaivei he KaKelvo Xhuov ev ravrq> rovTcp irepl 

1 <r</>. kolL 6\lyas conj. W. ; a<f>. kot* b\lyov UMVAld. 

2 i.e. not very fibrous. 

3 cf. Hdt. 6. 37, and the proverb irlrvos rp6*ov itcrpl&cadai. 

4 %fia\ov conj. Seal. ; Z/xoiov Aid. 

5 inavbv Xartf irKoiov conj. W. ; ^ Kal t\\{kov tKuov Aid. ; so 
UH, but with *\oiov. 


Digitized by 


has shallow roots and few of them 1 ; but manna-ash 
has more and they are thickly matted and run 
deep ; Phoenician cedar and prickly cedar, they say, 
have shallow roots, those of alder are slender and 
' plain,' 2 as also are those of beech ; for this too has 
few roots, and they are near the surface. Sorb, they 
say, has its roots near the surface, but they are 
strong and thick and hard to kill, though not very 
numerous. Such are the trees which are or are 
not deep-rooting. 

Of the effects of cutting down the whole or part of a tree. 

VII. Almost all trees shoot from the side if the 
trunk is cut down, unless the roots have previously 
been injured ; but fir and silver- fir wither away 8 
completely from the roots within the year, if merely 
the top has been cut off. And there is a peculiar 
thing about the silver-fir; when it is topped or 
broken off short by wind or some other cause 
affecting the smooth part of the trunk — for up to a 
certain height the trunk is smooth knotless and 
plain 4 (and so suitable for making a ship's mast 5 ), — 
a certain amount of new growth forms round it, 
which does not however grow much vertically ; and 
this is called by some amphauxis 6 and by others 
amphiphya 6 ; it is black in colour and exceedingly 
hard, and the Arcadians make their mixing-bowls 
out of it ; the thickness is in proportion 7 to the tree, 
according as that is more or less vigorous and sappy, 
or again according to its thickness. There 8 is this 
peculiarity too in the silver-fir in the same connexion ; 

6 Two words meaning ' growth about,' i.e. colli 1*. 

7 otov tiv conj. W. ; otov £kv Aid.; %<rov tiv conj. Seal. 
• Plin. 16. 123. 


Digitized by 


rrjv eXdrrjv orav puev yap ris rov? o£ous air am as 
cupeXwp awo/coyfc) to cucpov, cnroOvrjO'/cei Ta%€tf9" 
orav Be ra /cararepa ra Kara to Xelov <uf>eky, 
tfi to /cardXonrov, irepl o Brj /cal r) apxj>av!jis 
<f>V€rai. tfi Be BrjXov on rip ey^yXov ehtai koX 
XXapov, elrrep aTrapdfiXaarov. aXXa yap rovro 
fiev tBiov rrjs iXdrr)?. 
8 Q>epei Be ra pkv aXka rov re /capirbv rbv 
eavr&v /cal ra tear eviavrbv emyivopueva ravra, 
<f>v\\ov avffos flXaarov ra Be koX fipvov rj eki/ca* 
ra B% 7r\€ta), KaOarrep r) re irreXea rov re fiorpvv 
teal to dv\a/c&Be<; rovro, /cal av/cr) /cal ra epiva 
ra TrpoairoTr'nrrovra /cal el rives apa r&v ov/c&v 
6\vv0o<j>opovo-iv icoos Be rpoirov riva /capirbs 
OVT09. aX\' rj 'Hpa/cXecon/cr) /capva rbv lovXov 
/cal 7) irpivos rbv <f>oivi/covv kok/cov rj Be Bctyvrj 
rb ftorpvov. fyepei fiev /cal r) /capTro^opos, el fir) 
/cal iraca aXXd roi yevos ri airrjs, oi fir)v aXka 
irXeov r) axapiros, fjv Br) /cal appevd rives icakov- 
civ. aU' i) irev/crj rbv irpoairoirLirrovra icvr- 

4 TLXeicrra Bk iravroov r) Bpvs irapa, rbv /capirov, 
otov rrjv re /crj/ciBa rrjv fit/cpav /cal rrjv erepav 

1 i.e. and so does not, like other trees under like treat- 
ment, put its strength into these, cf. CP. 5. 17. 4. 

8 iavr&p conj. Son. from G ; abrlv Aid. 

* The leaf -gall, cf. 2. 8. 3; 3. 14. 1. For rovro cf. 3. 18. 11 ; 
4. 7. 1. 4 Lat. grossi. cf. CP. 5. 1. 8. 

rivh napirhs conj. Sch.; rivh. Hfcapwos UAld. 


Digitized by 


when, after taking off all the branches, one cuts off 
the top, it soon dies ; yet, when one takes off the 
lower parts, those about the smooth portion of the 
trunk, what is left survives, and it is on this part 
that the amphatixis forms. And plainly the reason 
why the tree survives is that it is sappy and green 
because it has no side-growths. 1 Now this is peculiar 
to the silver-fir. 

Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves flowers and 

Now, while other trees bear merely their own 2 
fruit and the obvious parts which form annually, to 
wit, leaf flower and bud, some bear also catkins or 
tendrils, and some produce other things as well, for 
instance the elm its s cluster ' and the familiar bag- 
like thing, 3 the fig both the immature figs which drop 
off and (in some kinds) the untimely figs 4 — though 
perhaps in a sense 5 these should be reckoned as 
fruit. Again filbert produces its catkin, 6 kermes-oak 
its scarlet ( berry,' 7 and bay its ( cluster.' 8 The 
fruit-bearing sort of bay also produces this, or at all 
events 9 one kind certainly does so ; however the 
sterile kind, which some call the 'male/ produces 
it in greater quantity. The fir again bears its ( tuft/ 10 
which drops off. 

11 The oak however bears more things besides 12 its 
fruit than any other tree ; as the small gall 18 and its 

8 ef. 3. 3. 8 ; 3. 5. 5. 

7 ef. 3. 16. I. i.e. the kermes gall (whence Eng. * crimson'). 
• 06rpvov UMVAld., supported by G. and Plin. 16. 120; 
but some editors read 0pvov on the strength of 3. 11. 4. and 
CP. 2. 11. 4. 9 a\\d rot conj. W. ; a\\& koI Aid. 

10 cf. 3. 3. 8 n. 11 Plin. 16. 28. 
w waok conj. W., cf. § 6; ftpti Aid. 13 cf. 3. 5. 2. 


Digitized by 


rrjp irirrdoSrf fiiXcuvav. en &e av/cafiiv&Ses aWo 
rff fwp<j)f) irXrjv <T/c\r)pbv real Bvo~KdraKrop, 
airdvuov he rovro* /ecu erepop athoidohrj aykvw 

%X 0V > T€\eiOUfl€VOV 8' €Tl (TKkr)pOP Kara TTJV 

iiravao-TCLGLv xal rerpvirqfiepop* Trpoo-e/jxfrepes 
rpoirop ripct rovr iarl teal ravpov KefyaXf), irepi- 
Karaypvfiepop he ephodep fya 7rvpr)pos ehda? 
lao<f>ve<;. <f>vet he /ecu rbp V7r' cplcop /eaXovfiepop 

TTlXoP' TOVTO 6° €(Trl <r§CUpiOP ipi&Se? /Mlkd/COV 

irepl irvpijpiop a/cXrjporepop ire&VKos, c5 xp&prai 
7Tpb$ tov? Kcuercu yap KaX&$, &arrep 

/cat r) /jieXcupa /crj/ck. <f>vet hk teal erepop crfyatpiop 
/co/jltjp eypp, ra fiep aWa d^pelop, /caret he rrjp 
iapcprjp &pap eiri^airrop %v \a> fieXirrjpq* /ecu /caret 
rrjp a<f>r}P KcCl Kara rrjp yevaip. 
6 Uapa<f>vei 8' ephorepw rr)<; r&p pafih&p iiaaya- 
\Lho<$ erepop crfyaiplov afiter^pv ?) tca\ /cot\6jJLi<T%op 
thtop zeal TroiKikop* tov9 fiep yap eirapearr)Kora% 
6/juf>a\ov^ eTTtXev/covs rj ewecriyfiepovs €%€i fieka- 
i>a? to h' dpa fieaop KOKKo/3a<f>e^ zeal Xafurpop* 
dpotyo/nepop h' earl fieXap /cat eiriaarrpop. gttclpiov 
he irapa<j>v€t /cal Xiddpiop Kiac^poethe^ iirl 
irXelop. en 8' aWo rovrov airapiaLrepop <f>v\\i- 
kop <rvfnr€7n\rifjL€POP irpofirjKes acjyaiplov. iirl he 
rov <f>v\\ov <f>vet Kara rrjp fadyip afyaiptop XevKov 
htavyes vhar&hes, orap diraXbp rj" rovro he xal 

1 rrvprjyos i\das laoQves conj. W.; wprjvos 4\ala elpov<pvr)V 
UMV ; irvprjva ckala dpovepv-qv Aid. 

2 irepl Kvp^viov <TKK-np6repov I conj. ; irepl Ttvp-qviov 9K\T)p6rnra 
U ; irepl irvprjvlov aK\7]p6repov M ; vcpnrvprjpiov ffK\"qp6rtpov 
VAld. W. prints the reading of U. For ict\os see Index. 


Digitized by 


other black resinous gall. Again it has another 
growth, like a mulberry in shape, but hard and 
difficult to break ; this however is not common. It 
has also another growth like the penis in shape, 
which, when it is further developed, makes a hard 
prominence and has a hole through it. This to a 
certain extent resembles also a bull's head, but, when 
split open, it contains inside a thing shaped like the 
stone of an olive. 1 The oak also produces what some 
call the 'ball ' ; this is a soft woolly spherical object 
enclosing a small stone which is harder, 1 and men 
use it for their lamps ; for it burns well, as does the 
black gall. The oak also produces another hairy 
ball, which is generally useless, but in the spring 
season it is covered with a juice which is like honey 
both to touch and taste. 

8 Further the oak produces right inside the axil 4 
of the branches another ball with no stalk or else 5 
a hollow one ; this is peculiar and of various colours : 
for the knobs which arise on it are whitish or black 
and spotted, 6 while the part between these is brilliant 
scarlet ; but, when it is opened, it is black and 
rotten. 7 It also occasionally produces a small stone 
which more or less resembles pumice-stone ; also, less 
commonly, there is a leaf-like ball, which is oblong 
and of close texture. Further the oak produces on the 
rib of the leaf a white transparent ball, which is 
watery, when it is young ; and this sometimes con- 

* Plin. 16. 29. 

4 ivHortpa . . . fia<Tx a ^te° s conj. R. Const. ; iyrepidourjs t&u 
frowav fiatrxa\l^as UAld. Plin., /.c, gignunt et alae ramorum 
eius pilula8. 6 ins. St. 

6 Plin., I.e., nigra varietate dispersa. 

7 iiriaairpou ; Plin., I.e., has apertis amara inanita* est, 
whence iwUiKpov conj. Sch, 


Digitized by 


fivas ivLoTe ivSov Xayei. TeXeiovfievov he gkXtj- 
pvverai ktjkiSos /MKpa? Xeias Tpoirov. 
6 e H fikv obv 8pv$ Toaavra <f>epei iraph tov 
KCLpirov. ol yap fiv/crjres cltto t&v pi^&v teal 
irapa Tav pl^as (j>v6fievoi koivoI teal eTeptov elo-'iv. 
waavTW? he teal fj l^ia* zeal yap avrrj (frverai 
Kal iv fiXkow a\\' ovhev fjrrov, wwirep eXexfirj, 
irXeiaTofyopov io-Tiv el he ye hrj /ca0* 'Haiohov 
(jiepet, fieXi /cal fieXiTTas, en fiaXXov <f>alveTai h* 
o\>v /cal 6 fieXiTtbhrj? ovtos %v\o9 etc tov aipos 
iirl ravrrj fiaXio-ra 7rpoai£eiv. <f>aal he Kal orav 
KaraicavOfi yLveadai XiTpov if; avTrjs. TavTa 
fiev ottv ihia Trjs hpvos. 

VIII. TldvToyv he, &airep eXe^Orj, t&v hevhpcov 
o!)9 tca6 y eicaaTOv yevos Xaftelv Sum}) opal TrXeiov? 
elaiv 7] fiev koivtj irao-iv, rj hunpovav to drfXv Kal 
to appev, &v to fiev Kapirofyopov to he aKapirov 
eiri tivcov. iv oh he a/Mpco Kapiro<f>6pa to OrfXv 
KaWiKapTTorepov Kal TroXvxapTroTepov irXrfv 
oaoi ravTa KaXovaiv appeva, KaXovai yap Tives, 
TrapairXr)Gia 6° rj roiavTrj hia<f>opa Kal a>9 to 
ijfiepov SiyprjTai 717)09 to aypiov. erepa Se Kar 
eZSo9 avr&v t&v ofioyev&v virep &v Xcktcov a/xa 
avveiAfyaivovTas Kal Ta9 lhia$ fiopfyas t&v firj 
<j>avep&v Kal yvcopifMov. 

1 Plio. 16. 31. 3 Hes. Op. 233. 
3 Plin. 16. 16. 4 MktUv add. Sch. 


Digitized by 


tains flies : but as it develops, it becomes hard, like a 
small smooth gall. 

Such are the growths which the oak produces as 
well as its fruit. For as for the fungi 1 which grow 
from the roots or beside them, these occur also 
in other trees. So too with the oak-mistletoe ; 
for this grows on other trees also. However, apart 
from that, the oak, as was said, produces more things 
than any other tree ; and all the more so if, as 
Hesiod 2 says, it produces honey and even bees ; 
however, the truth appears to be that this honey- like 
juice comes from the air and settles on this more 
than on other trees. They say also that, when the 
oak is burnt, nitre is produced from it Such are 
the things peculiar to the oak. 

Of ' male ' and 'female 1 in trees : the oak as an example of 
this and other differences. 

VIII. 3 Taking, as was said, all trees according to 
their kinds, we find a number of differences. Com- 
mon to them all is that by which men distinguish 
the ' male ' and the ' female/ the latter being fruit- 
bearing, the former barren in some kinds. In those 
kinds in which both forms are fruit-bearing the 
' female* has fairer and more abundant fruit; how- 
ever some call these the 'male' trees — for there 
are those who actually thus invert the names. 
This difference is of the same character as that 
which distinguishes the cultivated from the wild tree, 
while other differences distinguish different forms of 
the same kind ; and these we must discuss, 4 at the 
same time indicating the peculiar forms, where these 
are not 5 obvious and easy to recognise. 

8 fi^l conj. St.; fi-firt Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


Apvbs Sr} yevrj — ravrrjv yap fidkiara Siaipovor 
/cal evioL ye evdv? ttjv fiev rjfxepov /cakovat, rrjv 6* 
ayplav ov rjj yXv/cvrrjri tov Kapirov Siaipovvrev 
eirel yXv/cvraro^ ye 6 tt)? (j>rjyov f ravrrjv S* 
dypiav itoiovaiv d\\a rtp /jloXXov ev to?? ipya- 
aijjLOi? (frveaOcu /cal to %v\ov €X €l,v ^f'Orepov, 
ttjv Se (j>rjybv Tpayy Kal ev Tofc opeivoi? — yevt] 
fiev oiv oi jxev rerrapa iroiovaiv oi he Trivre. 
SiaXXaTTOvat S* evia t<H9 dvofjuuriv, olov Tt)v ra<t 
ykvtceias fyepovaav oi fiev rjfiepiSa /caXovvres oi 

ervfioopw. op,oi(o<; be /cat eir aWcov. C09 o 
ovv oi irepl rr)v "IStjv Siaipovai, rdS* earl rd etSrj' 
rjfiepls alyiXayyJr TrXarvcfcvWos cfcrjybs dXi^Xoios* 
oi Se ev0v(j>\oiov /caXovaiv. tcdpTrifia fiev irdvTa* 
yXv/cvrara Se rd rf}<; (j>rjyov f tcaOdirep etprjTai, 
teal Sevrepov rd tt)? r/fiepiSo?, eireira tt^ irXaTV- 
<j>vXXov, zeal TerapTOv f) d\i<fi\oio$, evyaTOv Se 
/cal iriKpoTarov r\ alyiXayty. ov% airaaai Se 
yXv/celai ev to?9 yeveaiv dXX' eviore zeal in/cpai, 
/caOdtrep f\ (£77709. Sia^epovai Se zeal T019 
fieyeOeai /cal roc? a^rifiaai T °fc yjp ( *l m<Tl 

r&v fiaXdvtov. iSiov Se erxpvaw tj re (frrjybs /cal 
7) dXi^Xow dfM^orepac yap irapaXiOd^ovaiv ev 
to?9 appeal /caXovfievoi? if; d/epcov tg>v fiaXdvcov 
etcarepcoOev, ai fikv 717)09 t$ /ceXv<j>ei ai Se 77-/009 

1 Plin. 16. 16 and 17. 

2 Sec Index, Spvs and ri/xepis. fificpls, lit. 'cultivated oak.' 

3 Plin. 16. 20. 


Digitized by 


1 Take then the various kinds of oak ; for in this 
tree men recognise more differences than in any 
other. Some simply speak of a cultivated and a wild 
kind, not recognising any distinction made by the 
sweetness of the fruit ; (for sweetest is that of the 
kind called Valonia oak, and this they make the wild 
kind), but distinguishing the cultivated kind by its 
growing more commonly on tilled land and having 
smoother timber, while the Valonia oak has rough 
wood and grows in mountain districts. Thus some 
make four kinds, others five. They also in some 
cases vary as to the names assigned ; thus the kind 
which bears sweet fruit is called by some hemeris, 
by others 'true oak.' So too with other kinds. 
However, to take the classification given by the 
people of Mount Ida, these 2 are the kinds : hemeris 
(gall-oak), aigilops (Turkey-oak), ' broad-leaved ' oak 
(scrub oak), Valonia oak, sea-bark oak, which some 
call ' straight-barked ' oak. 3 All these bear fruit ; 
but the fruits of Valonia oak are the sweetest, as has 
been said ; second to these those of hemeris (gall-oak), 
third those of the ' broad-leaved ' oak (scrub oak), 
fourth sea-bark oak, and last aigilops (Turkey- 
oak), whose fruits are very bitter. 4 However the 
fruit is not always sweet in the kinds specified as 
such 6 ; sometimes it is bitter, that of the Valonia oak 
for instance. There are also differences in the size 
shape and colour of the acorns. Those of Valonia 
oak and sea-bark oak are peculiar ; in both of these 
kinds on what are called the e male ' trees the acorns 
become stony at one end or the other ; in one kind 
this hardening takes place in the end which is 

* Plin. 16. 19-21. 

• oi>x . . . Mort conj. W.; text defective in Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


avrfj Tjj <rap/cL Si o teal d<f>aipe0 evrcov ofioia 
yLverai KOiXcofiara T0Z9 eirl tg>v £d>(DV. 

4 AccKpipovai Be teal Tofc <f)v\\oi<; Kal to?9 areXe- 
%eai fca *' T °W %v\oi<; teal rfj o\y /jLop(pf}. f) fiev 
yap rjfiepls ovk 6p0o<j>vr}<; oiBe lieia oiBe fia/cpd' 
TrepLteofios yap f\ (jyvreua fcal iireo-TpafifAipr) teal 
7roXu/ia<r%a\o9, &<rre o^doSrj ical ^pa%elav yive- 
<T0 ar to Be f*v\ov layvpov p,ev a<r0eve<TTepov Be 
t^9 <f>rjyov' tovto yap la^yporarov Kal aaaire- 
(TTaTOV. ovk dp0o<f>vr)<; Be oi/B' avrr) aX)C ffrrov 
€Ti t^9 fip-epiBos, to Be areke^o^ Tra^vrarov, ware 
Kal rrjv oXrjv fiop(f)7jv fipaj(eiav elvai* /cal yap 
fj (j>VT€La Trept/eofio? /cal ravrrj /cal ovk el<s 6p06v. 
7) Be alyiXayty 6p0o(f>v€o , Tarov koX vyfrrjXoTarov 
Kal Xeiorarov Kal to %vXov et$ firjKos lo"xypoTaTOv. 
ov <f}verai Be iv to?9 ipyaaifioi? fj aTravLto?. 

5 e H Be 7r\aTV(f>vXko<; Bevrepov 6p0o(j>vta Kal 
lirj/cei, 7roo9 Be* tt)v yjpeiav T V V oltco8ofwc))V %et- 
piaTOv fiera rrjv dXicj>Xoiov f <j*avXov Be Kal els to 
Kaletv Kal av0paK€V€iv, (oairep Kal to tt}9 dXi- 
(f>\oCov, Kal 0pnrr)Beo'TaTOv fier eKelvrjv rj yap 
dXfyXoio? irayy pkv eyei to o~Te\e%09 xavvov Be 
Kal koTKov edv ex,y Tramps 009 €7ri to ttoXv, 81 
o Kal dyjielov eis rds olKoBopuds* en Be crjireTai 
rd^ia-ra' Kal yap evvypov eari to BkvBpov 81 h 
Kal KoiXrj yiverai. (jyaal Be rives ovB* eyKapBiov 
eXvai fiovrj. Xeyovaiv a>9 Kal KepavvofiXfjre? 
avrai fiovai ylvovrai Kaiirep v-yfros ovk e^pvaai 

1 i.e. at the ' top ' end ; vpbs : ? 4v, irphs being repeated by 

2 (&<av MSS.; u>S>v conj. Palm. 8 Plin. 16. 22. 

Digitized by 


attached to the cup, in the other in the flesh itself. 1 
Wherefore, when the cups are taken off, we find a 
cavity like the visceral cavities in animals. 2 

8 There are also differences in leaves trunk timber 
and general appearance. Hemeris (gall- oak) is not 
straight-growing nor smooth nor tall, for its growth 
is very leafy 4 and twisted, with many side-branches, 
so that it makes a low much-branched tree : its timber 
is strong, but not so strong as that of the Valonia 
oak, for that is the strongest and the least liable to 
rot. This 6 kind too is not straight-growing, even less 
so than the hemeiis (gall-oak), but the trunk is very 
thick, so that the whole appearance is stunted ; for 
in growth this kind too is very leafy 4 and not erect. 
The aigilops (Turkey oak) is the straightest growing 
and also the tallest and smoothest, and its wood, cut 
lengthways, is the strongest. It does not grow on 
tilled land, or very rarely. 

The ' broad-leaved ' oak (scrub oak) 6 comes second 
as to straightness of growth and length of timber to 
be got from it, but for use in building it is the worst 
next after the sea-bark oak, and it is even poor wood 
for burning and making charcoal, as is also that of 
the sea-bark oak, and next after this kind it is the 
most worm-eaten. For the sea-bark oak has a thick 
trunk, but it is generally spongy and hollow when 
it is thick ; wherefore it is useless for building. 
Moreover it rots very quickly, for the tree contains 
much moisture ; and that is why it also becomes 
hollow ; and some say that it is the only 7 oak which 
has no heart. And some of the Aeolians say that 
these are the only oaks which are struck by light- 

4 i.e. of bushy habit. * avry conj. Sch.; airri) UAld. 
• Plin. 16. 23 and 24. 7 fx6v V conj. St.; yMvi)v Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


t&v AioXecov rivis, ovhe irpb? tcl iepa yji&vTai 
to?9 %vXoi<i. Kara pev ovv tcl gvXa kcu t<z9 
o\a? fiop(f>a<; ev tovtols ai htacf>opaL 

6 K.rj/ciha<; he irdvra (fyepec tcl yevr), fiovrj he el? 
tcl SipfULTa 'Xfi^vLpryv r) r)pepL<;. r) he r?)9 alyi- 
\ft)7T09 teal T779 7rXaTV<f>vXXov tt} jxev oyfrei irapo- 
fiola Trj T979 r)pepiho<;, irXr)v XeioTepa, d%/oeto9 he. 
<f>epei kclX ttjv eTepav ttjv peXaivav 17 Ta epca 

am ova iv. h he /caXovai Tives (fida/cov ofioiov 
to?9 paKLois r) alyikQyyfr povrj <f>€p€L iroXibv kcu 
Tpaftv' /cal yap irrj^yaLOV /caTa/epepdvvvTai, 
Kaddirep Tpvx°*> oOovlov fiatcpov. (pverai he 
tovto e/e tov <j>Xoiov /cal oi/c eic T979 /copvvr)? 
oOev rj ftdXavos, ovh 1 if; o<f>6aXpov dXX J e/c tov 
irXayiov t&v av(o6ev o^cov. r) 8* dXtyXoio? im- 
peXav tovto <j>veL teal (ipa^i). 

7 Oi fiev ovv etc t?J9 V IS?79 ovtcds Scacpovcrcv. oi 
he irepl Ma/cehoviav TCTTapa yevr) ttolovgiv, 
eTvpohpvv fj Ta9 yXv/ceias, 7rXaTV<j>vXXov fj tu$ 
iTLfcpds, cj>rjyov fj tcl? o'TpoyyvXas, aairpLV TavTrfv 
he oi fiev a/capirov o\a>9 oi he (f>avXov tov /capirov, 
&CTe puqhev evQLeiv £&ov irXrjv £09, /cal TavTrjv 
OTav eTepav fir) e^V' koX tcl itoXXcl XapfidveaOai 
7T€piK€<f)aXalq. por)(0r)pa he /cal Ta ^vXa' TreXe- 

1 Plin. 16. 26. 

8 <pd<TKOv . . . fatdois conj. Sch. (fraidots Salm.) : Q&fftcos tpoios 
rots &pax*(ois UP 2 ; <pd(TKov dfiotas rots Upayxlois Ald.H, Plin. 
16. 33, c/. 12. 108 ; Diosc. 1. 20 ; Hesvch. *.v. <p<L(tkos. 

8 rpaxb conj. W.; fipax^ UP. * KopuKij*. cf. 3. 5. 1. 


Digitized by 


ning, although they are not lofty ; nor do they use 
the wood for their sacrifices. Such then are the 
differences as to timber and general appearance. 

1 AW the kinds produce galls, but only hemeris 
(gall-oak) produces one which is of use for tanning 
hides. That of aigilops (Turkey-oak) and that of the 
' broad-leaved ' oak (scrub oak) are in appearance 
like that of hemeris (gall-oak), but smoother and use- 
less. This also produces the other gall, the black 
kind, with which they dye wool. The substance 
which some call tree-moss and which resembles rags 2 
is borne only by the aigilops (Turkey-oak) ; it is grey 
and rough 8 and hangs down for a cubit's length, like 
a long shred of linen. This grows from the bark and 
not from the knob 4 whence the acorn starts ; nor 
does it grow from an eye, but from the side of the 
upper boughs. The sea-bark oak also produces this, 
but it is blackish 5 and short. 

Thus the people of Mount Ida distinguish. But 
the people of Macedonia make four kinds, ' true-oak,' 
or the oak which bears the sweet acorns, ' broad- 
leaved' oak (scrub oak), or that which bears the 
bitter ones, Valonia oak, or that which bears the 
round ones, and aspris 6 (Turkey-oak) ; 7 the last- 
named some say is altogether without fruit, some 
say it bears poor fruit, so that no animal eats it 
except the pig, and only he when he can get no 
others, and that after eating it the pig mostly 
gets an affection of the head. 8 The wood is also 
wretched ; when hewn with the axe it is altogether 

6 iirifieKav rovro <j>vei conj. Seal.; 4irijx. rovro (pvatt U; M 
fifhlav rovro ^tfci MVAld. 

6 See Index. 7 Plin. 16. 24. 

8 ircpiKf(pa\ala : apparently the name of a disease. 


VOL. I. P 

Digitized by 


/crjOevra fiev o\o>9 ayjpela* KaraprfyvvraL yap /cal 
SiairLirTer aireXe/crjTa Sk fieXrico, Si b /cal ovtg> 
XP&ptcli. fioxOrjpa Se /cal eh /cavaiv /cal eh 
avOpa/ceiav a%/0€to9 yap o\a>9 6 avOpal; hi a to 
TrrjSav teal <T7nv0rjpi£eiv ttXtjv TOt9 %a\tf€t)o-*. 
tovtois Se xprjo-ifuorepo? t&v aXXcov Sict yap to 
aTro<rfievvv<iQai, otov Trav<Tt]Tai <j)v<r(OfJLevo<;, oXlyos 
dva\L<r/cerai. [to Sk rrj<; aXi<f>XoLov ^pijatfiov eh 
tov9 alfovas jiovov /cal ra TOiavTa.] Spvb$ fxev 
ovv Tavras ttoiovcti ra? 6 Sea 9. 

IX. T&v Se aXXwv eX&TTOw /cal a"xeSbv to 
ye irXeia-Ta Siaipovcri appevi /cal Orjkei, naOairep 
eiprjrai, ifKrjv oXiycov &v ean /cal r\ irei/cr)* 
Trev/crj? yap to fiev fj/juepov Troiovai to S* aypiov, 
t^9 S' aypias Svo yevrj* /caXovai S& rrjv fikv 'ISaiav 
ttjv Se irapaXiav tovtwv Se opOorepa /cal jxa/cpo- 
repa /cal to <f>vXXov exovaa irayyTepov r\ 'iSata, 
to S\ <j>vXXov XeirroTepov /cal afievrjvoTepov f) 
irapaXia /cal Xeiorepov top <f>Xocbv /cal eh ra 
Sep par a xprfo-ifiov ij Sk erepa ov. /cal t&v 
<TTpo^L\(ov 6 p,ev T779 irapaXia? arpoyyvKo? Te 
/cal Sia^ae/cav Ta%€G>9, 6 Se T779 'lSaia? fia/cpo- 
T6009 /cal ^\G>po9 /cal fjrrov x&a/c&v 019 av 
aypidoTepos' to Se f~vXov iaxvporepov to T179 
irapaXlav Set yap /cal Ta9 TOiavjas Sia<f>opa<; 

1 Plin. 16. 23. 

2 rb 8i . . . rotavra : this sentence seems out of place, as 
a\(<t>\oios was not one of the ' Macedonian ' oaks mentioned 
above (Sch.). 


Digitized by 


useless, for it breaks in pieces and falls asunder; 
if it is not hewn with the axe it is better, where- 
fore they so use it. 1 It is even wretched for 
burning and for making charcoal ; for the charcoal 
is entirely useless except to the smith, because it 
springs about and emits sparks. But for use in the 
smithy it is more serviceable than the other kinds, 
since, as it goes out when it ceases to be blown, little 
of it is consumed. 2 The wood of the sea-bark oak 
is only useful for wheel-axles and the like purposes. 
Such are the varieties of the oak 8 which men 
make out. 

Of the differences in Jira. 

IX. 4 The differences between other trees are fewer; 
for the most part men distinguish them merely 
according as they are ' male ' or ' female/ as has been 
said, except in a few cases including the fir ; for in this 
tree they distinguish the wild and the cultivated 6 
kinds, and make two wild kinds, calling one the ' fir 
of Ida* (Corsican pine 6 ) the other the 'fir of the 
sea-shore ' (Aleppo pine) ; of these the former is 
straighter and taller and has thicker leaves, 7 while 
in the latter the leaves are slenderer and weaker, 
and the bark is smoother and useful for tanning 
hides, which the other is not. Moreover the cone of 
the seaside kind is round and soon splits open, while 
that of the Idaean kind is longer and green and 
does not open so much, as being of wilder character. 
The timber of the seaside kind is stronger, — for one 
must note such differences also between trees of the 

* T. describes *pivos fffu\a£ t and <p«\\6&pvs in 3. 16, 
<p€\\6s in 3. 17. 1. 

4 Plin. 16. 43. 8 Stone pine. See Index. 

• Plin. 16. 48. 7 <f>6\\ou W. conj. ; tfKoy UM VP. 


p 2 

Digitized by 


Xafifidveiv t&v avyyev&v yvdopifioi yap Bta irjv 

2 'Op06r€pov Be teal ira^vrepov, &<nrep etirofiev, 
r\ *\BaLa, /cal irpbs tovtol? iriTTcoBeaTepov o\a>9 to 
BevBpov, fjieXavrepa Be ttltttj /cal yXv/cvTepa /cal 
XeirroTepa /cal evayBearepa, orav rj oDfiij* eyfrr]- 
Oelaa Be yeLptov i/cfiaivei Bia to ttoXvv eyeiv tov 
bppbv. ioL/caai B' airep ovrot hiaipovaiv ovo/mktlv 
IBloi? oi aXXoi Biaipelv t$ appev l /cal OrjXei* 
(fyaal B J oi irepl Ma/ceBoviav /cal a/capirov n yevo? 
o\a>9 elvai Trev/cr)?, /cal to fiev appev /Spa^vTepov 
tc /cal a/cXrjpo^vXXoTepov, to Be OrjXv evfirj/ce- 
arepov, koX to, <j>vXXa Xnrapa /cal diraXa teal 
/ce/cXi/jueva /jloXXov e^eiv em Be ra f~vXa T779 p>ev 
appev 0$ TrepifirjTpa /cal a/cXrjpa /cal ev Tal? 
epyaaiais aTpe^o/jueva, T779 Be drfXeia^ evepya /cal 
aaTpaftrj /cal p,aXa/c(DT€pa. 

3 S%€Soi/ Be* koivt) ti$ 17 Biafyopa iravTtov t&v 
appev co v /cal OrjXev&v, a>9 oi vXotojjloi (paaiv. airav 
yap to appev ttj ireXe/ctjo-et /cal /3pa%VT€pov /cal 
eireaTpapifievov fxaXXov /cal BvaepyoTepov /cal T<p 
Xpco/xaTi fjieXdvTepov, to Be 0rfXv evfirj/ceo-Tepov 
eirel /cal ttjv aiyuBa ttjv icaXovpAvr\v r) OrjXeia tt)<; 
irev/crjs e%er tovto B* iarl to iy/cdpBiov avTr}?* 

1 ffvyytvav conj. R. Const. ; £77* lo»v UAld. ; iyyslwv MV 

2 yv&pi/ioi conj. R. Const.; yvApipos UAld.H.; yvupifia 
conj. W. 

3 6 p$6rtpoy con}. R. Const.; otfrtpop UMVAld. 

4 fxeXavrtpa . . . evwScaTe'pa conj. W.; /AeXAprepat 8fc w/tttj 
tca\ yXvKvrepai Kal \tirr6r€pai kcl\ eiHaticarepat UMV; fie\avr4pa 

Digitized by 


same kind, 1 since it is by their use that the different 
characters are recognised. 2 

The Idaean kind is, as we have said, of straighter 8 
and stouter growth, and moreover the tree is 
altogether more full of pitch, and its pitch is blacker 
sweeter thinner and more fragrant 4 when it is 
fresh ; though, when it is boiled, it turns out 
inferior, 5 because it contains so much watery matter. 
However it appears that the kinds which these 
people distinguish by special names are distinguished 
by others merely as ' male ' and ' female/ The 
people of Macedonia say that there is also a kind of 
fir which bears no fruit whatever, in which the 
' male ' 6 (Aleppo pine) is shorter and has harder 
leaves, while the ' female ' (Corsican pine) is taller 
and has glistening delicate leaves which are more 
pendent. Moreover the timber of the ' male ' kind 
has much heart- wood, 7 is tough, and warps in joinery 
work, while that of the ' female ' is easy to work, 
does not warp, 8 and is softer. 

This distinction between 'male' and 'female* 
may, according to the woodmen, be said to be common 
to all trees. Any wood of a ' male ' tree, when one 
comes to cut it with the axe, gives shorter lengths, 
is more twisted, harder to work, and darker in 
colour ; while the ' female ' gives better lengths. 
For it is the 'female* fir which contains what is 
called the aigis 9 ; this is the heart of the tree ; the 

be koI y\vKvr4pa Kal \moripa teal thoobetrrepa Aid. Kevroripq, 
? less viscous. 

8 cf. 9. 2. 5; Plin. 16. 60. 6 Plin. 16. 47. 

7 weplfirrrpa con j. R. Const. : so Mold, explains ; trcptftiirpta 
UMV. cf. 3. 9. 6. 

8 itrrpafirj conj. R. Const.; einrrpafirj Aid. 
y alylSa : cf. 5. 1. 9 ; Plin. 16. 187. 


Digitized by 


atrtov Be* on airev/coTepa /cal fjrrov evBaBo? /cal 
Xeiorepa /cal ev/creavcorepa. yiverai Be* iv Tofc 
fieyeOo? eypvai t&v BevBpcov, orav i/crreaovTa irepi- 
gclttt} rib Xev/ca Tfl /cv/cXq>. tovt(ov yap 7T€pl- 
cup€0€VTQ)v /cal KaTaXeuf>dei<rr)<; T779 p>rjrpa<; etc 
TavTrjs ireketcaTat,* eari Be evyjpovv <r<f)6Bpa /cal 
Xeirroivov. h Be oi ire pi ttjv "YBrjv BaBovpyol 
/caXovai o-v/crjv, to iiriytyvofievov iv rat? Trev/cais, 
ipvdporepov ttjv ypoiav T779 BaBos, iv Tot? appealv 
ian fiaXXov Bv<r&Be<; Be tovto koX ov/c o£ei SaSo9 
ovBe /calerai aU' airoTTrjBa airo rov Trvpo<;. 
4 Tlevicr)? fiev ovv ravra yevrj ttoiovo'iv, rffiepov 
T€ /cal aypiov, /cal tt)<; aypLas appevd re /cal 
Orjkeiav /cal TpLrrjv ttjv a/capirov, oi Be irepl ttjv 
J Ap/caBiav ovre ttjv a/capwov Xeyovpiv ovtc ttjv 
rjfiepov irev/crjv, aXXa ttltvv elvaL (fyaat* /cal yap to 
(7Te\€%09 ifi(f>€pe<TraTOv elvaL tj) ttltvl /cal exeiv 
Ttjv re XeTTTorrjTa /cal to fieyeOo? /cal iv ral? 
ipyaalais ravrb to %vXov to yap T779 Trev/crjs /cal 
Trayirepov /cal Xeiorepov /cal yy^rjXoTepov elvar 
/cal tc\ <f>vXXa ttjv fiev irev/crjv eyew iroXXct, /cal 
Xiirapa /cal /3a0ea /cal /ce/cXifieva, ttjv Be tt'itvv 
/cal ttjv /ca>vo(j>6pov Tavrrjv oXiya re /cal av^fKoBe- 
arepa /cal ire^piKora fidXXov <ap,<f>a) Be Tpiyp- 
<f>vXXa.> eri Be ttjv ttLttov ififyepea-Tepav ttj$ 

1 evKTeavwTfpa : tvKrrihovwrtpa conj. R. Const, cf. 5. 1. 9 ; 
but text is supported by Hesycb. s.v. \6vkt4avov. 

2 I omit Koi before ra k6k\v. 

3 Plin. 16. 44. 


Digitized by 


reason being that it is less resinous, less soaked with 
pitch, smoother, and of straighter grain. 1 This aigis 
is found in the larger trees, when, as they have fallen 
down, the white outside part 2 has decayed ; when 
this has been stripped off and the core left, it is 
cut out of this with the axe; and it is of a good 
colour with fine fibre. However the substance 
which the torch-cutters of Mount Ida call the ' fig/ 3 
which forms in the fir and is redder in colour than 
the resin, is found more in the ' male ' trees ; it has 
an evil smell, not like the smell of resin, nor will it 
burn, but it leaps away from the fire. 

4 Such are the kinds of fir which they make out, 
the cultivated and the wild, the latter including the 
'male' and the ' female' and also the kind which 
bears no fruit. However the Arcadians say that 
neither the sterile kind nor the cultivated is a fir, 
but a pine ; for, they say, the trunk closely resembles 
the pine and has its slender ness, its stature, and the 
same kind 5 of wood for purposes of joinery, the 
trunk of the fir being thicker smoother and taller ; 
moreover that the fir has many leaves, which are 
glossy massed together 6 and pendent, while in the 
pine and in the above-mentioned cone-bearing tree 7 
the leaves are few and drier and stiffer ; though in 
both the leaves are hair-like. 8 Also, they say, the 
pitch of this tree is more like that of the pine ; for 

4 ravra yevi\ conj. R. Const, from G ; ravrd ye UMVAld. ; 
Plin. 16. 45-49. 

5 ravrb conj. W.; avrh Aid. 

6 £a0e'a : Sacrca conj. R. Const, ef, 3. 16. 2. 

7 i.e. the cultivated vtvicri (so called). T. uses this peri- 
phrasis to avoid begging the question of the name. 

8 &n<p<* 5c rpix- ins. here by Sch. ; in MSS. and Aid. the 
words occur in § 5 after ic it r i a repov. 


Digitized by 


ttLtvos' kcu ydp tt)v irlrvv e^eiv oXiyrjv tc teal 
iruepdv, toairep kcu tt)v K&vo<f>6pov, rrjv Se trevzeqv 
evdSrj teal iroXXrjv. Qverai S' iv fiev tt) *Aptca8Ca 
rj ttltvs oXiyrj irepl Se ttjv 'HXeiav ttoXXtj. ovtoi 
pkv ovv oXqy r& yevei $uifi<f>io'/3r)T0vo'iv. 

5 'H Se 7rtTU9 Sotcei tt}<; Trev/erj? real Sia<f)€peiv t$> 
Xnraparepa tc elvcu /ecu Xe7rTO<f>vXXoTepa zeal to 
pAyedos eXaTTcov zeal fjrrov dpdo<j>vq<f eri Se tov 
KOivov eXarro) <f)epeiv kcu irefypiKOTa puiXXov zeal 


kcCi ofwiorepa tt} eKdrrj zeal to oXov airevzca. 
8ia<f)opav 8' ex,€i kcu ravrrjv fjLeydXqv irpos ttjv 
Trev/crjv irevzcrjv fiev yap iiriKavdeia&v twv pi%6>v 
ovk ava/SXaardveiv, tt)v ttLtvv 8e <f>a<ri rives dva- 
/SXacTaveiv, &airep kcu iv Aecr/3<p ifnrprjo-devTo? 
tov Hvppaiayv opovs tov ttitvcoSovs, vocnjpa Se 
Ta?? irevKCU? toiovtov ti Xeyovai o~vp,fiaiveiv oi 
ire pi ttjv "ISrjv &<tt, orav fir) fiovov to iyKapSiov 
dXXd teal to ?f a> tov o*T6\e%ou? evSaSov yevrjTCU, 
TrjviKavTa Scnrep aTroirvLyeadai. tovto Se avTo- 
fiaTov av/j,/3aiv€i Si eirpo<f)iav tov SevSpov, a>9 av 
tis eiKaaeiev oXov yap yLveTai Sa9* vrepl pbev ovv 


6 'E\aT?7 6° iaTiv r) fjbev ctpprjv r) Se OrjXeia, Sea- 
<f>opa<; 8* e^ovaa Tofc <f)vXXow ogvrepa yap kcu 
K€VTT)TiK<OT€pa Tct tov appevos kcu iireaTpafifieva 
fiaXXov, Si b teal ovXoTepov tt} oyjrei <f>aiveTai to 
SevSpov oXov. koX t& gvXqy XevKOTepov yap kcu 
pbdXaKooTepov Ka\ evepyecrTepov to tt)<; OrjXeLas koI 

1 wiKp&v conj. R. Const, from G ; piKphv VAld. 

2 koI ravr-qv fiey&Kyv wpbs 6onj. Sch.; ical r)]v pey. vpbs 
UMV; fj.€yd\riv irpbs Aid, 


Digitized by 


in the pine too it is scanty and bitter, 1 as in this 
other cone-bearing tree, but in the fir it is fragrant 
and abundant. Now the pine is rare in Arcadia, 
but common in Elis. The Arcadians then dispute 
altogether the nomenclature. 

The pine appears to differ also from the fir in 
being glossier and having finer leaves, while it is 
smaller in stature and does not grow so straight ; 
also in bearing a smaller cone, which is stiffer and 
has a more pitchy kernel, while its wood is whiter, 
more like that of the silver-fir, and wholly free from 
pitch. And there is another great difference 2 
between it and the fir ; the fir, if it is burnt down 
to the roots, does not shoot up again, while the 
pine, according to some, will do so ; for instance 
this happened in Lesbos, 8 when the pine-forest of 
Pyrrha 4 was burnt. The people of Ida say that the 
fir is liable to a kind of disease ; — when not only the 
heart but the outer part of the trunk becomes glutted 5 
with pitch, the tree then is as it were choked. This 
happens of its own accord through the excessive 
luxuriance of the tree, as one may conjecture ; for 
it all turns into pitch-glutted wood. This then is an 
affection peculiar to the fir. 

6 The silver-fir is either 'male' or ' female/ and 
has differences in its leaves 7 ; those of the ' male ' 
are sharper more needle-like and more bent ; where- 
fore the whole tree has a more compact appearance. 
There are also differences in the wood, that of the 
' female ' being whiter softer and easier to work, 

8 4v Mo&u conj. W. from G, and Plin. 16. 46 ; cis Afo&ov 

4 On the W. of Lesbos, modern Caloni. cf. 2. 2. 6 ; Plin. I.e. 


Digitized by 



to oXov areXe^o^ evp/r\Kkarepov % to Be rod appe- 
i>09 iroiKiKtorepov kclI irayvrepov koX cr/cXrjporepov 
fcai TreptfirjTpov puXXov oA,o>? Be <f>avXoT€pov rrjv 
O'sjrcv. ev Be rq> k(dvg> ra> fiev tov appevo? iari 
tcdpva bXiya iirl tov atcpov, tco Be T779 OrjXeia? 
o\o>9 ovBev, co? oi i/c M.a/ceBovCa$ eXeyov. e^ei Se 
Trrepvya? to <f>vXXov teal eir eXarrov, &o~T€ rfjv 
oXrjv fiop<f}7)v elvai OoXoeiBrj /ecu irapofioiov fid- 
Xiara Tafc JSoiayrLai? icvveaw ttvkvqv Be ouray? 
ware pLTjTe yiova Bilkvai y^ff verov. 0X019 Be kcu 
tt) oyfrei to BevBpov kclXov koX yap 7] ftXdaTriais 
IBLa T19, &<rirep etprjrai, Trap a ras aXXa$ koX p,6vrj 
rd^iv eyovaa % tcS Be yueyedei p,eya teal iroXv rf)<; 
irevKrjs evp^Kearepov. 
7 Aia<j)€p€L Be fcai /caret to %vXov oi pnxpov to 
p,ev yap t?)? eXaT*;? Iv&Be? zeal pxCXaicbv kol kov- 
<f>ov, to Bk ri]<; irevKrjs BaBcoBe? icaX ftapv teal 
aapKcoBecrepov. ofou? Be e^et irXeiovs pev rj 
irevKij (TKXrjporepovs 8' rj eTuirrj, cr^eBbv Bk irdv- 
tcov 009 elirelv aKXrjpoTepov?, to Be %vXov fiaXa- 
/cdorepov. 0X0)9 Be oi o£oi irvKvoraroi teal arepew- 
raroL povov ov Biacfaavel? eXdrr]^ teal irey/cr}? kol 
tw 'XfcopuiTi BaBdoBei? zeal ydXiara Bid<f>opOL tov 
gvXov, pRXXov Be T979 eXdrrj^. eyei Be, &atrep 17 
irevKf) rrjv alyiBa, teal f) iXdrr) rb XevKOV Xovaaov 

1 xax^Tepov conj. W. ; ir\ar6repop Aid. 

2 Plin. 16. 48 and 49. 3 For the tense see Intr. p. xx. 

4 (f>v\kov, i.e. the leafy shoot. Sch. considers <f>v\\ov to 
be corrupt, and refers the following description to the cone ; 
W. marks a lacuna after <pt\\ov. Pliny, I.e., seems to have 
read <pv\\ov, but does not render koI 4* iharrov . . . tcvvtais. 
The words koI 4* t\arrov can hardly be sound as they stand. 
For the description of the foliage c/. 1. 10. 5. 


Digitized by 


while the whole trunk is longer ; that of the ' male ' 
is less of a uniform colour thicker 1 and harder, has 
more heart- wood, and is altogether inferior in appear- 
ance. In the cone 2 of the ' male ' are a few seeds at 
the apex, while that of the ' female,' according to 
what the Macedonians said, 8 contains none at all. 
The foliage 4 is feathered and the height dispropor- 
tionate so that the general appearance of the tree 
is dome-like, 6 and closely resembles the Boeotian 
peasant's hat 6 ; and it is so dense that neither snow 
nor rain penetrates it. And in general the tree has 
a handsome appearance ; for its growth is somewhat 
peculiar, as has been said, compared with the others, 
it being the only one which is regular, and in stature 
it is large, much taller than the fir. 

7 There is also not a little difference in the wood : 
that of the silver-fir is fibrous 8 soft and light, that of 
the fir is resinous heavy and more fleshy. The fir 
has more knots, 9 but the silver-fir harder ones ; 
indeed they may be said to be harder than those of 
any tree, though the wood otherwise is softer. And 
in general the knots of silver- fir and fir are of the 
closest and most solid 10 texture and almost 11 trans- 
parent : in colour they are like resin-glutted wood, 
and quite different from the rest of the wood ; and 
this is especially so 12 in the silver-fir. And just as 
the fir has its aigis, lz so the silver-fir has what is 

• 0o\ociZr) conj. Seal.; 0?jA.oet57} U (erased) ; 0ijA.o«i5«* MV; 
tU concameratum imitetur G ; ? 9o\io€iti?i ; in Theocr. 15. 39. 
0o\la seems to be a sun-hat. 

6 Kvvtats : cf. Hesych. 8.v. kvvti Botorrta, apparently a hat 
worn in the fields. 

7 cf. 5. 1. 7. 8 cf. 5. 1. 5. • cf. 5. 1. 6. 
10 cf, 5. 1. 6, /c€par<6$€4S. 11 ov ins. Sch. 

12 fiaWov 8c conj. W.; fxaWov fj Aid. 13 cf. 3. 9. 3. 


Digitized by 


KaXovfievov, olov avrlarpofyov tjj alylSi, irXijv to 
fiev Xcvkov fj 8' alyls ev'xpws 8id to ev8a8ov, 
iTVKvhv 8e tcaX Xcvkov yiverai Kal KaXbv 4k t&v 
irpeafivTepcov rj8rj 8ev8p(ov dXXd Girdviov to 
XprjaTov, to 8e rvypv SayJrcXes, ov rd re tcov 
£cDypd<f)(ov irivaKia iroiovai Kal Tct ypajifiaTeXa to, 
iroXXd' tcl 8 €<rirovha<TfiAva i/c tov fteXTiovos. 
8 Oi &€ irepl 'ApicaSiav djJbfyoTepa KaXovacv 
alyL8a Kal ttjv tt)? irevKrj? Kal ttjv tt}<; iXaTrjs, 
Kal elvai irXeito ttjv ttj? iXaTrj? dXXd KaXXlco ttjv 
T779 7T€VKT}<;' elvai yap t?}? fiev iXaTrj^ ttoXXtjv T€ 
Kal Xeiav /cal irvKvrjv, tt)$ 8e TrevKtjs oXLyijv, ttjv 
fievTOi ovaav ovXoTepav Kal layypoTkpav Kal to 
oXov KaXXico. ovtol fiev ovv eoiKaai to?9 ovofiaat 
Bia(f)(ov€LV. rj 8e eXdrrj TavTas %X €L Ta $ 8ia<f>o- 
pa$ 7iy?o9 ttjv irevKrjv Kal cti ttjv irepl ttjv 
<j>avi;iv, fjp irpoTepov eXiroixev. 

X. 'Ogvrj 8' ovk e%e* 8ia<f>opa$ dXX* iaTi fiovo- 
yevis* 6p0o<f>v€$ 8e Kal Xelov Kal avo^ov Kal irdyps 
Kal in|ro9 €% ov vX&hv taov tjj eXaTrj* Kal TaXXa 
8e irapofiotov |Ve] to 8ev8pov %vXov 8% ev^povv 
lo")(ypbv ewvov Kal <f>Xoibv Xeiov Kal iraxvv, <f>vX- 
Xov 8' ao"^Se9 irpofirjKeaTepov diriov Kal lira- 
Kavdt^ov aKpoVy pL^as ovtc 7roXXci<; ovtc KaTa 
fiddovr 6 8e KapTrb*: Xelos ftaXavdoSrj? iv ix^tp 

1 cf. Eur. LA. 99 ; Hipp. 1254. 

2 ra 5' conj. Seal. ; koI Aid. 

3 7T6<J«ij$ conj. Seal, from G ; 4\drr}s Aid. 

4 4\drris conj. Seal, from G ; wcvktis Aid. 


Digitized by 


called its white c centre/ which answers, as it were, to 
the aigis of the fir, except that it is white, while 
the other is bright-coloured because it is glutted with 
pitch. It becomes close white and good in trees 
which are of some age, but it is seldom found in good 
condition, while the ordinary form of it is abundant 
and is used to make painters' boards and ordinary 
writing tablets, 1 superior ones being 2 made of the 
better form. 

However the Arcadians call both substances aigis, 
alike that of the fir 8 and the corresponding part of 
the silver-fir, 4 and say that, though the silver-fir 
produces more, that of the fir is better; for that, 
though that of the silver-fir is abundant 5 smooth and 
close, that of the fir, though scanty, is compacter 
stronger and fairer in general. The Arcadians then 
appear to differ as to the names which they give. 
Such are the differences in the silver-fir as com- 
pared with the fir, and there is also that of having 
the ampkauxis,* which we mentioned before. 

Of beech, yew, hop-hornbeam, lime. 

X. The beech presents no differences, there being 
but one kind. It is a straight-growing smooth and 
unbranched tree, and in thickness and height is 
about equal to the silver-fir, which it also resembles 
in other respects ; the wood is of a fair colour strong 
and of good grain, the bark smooth and thick, the 
leaf undivided, longer than a pear-leaf, spinous at the 
tip, 7 the roots neither numerous nor running deep ; 
the fruit is smooth like an acorn, enclosed in a shell, 

6 ttoAAV conj. Gesner ; otiXrjv UmBas.; ti\t)v MVAld. 
• c/. 3. 7. 1. 

7 i.e. mucronate. c/. 3. 11. 3. 


Digitized by 


ttXtjv [ovx] avaicdvQcp Kal Xei<p, teal ov% c!>9 v 
SiOGftdXavos aKavddoSei, tt poaep^eprjs M kcll 
Kara yXvKVTrjra Kal Kara tov yyXov itceivq*. 
yiverai Be Kal ev ra> 6 pet XevKtj, rj /ecu ^ptfaifiov 
e%ei to %vXov irpbs iroXXd' Kal yap irpos apal;- 
ovpyiav Kal irpbs KXivoTrrjyiav Kal eU Si<f>povp- 
yiav /cal el$ rpaire^Lav /cal eh vavTrrjyiav r) 8* ev 
Tofc ireSLois fieXaiva ical axprjcrTO? irpb? ravra* 
tov Be Kapirbv e^pvcri TrapairXrjcriov. 
2 Movoyevtj? Be /cal rj piXo$ y 6p0o(j)vr)$ Be /cat 
evavf;7)<; kcu bpuoLa rfj e\dry, ttXtjv ovx tyrjXov 
ovtco, iroXvfidcrxaXov Be jxaXXov. o/jloiov oe ical 
to <j>vXXov e^ei rfj eXdrrj, Xnrapcorepov Be ical 
fiaXaicwTepov. to Be %vXov r) fiev ef 'ApicaBlas 
fieXav ical <f>oiviKovv, r) £' eic t^? %avObv 
a<f>6Bpa ical o/jloiov tjj /ceBp<p, Si b /cal Tot>9 7rG>- 
XovvTa? §aaiv e^airarav a>9 /ceSpov ircoXovvTas* 
irav yap elvai icaphlav, orav <f>Xoib$ irepiaipedfj* 
Sfjiocov Be /cal tov <j>Xoibv e^eiv ical rfj TpaxurrjTi 
/cal rq> yjp&pxiTi rfj /ce8p(p, pl%a$ Be /u/cpa$ /cal 
\67rTa9 ical eirnroXaiov^. crirdviov Be to SevSpov 
irepl rrjv "ISrjv, irepl Be MaiceSoviav ical 'ApicaSiap 
iroXii* ical Kapirbv (f>epei crrpoyyvXov fwepep fiei^co 
Kvd/Jiov, t£ xpco/JLari S* epvOpbv ical fiaXaicov 
<f>ao~l Be ra fiev X6<f>ovpa edv <f>dyy tcov <f>vXXa>v 
diroOvrjCTKeiv, ret Be firjpvKa^ovra oiSev 7rdo")(€CP. 
rbv Be Kapirbv iaffiovai Kal t&v dvdpwirwv rives 
Kal eariv r)Sv<; Kal dcrivf}?. 

1 4x?vos being otherwise used of a prickly case, such as 
that of the chestnut. irXV iwwe. ical A.€ly conj. W.; irAV 
ovk avaKavdwt ical \c(m U ; ic\))P o^k iv UK&vBy MVAld. 


Digitized by 


which is however without prickles 1 and smooth, not 
spinous, 2 like the chestnut, though in sweetness and 
flavour it resembles it. In mountain country it also 
grows white and has 8 timber which is useful for 
many purposes, for making carts beds chairs and 
tables, and for shipbuilding 4 ; while the tree of the 
plains is black and useless for these purposes ; but 
the fruit is much the same in both. 

6 The yew has also but one kind, is straight- 
growing, grows readily, and is like the silver-fir, 
except that it is not so tall and is more branched. 
Its leaf is also like that of the silver-fir, but glossier 
and less stiff. As to the wood, in the Arcadian yew 
it is black or red, in that of Ida bright yellow and 
like prickly cedar ; wherefore they say that dealers 
practise deceit, selling it for that wood : for that it is 
all heart, when the bark is stripped off ; its bark also 
resembles that of prickly cedar in roughness and 
colour, its roots are few slender and shallow. The 
tree is rare about Ida, but common in Macedonia and 
Arcadia ; it bears a round fruit a little larger than a 
bean, which is red in colour and soft ; and they say 
that, if beasts of burden 6 eat of the leaves they die, 
while ruminants take no hurt. Even men sometimes 
eat the fruit, which is sweet and harmless. 

2 &Kay6a>8ti conj. R. Const.; aKavOdtri Ald.H. 

3 \(vk^j ^ teal conj. W.; Xcv/c^ t« teal Ald.H. 

4 c/. 5. 6. 4 ; 5. 7. 2 and 6. 

5 Plin. 16. 62. (description taken from this passage, but 
applied to fraxinus, apparently from confusion between 
fitKos and /xcAfa). 

6 c/. 2. 7. 4 n. 


Digitized by 


3 "Eot* Be /cal r) Sarpy? fiovoeiBrj?, rjv tcaXovai 
rives barpvav, 6fio<bve? rfj 6f;va rfj re <j>vreiq /cal 
r& <f)Xoia>* (f>vXXa Be dmoeiBrj r& ay^fiari, ttXtjv 
Trpofirj/ceo-repa ttoXXw /cal el? 6 fjv avvrjyfieva /cal 
fjL€L%a), iroXviva Be, dirb rrj? fiear]? ev6eia? /cal 
fieydXtj? r&v aXXcov irXevpoeiBS)? /carareivova&v 
/cal 7ra%09 ixova&v ere Be eppvriBa>/ieva Kara 
ret? Iva? /cal yapayiibv eypvra /cv/cX<p Xeirrov to 
Be %vXov a/cXr}pbv /cal axpovv, e/cXev/cov /captrbv 
Be fii/cpbv irpofia/cpov ofioiov /cpL0fj %avdov pi^a? 
Be e^ei fiererapov?* evvBpov Be /cal (frapayy&Be?. 
Xeyerai Be &? ov/c emrrjBeiov el? oi/ciav ela<\>e~ 
pew BvaQavareiv yap <f>aai /cal Bvaro/ceTv ov 
av rj. 

4 Trj? Be <f>iXvpa? r) fiev apprjv earl r) Be drjXeia' 
Biafylpovai Be rj) fiop<f>fj rfj oXrj /cal rfj rov %vXov /cal 
tg> to fiev elvai Kapirifiov rb S' a/capirov. rb fiev 
yap rrj? appevo? IjvXov a/cXrjpbv /cal gavdbv /cal 
d^coBecrrepov /cal irv/cvorepov eo~ri, en evwBe- 
arepov, rb B& rrj? drfXeia? Xev/corepov. ical 6 
<\>Xolo? rrj? fiev appevo? ira^vTepo? teal ireptatpeOel? 
d/cafnri)? Blc\ rr)v a/cXrjporrjra, rrj? Be OrjXeLa? Xerr- 
rorepo? /cal ev/capmr)?, if; ov ret? /ever a? iroiovaiv 
/cal r) fiev a/capTro? /cal dvavOrj?, r) Be drjXeta 
/cal avQo? e)(€i /cal /capirov rb fiev avOo? /caXv- 
/ca>Be? irapa rbv rov <f>vXXov fdaypv /cal irapct 

1 c/. 1. 8. 2 {otrrpvis), 3. 3. 1 ; CP. 5. 12. 9 {barp^) ; Plin. 
13. 117. 

2 /xcVrjs . . . KaraT€ivov<ruv conj. Sch.; fxe<rr)s ir\€vpo€t^us 
twv &AA00V €v0€iav koI ixsya.Xi\v Karareivovtrav Aid. cf. 1. 10. 2 ; 
3. 17. 3. 


Digitized by 


The ostrys (hop-hornbeam), 1 which some call 
ostrya, has also but one kind : it is like the beech in 
growth and bark ; its leaves are in shape like a pear's, 
except that they are much longer, come to a sharp 
point, are larger, and have many fibres, which branch 
out like ribs from a large straight one 2 in the 
middle, and are thick ; also the leaves are wrinkled 
along the fibres and have a finely serrated edge ; the 
wood is hard colourless and whitish ; the fruit is 
small oblong and yellow like barley ; it has shallow 
roots ; it loves water and is found in ravines. It is 
said to be unlucky to bring it into the house, since, 
wherever it is, it is supposed to cause a painful 
death 3 or painful labour in giving birth. 

4 The lime has both ' male ' and ' female ' forms, 
which differ in their general appearance, in that ot 
the wood, and in being respectively fruit-bearing 
and sterile. The wood of the ' male ' tree is hard 
yellow more branched closer, and also more fragrant 5 ; 
that of the ' female* is whiter. The bark of the 
' male ' is thicker, and, when stripped off, is un- 
bending because of its hardness ; that of the e female ' 
is thinner 6 and flexible ; men make their writing- 
cases 7 out of it. The ' male ' has neither fruit nor 
flower, but the ' female ' has both flower and fruit ; 
the flower is cup-shaped, and appears alongside 
of the stalk of the leaf, or alongside of next years 

3 HvaBavaruv I conj. ; HvaBdvaTov P 2 Ald.; hvtrOavarav conj. 
Sch. , but SvaQavarav has a desiderative sense. 

4 Plin. 16. 65. 

5 £™ 5' eua>8. inserted here by Sch.; cf. Plin., I.e. In Aid. 
the words, with the addition rb rrjs QriXctas, occur after 

c A.€wt<£t«po5 conj. Sch ; \tuK6r€pos Aid. 
7 c/. 3. 13. 1 ; Ar. Vesp. 529. 


VOL. I. Q 

Digitized by 


ttjv eh ve&ra xdypvv i<j> erepov /uo")(pv, 'xXoepbv 
Be ojav rj icaXvic&Be*;, eKKaXvirrofievov Be eiri^av- 
5 dov r) Be av6rj<n<; afia to?? r/fiepois. 6 Be /eapirbs 
arpoyyvXos Trpo/na/cpo? riXitco? Kvafxos ofioio? r<£ 
tov kittov, ycovias e%G>i/ 6 dBpb? irkme olov IvSyv 
e^e'xpva&v teal eh o%v avvayofievw 6 Be fit) 
aBpbs aBiap8 porepov Biarevi£6fievo$ Be 6 dBpb? 
%X €l y^ K 9 ^ T ^ a Ka >l Xeina airep^aTia rjXiica /cal 
6 tt}? dBpaxf>d^vo<;. to Be <})vXXov /cal 6 <f>Xoib$ 
fjBea /cal yXvicea* ttjv Be /JLop<f>rjv KirrtoBe*; to 
(f>vXXov, irXrjv etc irpoaaycoyrj^ fiaXXov f] trepi- 
(f>€p€Ld, /caret to 7iy?09 t£ piaxW fevprorarov, 
aXXa Kara fieaov eh o^vrepov ttjv avvaycoyrjv 
e'xpv kcu fia/cpoTepov, eirovXov Bk kvkX(o /cal #€%a- 
payfievov. firjTpav S' e%e* to f vXov /u/cpav /cal ov 
ttoXv fiaXa/coorepav rod aXXov fiaXa/cbv yap fcal 
to aXXo %vXov. 

XL Tr}9 Be a^evBdpLVOV, /caffdwep etTro/iev, Bvo 
yevrj 7rocov(TLv f oi Be rpia* ev fiev Brj t$ koiv& 
irpoaayopevovGi afyevBapvoVy erepov Be* ^vyiav, 
rpirov Be KKivojpo'Xpv, d>9 oi irepl Xrdyeipa. Bia- 
<f>opa B 1 earl rrjs £vy[a$ fcal ttjs o-<f>evBdfjLvov on 
rj fiev cipevBafivos Xev/cbv e%€£ to gvXov teal 
evivorepov, rj Be £vyia gavffbv /cal oitXov to B& 
<f>vXXov evfieyeOes dfxfxo, rfj a^ivei ofioiov tg> 

1 c/. 3. 5. 5. and 6. 

2 $iaicvi(6u.€vos : 5<a<rx i C<>V €, ' s> ' when split open,' conj. W. 
s c/. 1. 12. 4 ; CP. 6. 12. 7. 4 3. 3. 1. 

5 irpoaayoptvovffi conj. W. from G ; irpoaayopeverai Aid. 


Digitized by 


winter-bud 1 on a separate stalk ; it is green, when 
in the cup-like stage, but brownish as it opens ; it 
appears at the same time as in the cultivated trees. 
The fruit is rounded oblong as large as a bean, 
resembling the fruit of the ivy ; when mature, it 
has five angular projections, as it were, made by 
projecting fibres which meet in a point ; the im- 
mature fruit is less articulated. When the mature 
fruit is pulled to pieces, 2 it shows some small fine 
seeds of the same size as those of orach. The leaf and 
the bark 3 are well flavoured and sweet ; the leaf is 
like that of the ivy in shape, except that it rounds 
more gradually, being most curved at the part next 
the stalk, but in the middle contracting to a sharper 
and longer apex, and its edge is somewhat puckered 
and jagged. The timber contains little core, which 
is not much softer than the other part ; for the rest 
of the wood is also soft. 

Of maple and ash. 

XI. Of the maple, as we have said, 4 some make 5 
two kinds, some three ; one they call by the general 
name ' maple/ another zygia, the third klinotrokhos 6 ; 
this name, for instance, is used by the people of 
Stagira. The difference between zygia and maple 
proper is that the latter has white wood of finer 
fibre, while that of zygia is yellow and of compact 
texture. The leaf 7 in both trees is large, resem- 
bling that of the plane in the way in which it is 

6 K\iv6rpoxov Aid. ; H\iv6<rrpoxov U ; iv6rpoxov conj. Salm, 
from Plin. 16. 66 and 67, cursivenium or axissivenium. Sch. 
thinks that the word conceals y\7vos ; c/. 3. 3. 1 ; 3. 11. 2. 

7 tpvWov conj. R. Const. ; tf\ov UMVAld.H.G. 


Digitized by 


t% irXardvov reravbv XeirroTepov he Kal aaapico- 
Tepov koX fiaXa/cdorepov /ecu irpofirjKearepov* ret Se 
ayiapaO' oXa r e^9 of v avvrjKovra zeal ov% ovrco 
fieaoa^ihrj dXX* d/cpo<T%i8i<TT€pa 9 ov troXviva Se 
o>9 Karh /JLeyeOos. he teal <f>Xoibv /u/cpq> 

Tpaxurepov tov t^9 <f>i\vpa$, wroireXiov irayyv Kal 
irvKvorepov fj 6 rfjs ttLtvos Kal a/cafnrr}* pi^cu 8* 
oXiyai /cal fierecopoi /cal ovXai o"%ehbv ai irXelcnai 

2 Kal ai Tr}$ f;av0r)$ /cal ai T779 Xev/crjs. yiverai he 
fidXiara iv Tofc i<f)v Spots, ft>9 oi irepl rrjv "iSrjp Xe- 
yovcrt, Kal eari airdviov. irepl avOov? he ov/c rjheaav 
rbv he /eapirbv ov Xiav fiev trpofirfKij, irapojioiov he 
rep waXiovpcp ttXtjv Trpofirj/ciaTepov. oi iv rq> 
'OXvfnrcp rrjv fiev ^vyiav opeiov fiaXXov, ttjv he 
o~<f)€v$a/j,vov /cal iv rofc irehLois <f>v€o~0ai % elvat hk 
Trjv /lev iv T<p opei <f>vop,ev7]v ^avOrjy Kal evyjpovv 
Kal ovXrjv Kal arepedv, rj Kal irpbs rd iroXvTeXrj 
t&v epycov %p&prai, rrjv he Trehecvrjv XevKrjv re 
Kal fjuavorepav Kal rjrrov ovXrjv KaXovai 8' avTrjv 
evioi yXevvov, oi a^evhapuvov. . . . Kal tt}9 appevo? 
ovXorepa rd £vXa avvecrrpafipieva, Kal iv t^> 
irehicp TavTrjv (jyveaOai fiaXXov Kal fiXaardveiv 

3 "Eari he Kal fieXLa^s yevrj hvo. tovtcov 8' 97 
/iev vyfrrjXi] Kal evfi^Krj^ iarl to gvXov eypvaa 
XevKov Kal evivov Kal fjutXaKayrepov Kal avo%6- 

1 reravhv : cf. 3. 12. 5 ; 3. 15. 6. 

8 axfopa-f conj. R. Const, from G; axlfiaff Aid. Cam.; 
(rxhp*Q > Bas., which W. reads. 

3 3Ao : ? Z\<as. 

4 i.e. do not run back so far. 

3 itoXvXva conj. R. Const. ; iro\v' Iva 8e Aid. ; toXv* tva M. 

Digitized by 


divided ; it is smooth, 1 but more delicate, less fleshy, 
softer, longer in proportion to its breadth, and the 
divisions 2 all 3 tend to meet in a point, while they 
do not occur so much in the middle of the leaf, 4 
but rather at the tip ; and for their size the leaves 
have not many fibres. 6 The bark too is somewhat 
rougher than that of the lime, of blackish colour 
thick closer 6 than that of the Aleppo pine and stiff ; 
the roots are few shallow and compact for the most 
part, both those of the yellow and those of the white- 
wooded tree. This tree occurs chiefly in wet ground, 7 
as the people of Mount Ida say, and is rare. About 
its flower they did 8 not know, but the fruit, they said, 
is not very oblong, but like that of Christ's thorn, 9 
except that it is more oblong than that. But the 
people of Mount Olympus say that, while zygia is 
rather a mountain tree, the maple proper grows also 
in the plains ; and that the form which grows in the 
mountains has yellow wood of a bright colour, which 
is of compact texture and hard, and is used even for 
expensive work, while that of the plains has white 
wood of looser make and less compact texture. And 

some call it gleinos 10 instead of maple 11 The 

wood of the ' male ' tree is of compacter texture and 
twisted; this tree, it is said, grows rather in the 
plain and puts forth its leaves earlier. 

12 There are also two kinds of ash. Of these one is 
lofty and of strong growth with white wood of good 
fibre, softer, with less knots, and of more compact 

6 -KvuvSrtpov conj. Seal, from G ; rvp&rtpov UAld. 

7 4<pv$pois : v<f>vtipots conj. Sch. cf. v<pa/u/xos, VTrSirerpos. 

8 cf. 3. 9. 6 n.; Intr. p. xx. 9 cf. 3. 18. 3. 

10 cf. 3. 3. 1 ; Plin. 16. 67. 

11 W. marks a lacuna : the description of the * female ' 
tree seems to be missing. 12 Plin. 16. 62-64. 


Digitized by 


repop /cal ovXorepop* rj he raireiporepa /cal fjrTov 
evav%r)$ /cal rpaxvrepa /cal a/cXrjporepa /cal gav- 
dorepa. ra he <f>vXXa r& fiev o'XVf iaTl ha<f>Poeihrj , 
7rXaTV<f>vXXov 8d<j>vt]S, el$ ogvrepop he avvryyfikva, 
yapasyyvov he tip eypvja K\)/cX<p /cal erra/capOi- 
£ovra' to he oXop, oirep enrol w av <j)vXXop rep 
a pa <j>vXXoppoelp, a<t> &09 fii<T%ov /cal irepl 
fiiav olov Iva Kara yopv /cal av^vyiav tcl <j>vXXa 
naff e/caarop Tre<f>v/c€, avxv&v hieypva&v t&p 
av^vyi&p, 6/jlolg><; /cal iirl tt?? o?iy?. €<tti he t&p 
fiep ftpa/yea ra yopara /cal ai av^vyiav to irXrfio^ 
iXdrrov?, t&p he rr)<; Xev/crj? /cal pare pa teal 
rrXelow iea\ ra /ca6* e/caarop <f>vXXa pax pore pa 
/cal arevorepa, rrjp he yjpbcuv Trpa<rd)hr}. <f>Xoibv 
hk Xelop eyei, /cairvpbp hk teal Xerrrop /eat rj) 
4 'Xpoa irvppop. irvKPoppitpp he /cal ira^yppv^ov 
/cal pier eto pop. /capirop he oi pev irepl rrjp "Ihrjp 
ov% vireXapb^apop ex^w ouS' apOo^* e^e* o° ep 
Xofttp Xeirrcp /capirop /capvrjpbp o>9 t&p dp,vyha- 
X&p viroiri/epop ry yevcei. (fxpei he koX erep* 
curia olop ftpva, /caOdirep fj hdipprj, irXrjp ari<f>p6' 
repa' /cal e/caarop /cad* avro afyaipoeihes, &airep 
ret t&p ifKardptop* rovrcop he ra p,ep irepl top 
/capirop, ret 6" dirrjprrjpbepa iroXv, /cal ra irXelara 
ovtq>. <f>verai he 17 p,ep Xeia ire pi ra ftativdy/crj 
p,dXiara /cal fyvhpa, 7] he rpaxcia koX irepl tcl ffy>a 
/cal irerpcohrj. kvtoc he /caXovai rrjp p,ep pbeXiap 

1 ov\6r€pov : avov\6r€pov W. from Sch.'s conj.; &vov\os 
does not occur elsewhere, and T. uses fiav6s as the opposite 
of olKos. 

2 i.e. instead of considering the leaflet as the unit. For 
the description c/. 3. 12. 5 ; 3. 15. 4. 


Digitized by 


texture 1 ; the other is shorter, less vigorous in growth, 
rougher harder and yellower. The leaves in shape 
are like those of the bay, that is, the broad-leaved 
bay, but they contract to a sharper point, and they 
have a sort of jagged outline with sharp points. 
The whole leaf (if one may consider this as 2 a 'leaf* 
because it is all shed at once) grows on a single 
stalk ; on either side of a single fibre, as it were, 
the leaflets grow at a joint in pairs, which are 
numerous and distinct, just as in the sorb. In some 
leaves the joints are short 8 and the pairs fewer in 
number, but in those of the white kind the joint is 
long and the pairs more numerous, while the leaflets 
are longer narrower and leek -green in colour. Also 
this tree has a smooth bark, which is dry thin and 
red in colour. The roots are matted stout and 
shallow. 4 As to the fruit, the people of Ida supposed 
it to have none, and no flower either; however it 
has a nut-like fruit in a thin pod, like the fruit of 
the almond, and it is somewhat bitter in taste. And 
it also bears certain other things like winter-buds, 
as does the bay, but they are more solid, 5 and each 
separate one is globular, like those of the plane ; 
some of these occur around the fruit, some, in fact 
the greater number, 6 are at a distance from it. The 
smooth kind 7 grows mostly in deep ravines and damp 
places, the rough kind occurs also in dry and rocky 
parts. Some, for instance the Macedonians, call the 

8 £pax<a conj. Seal, from G ; rpax** UAld.H. 
4 Bod. inserts ov before fiertupov ; cf. 3. 6. 5. (Idaean 

* ffTuppSrcpa conj. Dalec. ; ffTpv<t>i'6repa MSS. 
8 TrXeurra conj. R. Const. ; wAeKTct UMVAld. 
7 cf. Plin., I.e. 


Digitized by 


ttjv Se ftovfieXiov, &airep oi irepl Ma/ceSoviai/. 
5 fiel^ov Se Kal fiavoTepov 77 ftovfiekios, $1* b icaX 
fjTTOV ofiXov. fyvaei Se to fiev weBeivbv Kal rpa^v, 
to S' opeivbv Kal \elov eari Se f) fiev iv to £9 
6pe<TL (frvofievr) evxpov? Kal XeLa Kal <nepek kclI 
yXLaXpa, 77 S' iv rq> irehia* axpov? Kal fiavrj Kal 
Tpayeia. (to o o\ov g>9 eiireiv ra oevopa oaa 
Kal iv t$ Tre8i<p Kal iv rq> Spec (fyverai, ra fiev 
opeivd evxpod re Kal areped Kal Xela ylverac, 
Kaddirep dijvrj irrekea ra a\\a* ra Se ireSeiva, 
fxavorepa Kal axpovarepa Kal %€t/H», irXrjv airLov 
Kal firfXea? Kal dxpdSos, a>9 oi irepl t6v "OXvfiirov 
<f>aar ravra 8* iv tc5 irehUo Kpeirra) Kal rq> 
Kapirw Kal to?9 £i5\o*?* iv fiev yap tc5 Spec 
Tpa%et9 Kal aKavOcoSec? Kal o£ct>Se£9 elaiv, iv Se ra> 
Trehicp Xeiorepoi Kal fiei^ov^ Kal rbv Kapirbv fyovai 
yXvKvrepov Kal aapKcoSearepov fieyeOei Se aiel 
fiei^ay ra ireheivd.) 

XII. Kpaveia? Se to fiev appev to Se 0rj\v, 
f}v 8t} Kal OrfKvKpaveiav KaXovatv. expvai Se 
<J>v\\ov fiev dfivyhdkfj Sfioiov, ifKr^v XnrcoSearepov 
Kal TraxvTepov, <j>\ocbv S' ivooSrj Xeirrov to Se 
0"Te\e%09 ov ira^y Xiav, dXXd wapacfrvei pd/38ov$ 
&<nrep ayvo?' iXdrrov? Se f] OrfKvKpaveia Kal 
OafivayBearepov iariv. tol>9 Se o£bv9 6fwl<os 
exovaiv dfitfxo rfj ayvq) Kal Kara Svo Kal kot 

1 c/. Plin., I.e., and Index. 

2 fi€t(ov Se Kal fjiavSrcpoy conj. W. from G ; fi. Se Kal nav6repa 
MVU (? fxavSrepov) ; /ieffwp Se Kal fxaKporepa Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


one ' ash ' (manna-ash), the other * horse-ash 1 ' (ash). 
The ' horse-ash ' is a larger and more spreading 2 
tree, wherefore it is of less compact appearance. 
It is naturally a tree of the plains and rough, while 
the other belongs to the mountains and is smooth 3 ; 
the one which grows on the mountains is fair-coloured 
smooth hard and stunted, while that of the plains is 
colourless spreading and rough. (In general one 
may say of trees that grow in the plain and on the 
mountain respectively, that the latter are of fair 
colour hard and smooth, 4 as beech elm and the 
rest; while those of the plain are more spreading, 
of less good colour and inferior, except the pear 
apple 5 and wild pear, according to the people of 
Mount Olympus. These when they grow in the 
plain are better both in fruit and in wood ; for on 
the mountain they are rough spinous and much 
branched, in the plain smoother larger and with 
sweeter and fleshier fruit. However the trees of the 
plain are always of larger size.) 

Of cornelian cherry, cornel, * cedars,* medlar, thoiiis, sorb, 

XII. Of the cornelian cherry there is a ' male ' and 
a c female* kind (cornel), and the latter bears a corre- 
sponding name. Both have a leaf like that of the 
almond, but oilier and thicker ; the bark is fibrous and 
thin, the stem is not very thick, but it puts out side- 
branches like the chaste-tree, those of the ' female ' 
tree, which is more shrubby, being fewer. Both 
kinds have branches like those of the chaste-tree, 

8 Kai rpaxv . . . \*iov conj. Sch. ; kcl\ \ctov . . . rpaxv Aid. 

4 A€?o conj. Mold.; \€uko Ald.G. 

5 firi\4as conj. Seal., c/. 3. 3. 2 ; nc\las UMAld.H. 


Digitized by 


d\\rj\ov<;' to Se %v\ov to fiev t^9 tcpaveia? 
dtcdpSiov teal arepeov o\ov, o/jlolov teepaTi ttjv 
TTVfcvoTijra teal ttjv laxvv, to Se T779 drfKvtepaveia? 
evTepiebvrjv fyov teal p,a\ated>Tepov teal tcoiKaivo- 

2 jjLsvov Si b teal d^pelov et? to, citcovTia. to 8' 
Sijro? tov appevos ScoSetca fiakiGTa 7rrjxecov t rjXitcri 
tGsv aapiaawv rj fieyiaTTj* to yap oKov aTeXexps 
£h|ro9 ovtc io")(€i. fyacrl 8' oi fiev ev tt)"ISti tt) TpcodSi 
to fiev dppev dtcapirov elvai to Se 0i)\v tedpirifiov. 
irvpr\va 8' 6 teapirbs e^ei irapa*ir\r)Giov ekda, teal 
eauiofievos yXvtev? teal evdoSw avOos Se Ofioiov 
t<£> tt)<; e\aa9, teal amavQel Se teal tcapTroefyopeZ 
TOV a\)TOV TpOTTOV T<p €% evbs fiiax ov 7r\etou9 
eyeiv, afteSbv Se teal to?9 xpovoi? irapairXTjaiw^. 
oi 8' ev NlateeSoviq teajyirofyopeZv fiev d/icfxo (fnialv 
tov Se t^9 OrjXeias aftpcoTOv elvai* t^9 /St£a9 8' 
6 {iotas eyei Tafc ayvois laxvpd? teal dveoXWpovs* 
yiveTai Se teal irepl tcl e<f>vSpa teal ovtc ev toi? 
^rjpol^ fiovov* <j>V€Tai Se teal dirb CTrepfiaTO? teal 
dirb Trapao-TrdSos. 

3 KeSpov Se oi fiev <f>aaiv elvai Sitttjv, ttjv fiev 
Avteiav ttjv Se <f>oiviter)v, oi Se fiovoeiSf), teaQdirep 
oi ev tt) "IStj. irapbfioiov Se tt) dptcev0<p, Siaefyepei 
Se fidiXiGTa t& <f>v\\(p' to fiev yap tt)$ tciSpov 
CKXrjpbv teal 6%i) teal dtcavO&Se?, to Se T779 dpteevOov 
fiaXatewTepov* SotceZ Si teal vyjrrj\o(f)V€0'T€pov elvai 
r) aptcevdos* ov fiTjv a\V evioL ye ov Siaipovai 

1 The Idaeans are evidently responsible for this statement. 
T. himself (3. 4. 3) says the fruit is inedible. 

2 But (1. 11. 4) only certain varieties of the olive are said 
to have this character : the next statement seems also incon- 
sistent with 3. 4. 3. Perhaps T. is still reproducing his 
Idaean authority. 


Digitized by 


arranged in pairs opposite one another. The wood 
of the c male ' tree has no heart, but is hard through- 
out, like horn in closeness and strength ; whereas 
that of the ( female ' tree has heart-wood and is softer 
and goes into holes; wherefore it is useless for 
javelins. The height of the c male ' tree is at most 
twelve cubits, the length of the longest Macedonian 
spear, the stem up to the point where it divides 
not being very tall. The people of Mount Ida 
in the Troad say that the ' male ' tree is barren, 
but that the ' female ' bears fruit. The fruit has a 
stone like an olive and is sweet to the taste and 
fragrant 1 ; the flower is like that of the olive, and the 
tree produces its flowers and fruit in the same manner, 
inasmuch as it has several growing from one stalk, 2 
and they are produced at almost the same time 
in both forms. However the people of Macedonia 
say that both trees bear fruit, though that of the 
' female ' is uneatable, and the roots are like those of 
the chaste-tree, strong and indestructible. This tree 
grows in wet ground and not only 3 in dry places ; 
and it comes from seed, and also can be propagated 
from a piece torn off. 

4 The ' cedar,' some say, has two forms, the Lycian 
and the Phoenician 5 ; but some, as the people of 
Mount Ida, say that there is only one form. It 
resembles the arkeutkos (Phoenician cedar), differing 
chiefly in the leaf, that of ' cedar ' being hard sharp 
and spinous, while that of arkeuthos is softer: the 
latter tree also seems to be of taller growth. How- 
ever some do not give them distinct names, but call 

3 fi6vov ins. R. Const, from G. 

4 Plin. 13. 52. See Index kc$pos and &piccv6os. 

5 *oivaa\vi ^oivikik^v conj. W. cf. 9. 2. 3 ; Plin. I.e. 

2 35 

Digitized by 


to*9 dvofiaaiv aSX dfic/xo tcaXovai Ke8pov$, ttXyjv 
irapaarjiiw rrjv tcehpov 6^VKe8pov. o^coSrf 8* 
dficfxa fcal TToXvfjLaa'xaka KaX eirearpafifieva eypv- 
ra ra gvKa* firjrpav 8' fj fiev ap/cev0o$ e%et 


fievrjv fj 8e Ke8po<? to nXetarov iy/cdpSiov koX 
daairk^y ipv0poKap8ca $' dfi<f>ay KaX rj fiev t?/9 

4 KeSpov eucoSry? r) 8e rf}<; erepa<; oij. Kapirbs 8* 
6 fiev rr}9 Ke8pov gavObs fivprov fiiyeOos e^oav 

€V(b&T)<; r)8v$ €<T0L€(T0ai. 6 8e T7)<! dpK€V0OV TCt 

fiev dXka ofioios, fieXa? 8e KaX arpvtyvbs KaX 
&airep dfipcoTov 8iafievet 8' eh eviavrov, eW* 
orav a\Xo9 iin<f>vf} 6 irepvawbs diroir'nrTei. co? 
8e oi ev *ApKa8ia Xeyovai, t/0€*9 dfia Kapirou? 
lately tov re trepvaivov ovttg) iteirova KaX 
rbv irpoirepvaivov ij8rj ireirova KaX e8<o8ifiov 
KaX rplrov rbv veov virofyaivei. e<f>rj 8e Xdrvpo? 
KaX KO/uaai to^9 bpeorvirovs avry> dvav0el<i dfupco. 
rbv 8e (f>\oibv ofJLOiov KvirapiTTco rpa^viepov 
8e* pi^as 8e fiavds dfufrorepai KaX e7rnro\aiov<;. 
fyvovrai irepX ra 7reTpd)8rj koX yeifiepia KaX tovtovs 
tov? ToVot/9 frrovai. 

5 Meo-TrCXrjs 8' earX rpia yevrj, dv0r)8(ov aard- 
veios dv0r)8ovoei8i]<;, w oi irepl rrjv "]8r)v 8iai- 
povai. (f>epei 8e r) fiev caraveio? rbv Kapirbv 
fiei^oo KaX XevKorepov KaX ^avvorepov KaX tou9 
irvpr\va<i e^ovTa fiaXaKwrepov^* al 8 y erepai 

1 Trapa(fi]^oos r^v K&pov U; x. rhv K&pov M ; Aid. omits the 
article ; irapacriixafflq. K&pov conj. W. 

2 fxfrpav conj. Sch. ; fiaWov UM VAld. Plin., 16. 198, sup- 
ports jx^rpav : he apparently read fiijrpav 5' y fxkv a. ?x ct h^^ ov 


Digitized by 


them both 'cedar,' distinguishing them however as 
' the cedar ' 1 and < prickly cedar.' Both are branching 
trees with many joints and twisted wood. On the 
other hand arkeuthos has only a small amount of 
close core/ 2 which, when the tree is cut, soon rots, 
while the trunk of < cedar ' consists mainly of heart 
and does not rot. The colour of the heart in each 
case is red : that of the ' cedar ' is fragrant, but not 
that of the other. The fruit of * cedar ' is yellow, 
as large as the myrtle-berry, fragrant, and sweet 
to the taste. That of arkeuthos is like it in 
other respects, but black, of astringent taste and 
practically uneatable ; it remains on the tree for a 
year, and then, when another grows, last year's fruit 
falls off. According to the Arcadians it has three 
fruits on the tree at once, last year's, which is not 
yet ripe, that of the year before last which is now 
ripe and eatable, and it also shews the new fruit. 
Satyrus 3 said that the wood-cutters gathered him 
specimens of both kinds which were flowerless. The 
bark is 4 like that of the cypress but rougher. Both 5 
kinds have spreading shallow roots. These trees 
grow in rocky cold parts and seek out such districts. 

6 There are three kinds of mespile, anthedon 
(oriental thorn), sataneios (medlar) and anihedonoeides 
(hawthorn), as the people of mount Ida distinguish 
them. 7 The fruit of the medlar is larger paler 
more spongy and contains softer stones ; in the other 

ttukv4)v ; but the words koL 5tov . . . cr\roy,ivt\v (which P. does 
not render) seem inconsistent. ? ins. oh before raxb Sch. 

3 ? An enquirer sent out by the Lyceum : see Intr. p. xxi. 

4 *x €t con j- W. ; 4B6Ktt Aid. 

5 afx(p6r€pai conj.W. ; afi<f>or4pas U; a/MpOTtpous Ald.H. 

6 Piin. 15. 84. 

7 cf. CP. 2. 8. 2 ; 6. 14. 4 ; 6. 16. 1. 


Digitized by 


iXdrrco T€ Tl kolI evcoSeaTepov /eal <TTpV<f>VOT€pOV, 
&<tt€ SvvaaOai TrXeico y^pbvov OrjaavpL^eadai. 
TTVKVorepov Se /eal to f-vkov tovtcov /eal gavOorepov, 
tci 8' aXXa Sfioiov. to S* avQos iracr&v ofiocov 
dfivySaXj), irXrjv ov/c epvOpbv &cnrep e/celvo dXX* 

eyXXtopbrepov fieyeOei fieya to SevSpov 

/cal Trepl/cofiov. <f>vXXov Se to fiev eirl ...... 

7ro\fo-%*S€? Se /eal ev atepw ceXivoeiSes, to 8' 
€7rt T(ov iraXaiOTepcov iroXvax^Se^ aefroSpa teal 
iyycovoeiSe? fiei^oai cf^a/juicrc, tstcivov tixwSe? 
XenTOTepov aeXivov /eal Trpofirj/cecrTepov /eal to 
oXov /ecu tci cryicriiaTa, irepiKexcipctyfievov Se 
oXov fdcrxov 8' e^ei XeirTov fia/cpov irpb tov 
(bvXXoppoecv 8' epvOpalveTai o~(f)6Spa. iroXvppi^ov 
oe to SevSpov teal /3a0vppi£ov Si h /eal xpoviov 
/ecu SvcrcoXeOpov. /ecu to fjvXov tya ttvkvov /eal 
6 aTepebv /eal da an <f>veTai Se /cal dirb airep- 
poros /eal dirb irapaairdSo^* voarjfia Se avT&v 
eaTLv &aT€ yrjpda/covTa a/ccoXrj/coftpcoTa yiveaOai* 
/eal ol o-KcoXrj/ce^ fieydXoi /eal lSioi rj oi i/c t&v 
SevSpcov tcov aXXcov. 

T£>v 8' oicbv Svo yevrj 7roiovai, to fiev Srj 
/eapirofpopov OrjXv to Se dppev d/eapirov ov firjv 
dXXd Sia<f>epovcn to£? /eap7roi<z t t$> Ta? fiev 
aTpoyyvXov Ta? Se TrpofirjKr] Ta? 8' cooeiSrj <f>ipeiv. 
Sia<f>epovai Se /eal to*? %v\o??* a>? ydp eirl to 

1 t\aTTw rt conj. W.; M(£ttw rial UAld. 

2 W. suggests that some words are missing here, as it does 
not appear to which kind of )U6<nr/Ai7 the following descrip- 
tion belongs ; hence various difficulties. See Sch. 

3 Probably a lacuna in the text. W. thus supplies the 
sense : he suggests aiKuoeities for <rcA.(P06t$6s. 


Digitized by 


kinds it is somewhat smaller, 1 more fragrant and of 
more astringent taste, so that it can be stored for a 
longer time. The wood also of these kinds is closer 
and yellower, though in other respects it does not 
differ. The flower in all the kinds is like the almond 
flower, except that it is not pink, as that is, but 

greenish 2 In stature the tree is large and it 

has thick foliage. The leaf in the young tree is 
round 3 but much divided and like celery at the tip ; 
but the leaf of older trees is very much divided and 
forms angles with larger divisions ; it is smooth 4 
fibrous thinner and more oblong than the celery 
leaf, both as a whole and in its divisions, and it has 
a jagged edge all round. 5 It has a long thin stalk, 
and the leaves turn bright red before they are shed. 
The tree has many roots, which run deep ; wherefore 
it lives a long time and is hard to kill. The wood 
is close and hard and does not rot. The tree grows 
from seed and also from a piece torn off. It is 
subject to a disease which causes it to become worm- 
eaten 6 in its old age, and the worms are large 
and different 7 to those engendered by other trees. 

8 Of the sorb they make two kinds, the ' female' 
which bears fruit and the ' male ' which is barren. 
There are moreover differences in the fruit of the 
' female ' kind ; in some forms it is round, in others 
oblong and egg-shaped. There are also differences 

4 rtravhv: cf. 3. 11. 1; 3. 15. 6. 

9 T€piK€x a P a 7M-* yoy conj. Seal.; TepiKedap/xivov U ; TcepiKenap- 
[x*vov MVAld. cf. allusions to the leaf of /A6<nri\ij, 3. 13. 1 ; 
3. 15. 6. 

8 cf. 4. 14. 10 ; Plin. 17. 221 ; Pall. 4. 10. 

7 tStoi Aid. (for construction cf. Plat. Gorg. 481c); IMovs 
UMV (the first i corrected in U). W. adopts Sch.'s conj., 
tjMovs, in allusion to the edible cossm : cf. Plin. I.e. 

8 Plin. 15. 85. 

2 39 

Digitized by 


ttclv €V(oheGT€pa /cat yXv/cvTepa ra arpoyyvXa, 
ra oioeuhrj noXXd/cc^ iarlv offia /cal $}ttov 

7 €vdt>$r). <f>vXXa 8* dfKpoiv Kara yla^ov fia/cpov 
IvoeiSrj 7T€<f)v/€a(Ti aTOixy^bv * K T & v ^Xayicov 
TrrepvyoeiSS)?, a>? ei/o? 6Wo? tov oXov Xo/3oif$ Se 
%X 0VT °S €<rX l(T / Ji * V0V( > T V$ wo?' ttXtjv hiearacriv 
d<p kavr&v viroavxyov ra tcara, fiepov <J>vXXo- 
fioXel 8e ou /card pepo? dXXa o\ov a/jua to 
7TT€pvy(oB€^. elal Be irepl fiev ret TraKacorepa 
/cal fia/cporepa irXelov^ al av^vyiai, irepl Se ra 
v€(OT€pa /cal ftpaxvTepa iXdrrov ?, irdvTwv Be e*K 
aKpov tov fxiaxov <f>vXXov irepnrov, ware /cal 
irdvr eivai irepirrd, tc3 Be o-^/um Ba^voeiBij 
t^? \€7tt(xI)vX\,ov, irXrjv x a P a lV L0V &XpvTa /cal 
fipa^vrepa ical ov/c et? o%v to aKpov avvrj/cov 

dXX €t9 7T€pi<f>€p€aT€pOV. avBoS Be €^€6 fiorpv- 

a>Se? dirb fiia? Kopvvr\<$ i/c 7roXXS>v fii/cpcov /cal 

8 Xcvk&v avy/cei/jbevov. ical 6 /capirhs orav ev/capirjj 
fioTpvdyBrj*;* iroXXa yap diro t^9 avrrj? Kopvvr)?, 
&gt elvai KaOdirep /crjpiov. o-KaXrjKofiopos im 
tov BevBpov 6 /cap7rb$ aireirTo^ a>v em yiverat 
fidXXov r&v fieo-TTiXcov /cal diricov /cal dxpdBeov 
/cairoi 7roXv GTpvfooraTOS. yiverai Be /cal a\)To 
to BevBpov a/cco\rj/c6/3pcoTOV ical ovrax; avaiverai 
yrjpda/cov ical 6 a/ccoXrjl; iBios ipvOpb? Baav$. 
/capirofyopel o° €7riei/c£)<; vea % Tpierrj^ yap evOv? 
<j>v€L tov fieToirdopov 6" orav dirofidXr) to <j>vXXov, 
evOit? t&xet, tt)v /caxpvdo&r) /copvvrjv Xiirapdv /cal 

1 fvWa . . . (rroixn^v conj. W. ; <f>{t\\ov 5' kfx<po7v rh fxkv 
filaxov paKphv IvoeiHrj' Tte<p. <rroixv^^ UMVAld. 

2 &4>' kavruv ( = for' k\\i]\<av) conj. Seal. ; iir' abruv U : BO 
W. , who however renders inter se, 


Digitized by 


in taste ; the round fruits are generally more fragrant 
and sweeter, the oval ones are often sour and less 
fragrant. The leaves in both grow attached to a 
long fibrous stalk, and project on each side in a row 1 
like the feathers of a bird's wing, the whole forming 
a single leaf but being divided into lobes with 
divisions which extend to the rib ; but each pair are 
some distance apart, 2 and, when the leaves fall, 3 
these divisions do not drop separately, but the whole 
wing-like structure drops at once. When the 
leaves are older and longer, the pairs are more 
numerous ; in the younger and shorter leaves they 
are fewer ; but in all at the end of the leaf-stalk there 
is an extra leaflet, so that the total number of leaflets 
is an odd number. In form the leaflets resemble 4 
the leaves of the ' fine-leaved ' bay, except that they 
are jagged and shorter and do not narrow to a sharp 
point but to a more rounded end. The flower 5 is 
clustering and made up of a number of small white 
blossoms from a single knob. The fruit too is 
clustering, when the tree fruits well ; for a number 
of fruits are formed from the same knob, giving an 
appearance like a honeycomb. The fruit gets eaten 
by worms on the tree before it is ripe to a greater 
extent than that of medlar pear or wild pear, and 
yet it is much more astringent than any of these. 
The tree itself also gets worm-eaten, and so withers 
away as it ages ; and the worm 6 which infests it is a 
peculiar one, red and hairy. This tree bears fruit 
when it is quite young, that is as soon as it is three 
years old. In autumn, when it has shed its leaves, 
it immediately produces its winter-bud-like knob, 7 

3 Plin. 16. 92. 4 For construction c/. 3. 11. 3. 

8 i.e. inflorescence. 6 Plin. 17. 221. 7 cf. 3. 5. 5. 


VOL. 1. 

Digitized by Google 


eir(ohr)icvlav £>aav tfhrj /3Xao~Tt/c6v, /cal htafievei 
9 tov %€ificbva. dvd/cavOov he i<ni /cal r) oltj /cal 
f) fieairiXr}* <f)Xotbv h* eyei Xelov viroXiirapov, 
oaairep firj yepdvhpva, rrjv he %p6av %avQbv 
eiriXevKaivovra' ra he yepdvhpva Tpayyv /cal 
fieXava. to hk hevhpov ev/xeyeOes 6p6o<f>ve<$ 
evpvdfiov rfj /eofiy a^chov yap c!>? eVl to woXv 
(TTpofttXoeihes cxfiiia Xafifidvei Kara rrjv /co/jurjp, 
iav firj ti i/jLTTohia-Tj. to he fjvXov aTe^ebv irv/cvbv 
layvpov evxpovv, pL^as he* ov iroXXa? fiev ovhk 
/cara (UdOovs, to-yvpa? he /cal ira^eta? /cal dvafi- 
Xidpov? e%e*. <f>v€Tai he /cal dirb pi&]S /cal airb 
irapaaTrdhos /cal airb aTrepfiaTO?* toitov hk £r}T€i 
-jrvxpbv evi/Cfiov, (fyiXofaov h' ev Tovrep /cal 
ovadoXeOpov ov firjv dXXa /cal fyveTai ev Tofc 

XIII. "lhiov he tt) <f>vaei hevhpov 6 /cepaaos 
ecTr fieyedei fiev jieya* /cal yap eh T€Tra/?a? 
teal eitcoai irrj^ei^ ecTi 8' 6p0o(f>v€^ ofyohpa* 
Tramps he &&Te ical h'nrrfxyv ttjv irepLfieTpov airb 

TTj$ pt%V$ *X €tV ' $VXX0V 0° OflOlOV T(p 

/Meo-irlXr]*; a/cXrfpbv he a<f>6hpa /cal irayvTepov, 
&aT€ Trj Y/oota iroppcodev <f>avepbv eivai to oevhpov. 
(jyXoibv he ttjv XeioTtjTa /cal ttjv yjpoav /cal to 
7ra%o? Sfioiov <f)iXvpa, hi b /cal Ta? /ciaTa? if; 
avTOv iroiovaiv Sawep /cal i/c tov tt}? <f>iXvpa$, 
Trepnrtyvice hk ovto<; ovtc bpdofyvrfs ovre /ev/cXtp 
/car laov, dXX' eXi/crjhbv irepieLXrifye /caTcodev avm 

1 Hvartp fi)) conj. Bod.; &<rr(p rh Aid.; fitrre Tct M. 

2 kShtjv Ald.H.; nopvtyty conj. Sch. ; vertice G. 
8 Win. 16. 125 ; c/. 16. 74 ; 17. 234. 

4 iraxbrtpov : so quoted by A then. 2. 34 ; irXarlrtpov MSS. 

Digitized by 


which is glistening and swollen as though the tree 
were just about to burst into leaf, and this persists 
through the winter. The sorb, like the medlar, is 
thornl ess ; it has smooth rather shiny bark, (except 
when 1 the tree is old), which in colour is a whitish 
yellow ; but in old trees it is rough and black. The 
tree is of a good size, of erect growth and with well 
balanced foliage ; for in general it assumes a cone- 
like shape as to its foliage, 2 unless something inter- 
feres. The wood is hard close strong and of a good 
colour ; the roots are not numerous and do not run 
deep, but they are strong and thick and inde- 
structible. The tree grows from a root, from a piece 
torn off, or from seed, and seeks a cold moist position ; 
in such a position it is tenacious of life and hard to 
kill : however it also grows on mountains. 

Of bird-cherry, elder, willow. 
XIII. 8 The kerasos (bird-cherry) is peculiar in 
character ; it is of great stature, growing as much as 
twenty-four cubits high ; and it is of very erect 
growth ; as to thickness, it is as much as two cubits 
in circumference at the base. The leaves are like 
those of the medlar, but very tough and thicker, 4 so 
that the tree is conspicuous by its colour from a 
distance. The bark 5 in smoothness colour and thick- 
ness is like that of the lime ; wherefore men make 
their writing-cases 6 from it, as from the bark of that 
tree. 7 This bark does not grow straight nor evenly 
all round the tree, but runs round it 8 in a spiral 

5 c/. 4. 15. 1 ; Hesych. s.v. K(pa<ros. 

6 cf. 3. 10. 4 ; Ar. Vesp. 529. 

7 *epnci<pvKt . . . iF€piir€<pvK6s : text as restored bj r Sch. and 
others, following U as closely as possible. 

8 *eptei\T)<t>* conj. R. Const. 


r 2 

Digitized by 


7rpo<rdyci)v, &airep f) Biaypa<J>rj r&v (f>vX\cov teal 
Xoiri^ofjuevos o5to? i/cSepercu, iieeivos 8' eirLTOfio? 

2 yiverai Kal oi Bvvarar fiipos 8' avrov re top 
airbv TpoTrov d<f>aip€lrai Kara ira'/os o"X,i£6fievov 

XeiTTOV d>9 &V <f)v\\0V, TO Be \0L7T0V 7TpO<Tfl€V€lV 

re Bvvarai Kal ado^ec to BevBpov oaaavTw? irepi- 

7r€<j)V/c6<S. 7T€piaipOVfl€VOV 8k 07 CUV \07Ta TOV 

$koiov avveKpalvei /cal Tore rrjv vyporrjra' zeal 
orav 6 e£o> %*tc!>i> irepiaipeOfj, fiovov 6 vnoXiirrf^ 
€7rifi€\alv€Tai &<nrep fivg&Bei vypaaia, /cal iraXiv 
virocfrverai r& BevTepa* erei p(ircbv aXXo? uvt 

€K€LVOV 7r\})V \67TTOT€/0O9. 7re<f)VK€ /Cal TO %v\0V 

ofiocov Ta?9 l<rl t$> $koi<p arpeirrS)^ eXiTTOfievov 
Kal oi pd/SBoi (favovrai tov avrbv Tpoirov ei0v<r 
tou9 ofof9 8' aifjavofievov avfifiaivei tou9 fiev 

3 Karco del dwoWvo-Oai tou9 8' avo) avgeiv. to 8' 
o\ov oi tto\vo£ov to SevBpov o\\' dvo^orepov 
ttoXv t^9 alyeipov. iroXvppi^ov 8k Kal eiri- 
iroXaioppifyv oi/c ayav Be ira^yppi^ov fj 8' 
eiriarpo^r} Kal t^9 pifo? KaL T °v <j>Xotov rod irepl 
avrrjv rj airrj. avQos Be XevKov diri(p Kal /jLeairiXrj 
ofioiov, ex fiiKp&v dvO&v avyK€L/J>evov Krjpi&Bes. 
o Be KapTrbs ipvOpb? o/jloio? Bioair vpq> to c^/ja, 
to Be fieyeOos fjXiKOv Kvafios, ttXtjv tov Bcoairvpov 
fiev 6 7rvprjv aKXrjpb? tov Be Kepdaov jiaXaKO?. 
<f>verai 8' 07rou Kal fj fyiXvpa, to Be oXov oirov 
TTorafiol Kal efyvBpa. 

4 <Pverai Be Kal f) aKTrj frnXiara Trap' vBoop Kal 

1 Which is an ellipse, the segment of a cylinder : so Sch. 

* 4kc?vos: i.e. lower down the trunk, where the spiral ia 
less open. 3 4k(to^.os: cf. 5. 1. 12. 


Digitized by 


(which becomes closer as it gets higher up the tree) 
like the outline of the leaves. 1 And this part of 
it can be stripped off by peeling, whereas with the 
other part 2 this is not possible and it has to be cut 
in short lengths. 3 In the same manner part is 
removed by being split off in flakes as thin as a leaf, 
while the rest can be left and protects the tree, grow- 
ing about it as described. If the bark is stripped off 
when the tree is peeling, there is also at the time a 
discharge of the sap ; further, when only the outside 
coat is stripped off, what remains turns black with a 
kind 4 of mucus-like moisture ; and in the second 
year another coat grows to replace what is lost, but 
this is thinner. The wood in its fibres is like the 
bark, twisting spirally, 5 and the branches grow in 
the same manner from the first ; and, as the tree 
grows, it comes to pass that the lower branches keep 
on perishing, while the upper ones increase. How- 
ever the whole tree is not much branched, but has 
far fewer branches than the black poplar. Its roots 
are numerous and shallow and not very thick ; and 
there is a similar twisting of the root and of the bark 
which surrounds it. 6 The flower is white, like that 
of the pear and medlar, composed of a number of 
small blossoms arranged like a honeycomb. The 
fruit is red, like that of diospyros in shape, and in size 
it is as large as a bean. However the stone of the 
diospyros fruit is hard, while that of the bird-cherry 
is soft. The tree grows where the lime grows, and 
in general where there are rivers and damp places. 
7 The elder also grows chiefly by water and in shady 

4 tcanep conj. Sch.; rrcp MV; nws Ald.H. 

5 ffTptirruis i\irr6fxfvov conj. Sch. ; (TTptTrry iKirrofxdvui U ; 
crpvKTQ i\irrofi4v V Aid. 6 c/. 3. 12. 7. 7 Plin. 17. 151. 


Digitized by 


ev to 49 criciepoU, ov yJqv aXKa teal ev tol 9 /J>tj 
TOiovTOiv Oafiv&Be? Be pdfiBois eirereioi^ avga- 
vofievais fiexP 1 <f>v\\oppoia$ efc firj/co<; 9 eVra 
fieTa ravra 6t9 irdyo^ to Be 5^ro9 t&p pd/SBcov 
ov fjUya Tdav aXXa Kal fidXiara <&9 e^dirrj^v 
t&v Be GTeXex&v ira^o? r&v yepavBpvwv oarov 
TT€pi/ce<f)a\aia<;, (f)\oio<; Be XeZo9 \c7tto9 Kairvpo^ 
to Be %v\ov jyivvov Kal Kov<f>ov f~r)pav0ev, ev- 
repioovrjv Be evoi/ fiaXaKqv, &<jt€ Bl oXov teal 
KOikalvevQai Ta9 pdftBov?, &v Kal ra? /SaKrrj- 
pla$ Troiovai t«9 /cov\f>a<;. IjrjpavOev Be la^ypov 
teal dyrjpwv eav ftpexqTai, kolv y XeXoiritrfiepov 
\o7ri^€Tai Be avrofiarov I-rjpaivofievov. pittas Be 
exei fxereoypovs ov 7roX\a9 Be oiBe fieydXas. 

5 (pvWov Be to fiep /cad* etcaarov fiaXa/cop, irpo- 
firj/ce? a>9 to rip ir\arv<f)vXKov Bd<f>vt)$, jieigov 
Be zeal irXarvrepov teal ire pi<pe peer repov etc fiearov 
Kal tcaT(o0ev 9 to 8' atcpov el$ ol*v fiaXXov <rvvr}teov 
tcvteXw ty e\ov yapayp,ov to B\ o\ov, irepl eva 
fiia^ov ira'xpv Kal IvcbBrj axrdv tcXwvtov ra fiev 
evOev Ta Bk evOev tcara yovv teal av^vyiav 7re<f>v- 
tcacri r&v (frvWayv BitypvTa air dUijXui', ev Be 
if; atcpov tov fiiaxov. virepvOpa Be tcl <f>v\\a 
cttlclkw Kal yavva Kal aapKcoBrj' efrvXkoppoei 
Bk tovto o\ov, Bioirep <j>v\\ov av T19 etirou to o\ov. 
expvai Bk Kal ol K\Syve<; oi veoi y&voeiBf) Tiva. 

« to 8' avOo<; XevKov ck fiitcpwv XevKcov ttoW&v 
eirl rj) rod fiiaypv o-^iVet Ktipi&Be?' evwBiav 

1 x<piKc<pa\alas, some part of a ship's prow : so Pollux. 
a Ka-wvp6s conj. Sch.; tcaX *up<r6s U (?) ; kclL irvpp6s V; ical 
vovp6s M. 3 Sc. pith. 


Digitized by 


places, but likewise in places which are not of this 
character. It is shrubby, with annual branches which 
go on growing in length till the fall of the leaf, after 
which they increase in thickness. The branches do 
not grow to a very great height, about six cubits at 
most. The thickness of the stem of old trees is 
about that of the ' helmet ' 1 of a ship ; the bark is 
smooth thin and brittle 2 ; the wood is porous and 
light when dried, and has a soft heart-wood, 3 so that 
the boughs are hollow right through, and men make 
of them their light walking-sticks. When dried it is 
strong and durable if it is soaked, even if it is stripped 
of the bark ; and it strips itself of its own accord as it 
dries. The roots are shallow and neither numerous 
nor large. The single leaflet is soft and oblong, like 
the leaf of the i broad-leaved' bay, but larger broader 
and rounder at the middle and base, though the tip 
narrows more to a point and is jagged 4 all round. 
The whole leaf is composed of leaflets growing about 
a single thick fibrous stalk, as it were, to which they 
are attached at either side in pairs at each joint; 
and they are separate from one another, while one 
is attached to the tip of the stalk. The leaves are 
somewhat reddish porous and fleshy: the whole is 
shed in one piece ; wherefore one may consider the 
whole structure as a 'leaf.' 6 The young twigs too 
have certain crooks 6 in them. The flower 7 is white, 
made up of a number of small white blossoms 
attached to the point where the stalk divides, 
in form like a honeycomb, and it has the heavy 

4 x a 9 a y^ v conj, R. Const, from G ; *apayn6v UMV; 
<riraoayp6v Aid. 5 c/. 3. 11. 3 n. 

6 ywvoeitiri U ; ? ya>v locitiri ; G seems to have read yovaroefirj ; 
Sch. considers the tex^ effective or mutilated. 

7 cf. 3. 12. 7 n. 


Digitized by 


Be e%et XeiptcbSrj eiriftapelav. e^ei he /cal rbv 
Kapirov ofxolws 777309 ivl fiio"X<p iraye^ porpvcoSr) 
84' yiverai 8e KaraireiraLVOfievo^ fi4Xa$, co/aos Se 
fop dfi<f>afCG)8r)<;' fieyeOec 8e /ju/cp& fieL^cov opo/Sov 
rrjv vypaaiav 8e olvd>8rj rrj oyfrer /cal t<&9 X € ^P a< * 
TeXeiovfievoi (3airTovrai /cal ra? /ce<j)aXd<;' eyei Se 
/ecu ra ivrb<; <rr]<ra/W€i8f) rrjy otyiv. 

Udpv8pov 8e teal r\ Irea fcal TroXveiSes* rj fiev 
fieXaiva /caXovfievrj r& rbv <f>Xoibv e^eti/ fieXava. 
zeal <f>oiviKovv, 7] 8e Xev/crj tc3 XevKov. /caXXiov? 
8e e\ei ra? pd/38ov<; /cal xprjai/jLooTepas el? to 
7r\€K€iv rj fiekaiva, rj 8e Xev/crj /cairvparepa*;. €<tti 
8e teal ri](; fxeXaivr}^ koX t% Xev/crjs eviov yivos 
fiiicpop /cal ovic eypv avgrjaiv el? vyjros, &airep tca\ 

€7T dXX(OV TOVTO 84v8pG>V t olov KeSpOV (pOLVCKOS. 

/caXovai 8* oi irepl 'Ap/ca8iav ovk Ireav aXXa 
eXi/crjv to 8ev8pov oiovrai 84, &airep eAe%0?7, /cal 
/capirbv e^eiv avTrjv yovifiov. 

XIV, v Ean 8e t^9 TrreXea? 8vo yevr), /cal to fiev 
openrreXea /caXelrat, to 8e 7rreX4a' 8ia<f>4pei, 8e t$ 
0afivco8e<TT€pov eivai rrjv irreXeav evav^earepov 8e 
TTjv openrreXeav. <f>vXXov 8e da^iBe^ Trepi/ceyapay* 
fiepov r} av XV' TrpOfitjKearepov 8e tov Tr;9 dirlov, 

1 KaraTTi'naiv6fx^vos conj. W. ; koI verr. VAld. 

2 ical . . . fiairTovrai I conj., following Seal., W., etc., but 
keeping closer to U : certain restoration perhaps impossible ; 
kolI rh.s xcipas rc\elovs &va$\d<rTet 5c Kal tAs K«pa\ds U J x € 'P a * 
5e T€\elov$' iva$Xa<T€'i MV ; om, G. 

« Plin. 16. 174 and 175. 

Digitized by 


fragrance of lilies. The fruit is in like manner 
attached to a single thick stalk, but in a cluster : 
as it becomes quite ripe, 1 it turns black, but when 
unripe it is like unripe grapes ; in size the berry is a 
little larger than the seed of a vetch ; the juice is 
like wine in appearance, and in it men bathe 2 their 
hands and heads when they are being initiated into 
the mysteries. The seeds inside the berry are like 

3 The willow also grows by the water, and there 
are many kinds. There is that which is called 
the black willow 4 because its bark is black and 
red, and that which is called the white 4 from the 
colour of its bark. The black kind has boughs 
which are fairer and more serviceable for basket- 
work, while those of the white are more brittle. 5 
There is a form both of the black and of the white 
which is small and does not grow to a height, — just 
as there are dwarf forms of other trees, such as 
prickly cedar and palm. The people of Arcadia 
call the tree 6 not ' willow ' but helike : they believe, 
as was said, 7 that it bears fruitful seed. 

Of elm, poplars, alder, [serayda, bladder-senna]. 

XIV. 8 Of the elm there are two kinds, of which 
one is called the ' mountain elm/ the other simply 
the ' elm ' : the difference is that the latter is 
shrubbier, while the mountain elm grows more 
vigorously. The leaf is undivided and slightly 
jagged, longer than that of the pear, but rough 

* See Index. 

5 Kawvpoartpas conj. Sch. ; koI nrvptaTcpai U ; koI irvporipas 
MVAld. cf. 3. 13. 4. 

• Sc f i T 4a generally, » 3. 1. 2, 8 Plin, 16, 72. 


Digitized by 


Tpaxv Be Kal ov \elov. fieya Be to BevBpov tcaX 
t^> vifrei Kal t£ fieyeOei. ttoXv ovk eari ire pi 
rrjv "iBrjv aXXd airdviov tottov Be* efyvBpov cfuXev. 
to Be IjvXov %avdbv Kal iayypov teal evtvov teal 
yXiaxpov airav yap tcaphia* xp&vrai B* avr$ 
koX 7T/0O? 0v^cofiara TroXvTeXfj, teal xXeoobv puev 
evrofxov %r)pov Be BvaTopov. duapirov oe vopLL- 
frvaiv, aXX' iv Tat? KWpvfcLcri to KOfifii Kal Orjpi 
&Tra KcopcoTToeiBrj <f>epei. Ta? Be Kayjpvs IBias 
i<TX eL T °v fi€T07ra>pov TroXXa? koX fufcpas Kal 
pbeXaivas, iv Be rals aXXais &pai$ ovk iire- 

2 'H Be XevKt) /cal rj atyeipo? fiovoeiBrjs, 6p0o<f)vrj 
Be dfJLcfxo, ttXtjv fiaKporepov ttoXv teal pavorepov 
Kal Xeiorepov 17 atyeipos, to Be axVf JLa t&v <f>vXX<ov 
irapofioiov. ofioiov Be teal to %vXov repuvop^vov 
tt) XevKOTtfTi. icapTTov S' ovBeTepov tovtwv oiSe 
avdo<s ex^iv Boicei. 

C H /cep/cl? Be irapopboiov tjj Xev/cg Kal t$ fieyeOei 
Kal tw tol>9 kXclBov? eiriXevKov*; %x^v- to Be 
<f>vXXov KiTT0t>Be$ fiev dya>viov Bk ck tov aXXov, 
ttjv Be piav TrpofiijKr) Kal eU 6%v avvrjKOvaav* t$> 

Be X? ( ^l xa ' Tl GX^Bov OfJLOLOV TO VTTTIOV Kal TO 

tt paves* pt&XV ^ irpoarjpTrjfievov paKpq* /cat 
XeiTTqf, 6Y b Kal ovk opObv a\\' iyKCKXi/xevov. 
(frXoibv Be TpaxvTepov TT79 XevKtjs Kal juiXXov 
viroXeirpov, &airep 6 Tt}? axpdBos. aKapirov Be. 
s Movoyeves Be Kal rj KXtfdpa 9 <f>vo-€i Bk Kal 

1 yklvxP * conj. St.; ai<rxp6v Ald.H. c/. 5. 3. 4. 

2 c/. 5. 5. 2. 

• c/. rb $v\*K$tts rovro, 3. 7. 3 ; 2. 8. 3 n.; 9. 1. 2. 


Digitized by 


rather than smooth. The tree is large, being both 
tall and wide-spreading. It is not common about 
Ida, but rare, and likes wet ground. The wood is 
yellow strong fibrous and tough 1 ; for it is all heart. 
Men use it for expensive doors 2 : it is easy to cut 
when it is green, but difficult when it is dry. The 
tree is thought to bear no fruit, but in the ( wallets ' 8 
it produces its gum and certain creatures like gnats ; 
and H has in autumn its peculiar ' winter-buds ' 4 
which are numerous small and black, but these have 
not been observed at other seasons. 

The abele and the black poplar have each but a 
single kind : both are of erect growth, but the black 
poplar is much taller and of more open growth, and 
is smoother, while the shape of its leaves is similar 
to those of the other. The wood also of both, when 
cut, is much the same in whiteness. Neither of 
these trees appears to have fruit or flower. 5 

The aspen is a tree resembling the abele both in 
size and in having whitish branches, but the leaf 
is ivy-like : while however it is otherwise without 
angles, its one angular 6 projection is long and 
narrows to a sharp point : in colour the upper and 
under sides are much alike. The leaf is attached 
to a long thin stalk : wherefore the leaf is not set 
straight, but has a droop. 7 The bark of the abele 
is rougher and more scaly, like that of the wild pear, 
and it bears no fruit. 

The alder also has but one form : in growth it is 

4 Kaxpvs, here probably a gall, mistaken for winter-bud. 

5 c/., however, 3. 3. 4 ; 4. 10. 2, where T. seems to follow a 
different authority. 

8 Supply ywvlav from ayuviov. 

7 iyneKKifiivov : sc. is not in line with the stalk. 


Digitized by 


6p0o<f>ve<;, gvXov 8' e%oi> fiaXa/cbv zeal evTepidyvrjv 
fiaXa/cqv, ware hi oXov /coiXaiveaffai Ta$ \c7rra9 
pdphovs. (f>vXXov 8* ofioiov airLtj), irXrjV puel^ov 
/cal IvoyheaTepov. Tpaxv<f>Xoiov he /cal 6 (fiXoib? 
eatoOev epvdpos, hi b /cal fSdirTei rd Sipfiara. 
p'l^as he eimroXaLov^ . . . rjX'i/cov hd<f>V7]<;. (frverai 
he ev T0Z9 i(j)vhpoi<; dXXoQi h* ovhafiov. 
4 [ZrjfAvha he to fiev <j>vKXov eyei ofioiov rfj 
Uepai/crj /caXovfievjj /capva irXrjv fit k pep <tt€v6t€- 
povy tov <f)Xoibv he ttoikLXov, gvXov he eXafypov 
Xprjaifiov he els fia/cTfjplas fiovov eh dXTio he 

f H he KoXvTea eyei to fiev <j>vXXov eyyv^ tov 
rrj<; Irea?, iroXvo^ov he /ecu 7roXv<f>vXXov /cal to 
hevhpov o\ct>9 fieya* tov he /capirbv eXXoftov, 
/caddirep Ta xehpowd' Xo/3oi<; yap irXareai /cal 
ov aTevois to o-irepfiaTiov to ivbv fii/cpbv ical ov 
fieya* a/cXrjpbv he fieTpiox; ov/c ayav ovhe ttoXv- 
KCLpirov a>9 fcaTa fieyeOos. airdviov he to ev 
Xoftois exeiv tov /capirov oXiya yap ToiavTa t&p 

XV. f H he * HpatcXecoTi/cr) /capva — <j>va€i yap 
/cal tovt dypiov t& t€ firjhev f\ firj ttoXv 
%€t/o« yiveadai <fj> t&v rjfiepcov tov Kapirov, /cal 
tcS hvvaaOai xeifi&va? virofyepeiv /cal tcS 7toXv 
(frveo-dai /card Ta opt) Kal iroXv/capirov ev T019 
6 peloid €Ti hi t$ firjhe o-TeXex&hes dXXd Qap,- 

1 Part of the description of the flower, and perhaps of the 
fruit, seems to be missing. Sch. 

2 cf. 4. 8. 1 ; but in 1. 4. 3 the alder is classed with * am- 
phibious ' trees, and in 3. 3. 1 with * trees of the plain.' 

* Betvlam, G from Plin. 16. 74. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xiv. 3 -xv. i 

also erect, and it has soft wood and a soft heart- wood, 
so that the slender boughs are hollow throughout. 
The leaf is like that of the pear, but larger and 
more fibrous. It has rough bark, which on the inner 
side is red : wherefore it is used for dyeing hides. 
It has shallow roots ... 1 the flower is as large as 
that of the bay. It grows in wet places 2 and 
nowhere else. 

The semyda 3 has a leaf like that of the tree called 
the ' Persian nut '(walnut), but it is rather narrower : 
the bark is variegated and the wood light : it is only 
of use for making walking-sticks and for no other 

The bladder-senna 4 has a leaf near that of the 
willow, but is many-branched and has much foliage ; 
and the tree altogether is a large one. The fruit is 
in a pod, as in leguminous plants : the pods in fact 
are broad rather than narrow, and the seed in them 
is comparatively small, and is moderately hard, but 
not so very hard. For its size the tree does not 
bear much fruit. It is uncommon to have the fruit 
in a pod ; in fact there are few such trees. 

0/ filbert, terebinth, box, krataigos. 

XV. The filbert is also naturally a wild tree, in that 
its fruit is little, if at all, inferior to that of the tree 
in cultivation, that it can stand winter, that it grows 
commonly on the mountains, and that it bears 
abundance of fruit in mountain regions 5 ; also because 
it does not make a trunk, but is shrubby with 

4 Sch. remarks that the description of KoXvrea is out of 
place : cf. 3. 17. 2. W. thinks the whole section spurious. 
The antitheses in the latter part suggest a different context, 
in which ko\vtc<x was described by comparison with some 
other tree. 5 opelois conj.W.; (popcus Aid. 


Digitized by 


v&Bes elvai pdftBois avev fiaayaXSyv teal dvo£oi$ 
fia/cpai? Be teal irayeiais iviaw — ov firjv dXXd 
teal igrjfiepovTai. Bia<f>opav Bk eyei T<p top 
tcapirbv diroBiBbvai fteXTia) teal fiel^ov to <f>vXXov 
ice^a pay fiev ov 8' dfi<f>oiv ofioiorarov to TT79 
tcXrfdpas, irXrjv irXaTVTepov teal avTo to BevBpov 
fiei^ov. tcapirifMOTepov 8 alel yiverai Kara- 

2 KOTTTOfieVOV TCL? pdftBoV?. yeVTJ Be BvO dfl(f)olv 

al fiev yap arpoyyvKov ai Be irpofia/cpov (frepovo-t, 

TO tcdpVOV €/c\€VKOT€pOV Be TO T&V r)fl€p(0V. teal 

teaXXi/capirei fidXiaTa y ev toZ? i<f>vSpois. il*r)~ 
fiepovTai Be tcl aypia fi€Ta<f>VTev6fieva. <f>Xoibv 
8* e^et Xelov iirLiroXaiov Xcittov Xiirapbv IBi&s 
aTiyfid? Xevtcds eypvTa ev avT$' to Bk gvXov 
cr<f>68pa yXia'Xpov, &CTe zeal tcl Xcttto. irdvv pa/3- 
BLa irepiXoirL<ravT€<; icavea iroLovai, zeal tcl irayea 
Be icaTatyaavTes* eyei Be teal evrepimn\v XeiTTtjv 
%avdi)v t rj KoiXaiveTai. lBiov 8' avT&v to irepl 
top iovXov, &airep etirofiev. 

3 T/79 Be TepfiivOov to fiev appev to Be drjXv. to 
fiev ovv appev a/capirov, Si b fcal tcaXovaw appev 
tcov Be OijXei&v rf fiev epvdpbv ev0u<; <f>epei tov 
/capirbv rfXi/cov <f>atcbv aireiTTOv, 1) Be ^Xoepov 
ivey/caaa fieTa TavTa epu0paivei 9 zeal a pa ttj 
dfiireXtp ireiraivovaa to eayarov iroiel fieXava, 
fieyeOos rjXiKov Kva/xov, orjTLvdyBrj Be /cal 0va>- 
BeaTepov. eaTi Be to Bevopov irepl fiev Ttfv "IBrjv 
teal Ma/ceBoviav /3pa%v dajiv&Bes eaTpafifievov, 
irepl Be Aafiaa/cbv t% Xvpia? fieya teal iroXv 
teal KaXov 0/009 yap tl <f>aaiv elvat irdfifieaTOV 

1 cf. CP. 2. 12. 6. 2 cf. Geop. 10. 68. 
3 \e7ov conj. W. ; ir\iov UMVAld. 


Digitized by 


unbranched stems without knots ; though some of 
these are long and stout. Nevertheless it also submits 
to cultivation. The cultivated form differs in produc- 
ing better fruit and larger leaves ; in both forms the 
leaf has a jagged edge : the leaf of the alder most 
closely resembles it, but is broader, and the tree itself 
is bigger. 1 The filbert is always more fruitful if it 
has its slender boughs cut off. 2 There are two kinds 
of each sort; some have a round, others an oblong 
nut ; that of the cultivated tree is paler, and it fruits 
best in damp places. The wild tree becomes 
cultivated by being transplanted. Its bark is smooth, 8 
consisting of one layer, thin glossy and with peculiar 
white blotches on it. The wood is extremely tough, 
so that men make baskets even of the quite thin 
twigs, having stripped them of their bark, and of 
the stout ones when they have whittled them. Also 
it has a small amount of yellow heart-wood, which 
makes 4 the branches hollow. Peculiar to these trees 
is the matter of the catkin, as we mentioned. 5 

6 The terebinth has a ' male ' and a 6 female ' form. 
The e male ' is barren, which is why it is called 
( male ' ; the fruit of one of the ' female ' forms is 
red from the first and as large as an unripe 7 lentil ; 
the other produces a green fruit which subsequently 
turns red, and, ripening at the same time as the 
grapes, becomes eventually black and is as large as a 
bean, but resinous and somewhat aromatic. About 
Ida and in Macedonia the tree is low shrubby and 
twisted, but in the Syrian Damascus, where it 
abounds, it is tall and handsome ; indeed they say 

4 § Ald.H.; h W. with U. c/. 3. 13. 4. 

5 3. 7. 3. 6 Plin. 13. 54. 
7 koI before Uttcittov om. St. 

2 55 

Digitized by 


4 TepfiLvOtov, aXXo B 9 oiBev ire^vzeevai. 1-vXov Be 
eyei y\io"xpov zeal pi£a$ layvpa? zeard fidOovs, 
zeal to oXov dvd&XeOpov avvos B\ opuoiov rtp T779 
iXdas, T(p xpw/iaTi Be ipvOpov. tpvXXov, irepl 
eva jxia'xpv irXeiw BacfrvoeiBr} /caret av^vyiav, 
&<jirep zeal to tt}<; 6tr)<s* zeal to ef azepov Trepirrov 
7r\t)v iyyeovecorepov t^9 01*79 fcal BafyvoeiBearepov 
Be zevzcXcp zeal Xiirapbv amav a pa t^> zeapirQ. 
<f>epei Be teal zecopvzecoBrj rivet zeoiXa, zeaOdirep rj 
irreXea, ev 0I9 OrjpLBia eyyiyverav zccovcoTroeiBr]' 
iyyiyverat Be n zeal prjTiv&Bes ev tovtois zeal 
y\io"Xpov ov fxrjv evOevriv ye 1) ptjrivr) avXXe- 
yerav d\\' dirb rov IjvXov. 6 oe zcapirbs ovzc 
d<f>ir](ri prjrivrjs 7rXf}0o<;, dXXd Trpoae^erai fiev 
Tat? 'xepat, zcav purf irXvOfj fierd ttjv cvXXoyrjv 
uvveyeTai" TrXvvo/nevos Be 6 piv Xevzcb? zeal 
a7r€7TT09 eimrXel, 6 Be p,eXa<; v^LCTarai. 

6 C H Bk ttv%o<; pbeyedei p>ev ov /leydXrj, rb Bh 
<f>vXXov opboiov e'xei p,vppiv<p. (frverai 8' ev to 49 
yfrvxpois tottoi? fcal Tpayecrv zeal yap rd Kvrcopa 
toiovtov, ov 7) TrXeiarTj yiverar yjrv)(pb<? Bk zeal 
6 "OXvfiiro? 6 MazceBovizeor zeal yap evravOa 
yiverai irXrjv ov fieydXrj' pueyiarr) Be zeal zcaX- 
XiaTrj ev Kvpv<p* zeal yap evfitfzceis zeal Tramps 
eftovaai iroXv irapd t^9 aUa?. Be b zeal to 
p,eXi oi>x rjBv 8%ov rr)? nvljov. 

1 -kXcIw : sc. <pvX\a, in loose apposition to <f>6\\ov. Ap- 
parently the leaf is said to resemble that of oftj in its compo- 
site structure, but that of the bay in shape : c/. 3. 12. 7. 

2 tirav afxa conj. W.; &fia faap UAld. 

3 c/. 2. 8. 3; 3. 7. 3; 3. 14. 1. icapvicABri conj. R. Const.; 
Kopvd>Zri Aid. ; Kwpv&Bri H. ; Kapvubrj mBas. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. xv. 3-5 

that there is a certain hill which is covered with 
terebinths, though nothing else grows on it. It has 
tough wood and strong roots which run deep, and the 
tree as a whole is impossible to destroy. The Hower 
is like that of the olive, but red in colour. The leaf 
is made up of a number of leaflets, 1 like bay leaves, 
attached in pairs to a single leaf-stalk. So far it 
resembles the leaf of the sorb; there is also the 
extra leaflet at the tip : but the leaf is more angular 
than that of the sorb, and the edge resembles 
more the leaf of the bay ; the leaf is glossy all 
over, 2 as is the fruit. It bears also some hollow 
bag-like 3 growths, like the elm, in which are found 
little creatures like gnats ; and resinous sticky 
matter is found also in these bags ; but the resin is 
gathered from the wood and not from these. The 
fruit does not discharge much resin, but it clings to 
the hands, and, if it is not washed after gathering, it 
all sticks together ; if it is washed, the part which is 
white and unripe floats, 4 but the black part sinks. 

The box is not a large tree, and it has a leaf like 
that of the myrtle. It grows in cold rough places ; 
for of this character is Cytora, 6 where it is most 
abundant. The Macedonian Olympus is also a cold 
region; 6 for there too it grows, though not to a 
great size. It is largest and fairest in Corsica, 7 
where the tree grows taller and stouter than anywhere 
else ; wherefore the honey there is not sweet, as it 
smells of the box. 

4 AriirXc? conj. R. Const, from G ; Jirl t\uop Aid. ; M irXi* 
(erased) U. 

6 cf. Cytore buxifer, Catull. 4. 13 ; Plin. 16. 70. 

6 cf. 5. 7. 7. 

7 Kvpv V conj. R. Const, from Plin. I.e.; Kvp^vm U; KupVp 


VOL. I. 8 

Digitized by 


6 TlXtfdet, Be ttoXv /cpdraiyo*; i<rnv t ol Bk fcpa- 
Taiyova KaXovaw e^ei Be to jicp <j>vXXop ofioiov 
fieo-iriXy tctclvov, 7rXrjp fielfrv i/ceivov Kal irkarv- 
repov rj irpOfirjKeaTepop, top Be ^(apayfibv ovk 
eyov &airep etcelvo. yiverac Be to BepBpop ovre 
/xeya Xiap ovre *nayy % to Be gvXop ttolklXop 
ia'xypov J»clp06p* e%e* Be <f>Xoibp Xelop 6/jloiov 

fJL€0"7TL\r)' /JLOPOppl^OP 8' 649 ftdOo? ft>9 eirl TO TTOXv. 

Kapirbp S' e^ec aTpoyyvXop fjXiKOP 6 kotivos* 
Treiraipofiepos Be %ap0vp€Tai teal eirtpjekaipeTar 
kcltcl Be ttjp yevaip teal top xyXbp psaTnX&Bev 
Bioirep olop dypla pbeairiXr} Bogeiep hp elvai. 
fiopoeiBh Be teal ovk e^pp Bia<f>opd<;. 

XVI. c O Be irplpos <f>vXXop fiev e^ei Bpv&Bes, 
ekaTTOP Be Kal eiraKapOityp, top Be <f)\oibp Xeio- 
Tepop Bpvos. avTO Be to BepBpop fieya, KaOdirep 
rj Bpv$, cap exy tottop Kal eBa<f>o$' jjvXop Be 
7TVKPOP Kal lax v pop* /3a0vppi£op Be eineiK&<i Kal 
iro\vppi%op. Kapirop Be eyei ftaXaPGoBrj* /xitcpa 
Be i) ySaXaiw TTepiKaTaXapfidpei Be 6 peo<t top 
epop' oyjre yap ireiralpei, Bi b Kal Bi(f>op€iP Tipes 
<f>ao~i. <j>epei Be irapa ttjp fidXapop Kal kokkov 
tvpcl <f>oiPiKovp* iGX €L ^ Ka ^ ifyw K &1 v<f>eap* 
&aT€ epLoTe avpbftaivei T€TTapa$ ajia Kapnov^ 
eyeip avTOP, Bvo /jap tov<; eavTOv Bvo 8* aXXov? 
top Te t^9 i\;las Kal top tov vtfreapos. Kal tt/v 

1 Quoted by Athen. 2. 34 ; c/. Plin. 16. 120 ; 26. 99 ; 
27. 62 and 63. 

2 rtrav6v: cf. 3. 11. 1 ; 3. 12. 5. Athen., I.e., has rera- 

* 4x€~po Athen. I.e.; kolkuvo Aid. 
4 Zavdbv before i<rxvp6v Athen. l.c. 

Digitized by 


I The krataigos is a very common tree ; some call it 
kralaigon. It has a smooth 2 leaf like that of the 
medlar, but longer, and its breadth is greater than 
its length, while the edge is not jagged like that 3 
of the medlar. The tree does not grow very tall or 
thick; its wood is mottled strong and brown 4 ; it 
has a smooth bark like that of the medlar ; it has 
generally a single root, which runs deep. The fruit 
is round and as large as that of the wild olive 5 ; as 
it ripens it turns brown and black ; in taste and 
flavour it is like that of the medlar ; wherefore this 
might seem to be a sort of wild form of that tree. 
There is only one form of it and it shews no 

Of certain other oaks, arbutus, andrachne, wig-tree, 

XVI. The kermes-oak 7 has a leaf like that of the 
oak, but smaller and spinous, 8 while its bark is smoother 
than that of the oak. The tree itself is large, like 
the oak, if it has space and root-room ; the wood is 
close and strong ; it roots fairly deep and it has many 
roots. The fruit is like an acorn, but the kermes- 
oak's acorn is small ; the new one overtakes that of 
last year, for it ripens late. 9 Wherefore some say 
that it bears twice. Besides the acorn it bears a kind 
of scarlet berry 10 ; it also has oak-mistletoe 11 and 
mistletoe ; so that sometimes it happens that it has 
four fruits on it at once, two which are its own and 
two others, namely those of the oak-mistletoe 11 and 

6 k6tivqs Athen. I.e. ; ^tyifios UMVAld. 

6 fi*<rxl\ri added from Athen. I.e. 

7 cf. 3. 7. 3. 8 cf. 3. 16. 2. • cf. 3. 4. 1, 4 and 6. 
10 Plin. 16. 32 ; Simon, ap. Plut. Theseus 17. 

II cf. CP. 2. 17. 1. 


s 2 

Digitized by 


fiev l%iav <f>epei i/e t&v 77*009 ftoppav, to Be v(f>eap 

i/C T(OV 7T0O9 /Jl€<Tr)fjL/3pLaV. 

Ol Be ire pi *Ap/caBiav BevBpov ri afilXa/ea 
/eaXovaiv, o itjTiv ofjuoiov t<o irpivw, ra Be <f>vXXa 
ovk d/cavOcoBrj €%€i, dXX* diraXcoTepa zeal ftaOvrepa 
zeal Bia(f>opd<; €)(pvTa irXeiow ovBe to %vXov 
wairep e/celvo criepebv /cat irv/cvov, dXXa /cal 
fiaXa/cbv iv rat? ipyaaiais. 

a O Be /caXovcriv oi 'Ap/cdBe? <f>eXX6Bpvv ToidvBe 
e^ei rrjv <f>v<riv ax; fiev dirXcbs elireiv dvd fieaov 
irpivov zcai Bpvos iariv zeal evioi ye viroXafifid- 
vovaiv elvat OrjXvv irpivov Be b zeal oirov fir] 

(f)V€TCU TTpWOS TOUT ft) Xp&VTCLl 7T0O9 T<Z9 dfldl*a<t 

/cat rd roiavra, zcaQdirep oi irepl Aa/ceBaifiova zeal 
'YiXeiav. /caXovai Be oi ye Acopiecs ical dpiav to 
BevBpov earl Be fiaXa/cdoTepov fiev /ecu fiavorepov 
tov irpivov, a/cXrjpoTepov Be zeal irvKVOTepov T779 
Bpvov zeal to j(p&fia <f)Xo'ia0evTO<; tov gvXov 
XevKOTepov fiev tov irpivov, olvtoiroTepov Be Try; 
801/09 • Td Be <f>vXXa irpoaeoi/ce fiev dfi<f>olv, €^e* 
Be fiei^co fiev fj ax; irpivos iXaTTQ) Be 77 <J>9 Bpvv 
/ecu tov zcapirbv tov fiev irpivov zcaTd fieyedo? 
eXaTTO) Ta?9 eXa^o-Tca? Be ftaXdvots ivov, /ecu 
yXvKvrepov fiev tov irpivov irizcpoTepov Be tt}9 
Bpvos. zcaXovai Be Tives tov fiev tov irpivov /cal 
tov tclvttjs zcapirbv azcvXov, tov Be t^9 Bpvbs 
fidXavov. firjTpav Be €^€J (jxtvepwTepav r) 6 
irpivos* /cal f] fiev <f>eXX6Bpv<; TOiavTrjv Tiva e^et 

1 Plin. 16. 19. See Index. 

2 QaOvrepa MSS. ; evOtrepa conj. Dalec. 
8 Plin. I.e. See Index. 


Digitized by 


of the mistletoe. It produces the oak-mistletoe on 
the north side and the mistletoe on the south. 

The Arcadians have a tree which they call smilax 1 
(holm-oak), which resembles the kermes-oak, but 
has not spinous leaves, its leaves being softer and 
longer 2 and differing in several other ways. Nor 
is the wood hard and close like that of the kermes- 
oak, but quite soft to work. 

The tree which the Arcadians call * cork-oak ' 3 
(holm-oak) has this character : — to put it generally, 
it is between the kermes-oak and the oak ; and some 
suppose it to be the ' female ' kermes-oak ; wherefore, 
where the kermes-oak does not grow, they use this 
tree for their carts and such-like purposes ; for instance 
it is so used by the peoples of Lacedaemon and Elis. 
The Dorians also call the tree aria.* Its wood is softer 
and less compact than that of the kermes-oak, but 
harder and closer than that of the oak. When it is 
barked, 5 the colour of the wood is paler than that of 
the kermes-oak, but redder than that of the oak. 
The leaves resemble those of both trees, but they 
are somewhat large, if we consider the tree as a 
kermes-oak, and somewhat small if we regard it as 
an oak. The fruit is smaller in size than that of the 
kermes-oak, and equal to the smallest acorns ; it is 
sweeter than that of the kermes-oak, bitterer than 
that of the oak. Some call the fruit of the kermes- 
oak and of the ana ' mast,' 6 keeping the name 
€ acorn ' for the fruit of the oak. It has a core which 
is more obvious than in kermes-oak. Such is the 
character of the € cork-oak.' 

* Already described ; cf. 3. 4. 2 ; 3. 17. 1. 

5 cf. Paus. Arcadia, 8. 12. 

8 &kv\ov : cf. Horn. Od. 10. 242. 


Digitized by 


f H he Kofiapo?, f) to p,ep,aiicv\ov <f>epovaa to 
ehwhipnv, €(ttI fiev ovtc ayav fiiya, tov he <f>\oibv 
exei Xctttov fiev irapofioiov fivpitcrj, to hk <f)v\\ov 
yuG.Ta\~v irplvov /ecu hdcfrvr)?. dvOel he tov Uvave- 
yfn&vos* Tei he avOrj irecjiv/cev dirb fiia? /cpepAaTpas 
iir a/epcov ftoTpvhov ttjv he pLop<f>t)v e/caaTov 

eCTlV OflOLOV flVpTCp 7TpOfl1]K€l Kal T<p fl€y€0€l &€ 

a^eSbv TrjXiKovrov' a<f>v\\ov he /cal koVKov &airep 

0)OV €KK€KO\afl/JL€VOV TO CTO/JUl &€ dv€G)y pAvOV* 

otov 8' airavO^arj, /ecu rj 7rp6a(f>vat<; T€T pvirrjTCU, 
to S' dwavOfjaav Xctttov /cal &airep acf>6vhv\o<; 
irepl CLTpcucTOV rj /cdpveios Acopi/cor 6 he /capwbs 
iviavTtp ireTcaiveTCU, &a0* a pa avpuftaLvei tovtov 
t ex eLV /cal tov erepov avOeiv. 

Hapopioiov he to <f>v\\ov /cal r) dvhpdx^V ^X €L 
T<p /cofidpcp, pAyeOos ovk ayav p,eya* tov he <f)\oibv 
\elov ex €L teal Trepippr\yvvp&vow /capirbv 8' fyec 
op,oiov txi /cop&ptp. 

f 'Op,oiov 8' iaTi tovtois to <f)v\\ov /cal to Try; 
ko/c icvy ear to he hevhpov pu/cpov. ihiov he er^et 
to €/C7ramrovo'0ai tov /eapirov tovto yap oih' 
i(f) y evbs aKTf/coapLev aWov hivhpov. Tama pkv 
ovv KOivoTepa ifKuoai xcopai? /cal tottois. 

1 Plin. 15. 98 and 99 ; Diosc. 1. 122. a October. 

* 4KK€KO\afifi4pov MV, c/. Arist. H.A. 6. 3 ; 4yK€Ko\ann4vov 
UAld. 4 c/. 1. 13. 3. 

5 xdpvcios, an unknown word, probably corrupt ; kIovos 
AwptKov conj. Sch., 'drum of a Doric column.' c/. Athen. 
5. 39. 


Digitized by 


1 The arbutus, which produces the edible fruit 
called memaikylon, is not a very large tree ; its bark is 
thin and like that of the tamarisk, the leaf is between 
that of the kermes-oak and that of the bay. It 
blooms in the month Pyanepsion 2 ; the flowers grow 
in clusters at the end of the boughs from a single 
attachment ; in shape each of them is like an oblong 
myrtle flower and it is of about the same size ; it has 
no petals, but forms a cup like an empty eggshell, 3 
and the mouth is open : when the flower drops off, 
there is a hole 4 also through the part by which 
it is attached, and the fallen flower is delicate and 
like a whorl on a spindle or a Doric karneios. 5 The 
fruit takes a year to ripen, so that it comes to pass 
that this and the new flower are on the tree 

6 The andrachne has a leaf like that of the arbutus 
and is not a very large tree ; the bark is smooth 7 
and cracked, 8 the fruit is like that of the arbutus. 

The leaf of the wig-tree 9 is also like that of 
the last named tree, but it is a small tree. Peculiar 
to it is the fact that the fruit passes into down 10 : 
we have not heard of such a thing in any other 
tree. These trees are found in a good many 
positions and regions. 

6 Plin. 13. 120. 

7 Aetof conj. Sch. ; XfvKhv UAld. In Pletho's excerpt the 
passage has Aetov, and Plin., I. c, evidently read \€tov. 

8 TTtpippriyvvfxcvov. Plin., I.e., seems to have read vepiirrj- 
yvtpevov. cf. 1. 5. 2 ; 9. 4. 3. 

9 Plin. 13. 121. KOKKvytas conj. Sch. after Plin. I.e., cf. 
Hcsych. 8.v. KfKKOKvyo»fi4vrjv ; KOKKOfirj\(as U ; KOKKvfiri\4as 
P ? Ald. 

*° iK-rraxwovadai : fructum amittere lanugine Plin. I.e. cf. 
6. 8. 4. 


Digitized by 


XVII. "Evia Be IBicoTepa, KaOdirep teal 6 <f>e\\6<;* 
yiv€Tai jjuev ev Tvpprjvia, to Be BevBpov iarl are- 
Xex&Be? fiev real 6\ty6/c\aBov , ev/jLrjtees 8' iiriei/ca)? 
teal evavges* ^v\ov iayypbv tov Be <f>\oibv ira^yv 
cr<f>6Bpa teal tcaTapprjyvvfievov, &airep 6 TT79 ttLtvos, 
irXrjv kcltcl fxeL^w. to Be <f>v\\ov ofioiov Ta?9 
fieXlcus ira'xy irpo^rjKeaTepov ovk defyvWov 
aXka <j)v\\oj3o\ovv. tcapirbv Be [alei] <f>epei 
fia\av?]pbv o/jlolov Tjj dpla. irepiaipovai Be tov 
<f>\oibv /cat (pacn Becv irdvTa d<f>aipelv, el Be /mrj 
X^pov yiveTai to BevBpov igavairXrjpovTai Be 
irakiv tryeBbv ev Tpicnv eTeaiv. 
2 "iBiov Bk /cal fj fcoXovTea irepl Aiirdpav BevBpov 
fiev evpiyeOes, tov Be tcapirbv <f>epei ev Xoftols 
rfklicov fyatcov, 09 iriaivei tcl irpoftaTa OavfiaaT&s. 
<f>veTai Be dirb airepfiaTOS teal ite Ttj? t&v irpofid- 
Ttov Koirpov tedWicrTa. &pa Be t?}9 <f)VTeia<; a/jua 
'AptcTovpcp Bvofievtp* Bel Be <f>vTeveiv TrpofipixovTa? 
otov fjBtj BiatfrvrjTCU ev T£> vBciti. <f>v\\ov 8' eyei 
irapofjuoiov TrjXei. /3\ao~Tdvei Be to irp&Tov 
fiovo(j)V€<; €7rl €ttj fidXiaTa TpLa ev oU teal ra9 
ficucTrjpias Tejivovcrr Botcovcri ydp eivai kclKoI* 
teal idv t*9 KoXovay diroOvrjCTKei' teal ydp dira- 
pd^XacTTov ecrTiv eZra ayjXeTai teal diroBev- 

BpOVTCLl T(p T€TapT<p €T€l. 

1 Plin. 16. 34. 

2 TuppTjvla conj. R. Const.; irupprivlai UMV; wpprfvlq, Aid. 
8 aU\ must be corrupt : probably repeated from aeityvWov. 
4 PaKavripbi' conj. Sch.; &a\avr)<popov UMVAld. 

8 fy>f? conj. R. Const, from G ; ay pit} P 2 MVAld. ; ityplai U. 


Digitized by 


Of cork-oak, kolutea, koloitia, and of certain other trees 
peculiar to particular localities. 

XVII. 1 Some however are more local, such as the 
cork-oak : this occurs in Tyrrhenia 2 ; it is a tree with 
a distinct trunk and few branches, and is fairly tall 
and of vigorous growth. The wood is strong, the 
bark very thick and cracked, like that of the Aleppo 
pine, save that the cracks are larger. The leaf is 
like that of the manna-ash, thick and somewhat 
oblong. The tree is not evergreen but deciduous. 
It has always 3 an acorn-like 4 fruit like that of 
the aria 5 (holm-oak). They strip off the bark, 6 and 
they say that it should all be removed, 7 otherwise 
the tree deteriorates : it is renewed again in about 
three years. 

The kolutea 8 too is a local tree, occurring in the 
Lipari islands. It is a tree of good size, and bears 
its fruit, which is as large as a lentil, in pods ; this 
fattens sheep wonderfully. It grows from seed, and 
also grows very well from sheep-droppings. The 
time* for sowing it is the setting of Arcturus; and 
one should first soak the seed and sow it when it is 
already sprouting in the water. It has a leaf like 
telis 9 (fenugreek). At first it grows for about three 
years with a single stem, and in this period men cut 
their walking-sticks from it ; for it seems that it 
makes excellent ones. And, if the top is cut off 
during this period, it dies, for it makes no side- 
shoots. After this period it divides, and in the 
fourth year develops into a tree. 

« cf. 1. 5. 2 ; 4. 15. 1 ; Plin. 17. 234. 

7 a<t>atpuv conj. Coraes ; tiicupuv P 2 Ald. 

8 cf. 1. 11. 2; 3. 17. 3. 

9 r-fi\ti conj. R. Const, from G, faeno graeco ; rl\u UMV; 
rv\j) Aid. 


Digitized by 


'H he irepl ttjv "Ihqv, r)v /caXovai /coXoiriav, 
erepov eZSo? eariv, Oajivoeihe*; hk /cal ofwSe? /cal 
TTo\vfid(ryakov s airdviov he, ou iroXv' he 
<f>vXXov ha^voeihe? irXarv^vKkov hd(f>vrj^, ttXtjv 
arpoyyvXa^repov /cal fjbec^ov &<t6* ofjuoiov (fxzLveaffai 
tc5 tt)?' irreXea^, 7rpo/j,r)/ce<rT€pov Be, ttjv %pdav 
eirl Odrepa xXoepbv oiriadev he einXevicaZvov, /cal 
TToXvivov i/c r&v oiriaOev rats Xe7rTal<; lal etc re 
tt}$ pa^eca? koX jieragv rebv irXevpoeih&v dirb 
tt/9 pear)? /caTareivova&v <f>Xoiov 8' ov Xelov 
aU' olov top tt}$ ajjuireXov to he %vXov (r/cXr)pbv 
/cal ttvkvov pi£a$ he eTMroXalov*; /cal Xe7TTas 
/cal fiavas ovXa? 8' evtore, /cal gavOa? <r(j)6hpa. 
Kapirbv he ov/c e^ew <f>a<rlv ovhe av0or ttjv he 
/copvvcohrj /cd%pvv /cal tov? 6(f>6aXfiov<; tov<; irapa 
ra <f)vXXa XeLov? <r(f>6hpa /cal Xnrapovs /cal 
Xev/cov? rq> <jyf)iiaTi hk /caxpvdohew diro/coTcev he 
/cal eiri/cavOev irapa^veraL /cat dva^Xaardvei. 

"Ihia he /cal rdhe ra irepl ttjv "Ihiyv €<ttlv, olov 
fj re ' KXe%dvhpeia KaXovfievrj hdcjyvr) /cal av/cr\ ti$ 
/cal afnreXos. rr)9 pev ovv hd<f>vi]^ ev Tovrcp to 
ihiov, otl eiTL^vXXoKapTTov ecTTiv, (ocrirep /cal 17 
Kevrpo/jLVppivrj' dficfroTepaL yap top /capirbv ex~ 
ovaiv i/c tt)? pa%€fi>9 rod <j>vXXov. 

f H he au/crj dafiv&he? fiev /cal ovx vtyrfXov, 
irdxos 8' ex ov ^ (TT€ Ka ^ Trrjxvalov elvav ttjv irepi- 
fierpov to he %vXov eireaTpafifievov yXiaxpov 
/cdrcodev /juev Xeiov /cal avo^ov avcoOev he irepi- 

1 Ko\otrlav (? Ko\otr4av) U. cf. 1. 11. 2; 3. 17. 2. Which- 
ever spelling is correct should probably be adopted in all 
three places. 2 cf. 3. 11. 3. 


Digitized by 


The tree found about Mount Ida, called koloitia, 1 
is a distinct kind and is shrubby and branching with 
many boughs ; but it is rather rare. It has a leaf 
like that of the ( broad-leaved ' bay, 2 but rounder 
and larger, so that it looks like that of the elm, 
but it is more oblong : the colour on both sides is 
green, but the base is whitish ; in this part it is 
very fibrous, because of its fine fibres which spring 
partly from the midrib, 3 partly between the ribs 4 
(so to call them) which run out from the midrib. 
The bark is not smooth but like that of the vine ; 
the wood is hard and close, the roots are shallow 
slender and spreading, (though sometimes they are 
compact), and they are very yellow. They say that 
this shrub has no fruit nor flower, but has its knobby 
winter-bud and its ' eyes ' ; these grow alongside of 
the leaves, and are very smooth glossy and white, 
and in shape are like a winter-bud. When the tree 
is cut or burnt down, it grows from the side and 
springs up again. 

There are also three trees peculiar to Mount Ida, 
the tree called Alexandrian laurel, a sort of fig, and a 
' vine ' (currant grape). The peculiarity of the laurel 
is that it bears fruit on its leaves, like the * prickly 
myrtle ' (butcher's broom) : both have their fruit on 
the midrib of the leaf. 

The ' fig ' 5 is shrubby and not tall, but so thick 
that the stem is a cubit in circumference. The wood 
is twisted and tough ; below it is smooth and un- 
branched, above it has thick foliage : the colour both 

3 tic T€ rrjs fax*vs ical conj. W. ; iccit rah fi((ais koI Aid. c/. 
3. 10. 3, and 4k rrjs j>ax*o>s below, 3. 17. 4. 

4 n\cvpofi$Zov : rcKcvpociliws conj. St. 

• See Index. Plin. 15. 68 ; c/. Athen. 3. 11. 


Digitized by 


tcofiov xp&iia hk /cal <f>vXXov /cal <f>Xoiov ireXiov, 
to he (T^Tjfia t&v <j>vXXo)v Sfioiov t& t?)? <j>iXvpa$ 
/cal jiaXa/cbv /cat, irXaTv /cal to fieyeOo? irapa- 
wk/qaiov avOo? fieairiX&he^ /cal avOel afia rfj 
IxeairtXrj. 6 he /capTros, ov /caXovai avtcov, ipvOpbs 
rjkiico*; i\da<; ttXtjv <rrpoyyv\(OT€po^, iaOiojievos 
he fiecTTTtXcohrf^ pi%a<; he e^et irayelas dxrav 
avKrfs rjfiepov /cal yXiaxpas. daaire<; he eari to 
hevhpov /cal icaphLav e%ei arepeav ov/c ivrepKovrjv. 
6 f H 8e a/ATreXos (frvercu fiev t?}? ire pi Ta$ 
<Pd\d/cpa$ KaXovpueva^ can he Oa/jLv&hes pa/3- 
hiois fiitepofc' reivovrai he ol /cX&ve? a>? irvya)- 
vialoi, 7T/0O9 oh payes elaiv etc irXayiov fieXaivcu 
to fieyeBos rfXiKO^ /cvafio? yXv/celav e^owi he 
ivrb<; yiyapT&hes ti fiaXa/cov <f>vXXov ajpoyyvXov 
ao-^iSe? fxitcpov. 

XVIII. v E^e* he /cal TaXXa aftehov opr\ <f>va€i<; 
rivas thias tcl fiev hevhp&v ra he Odfivcov ra 8' 
aXXcov vXrjfiaTcov, dX\a yap irepl fiev t^9 Ihio- 
ttjto? etprjrai irXeovdius on ylverai /caff* e/cdaTov? 
ToVof?. i) he ev avTOi? row opjoyeveaiv hia<f>opd, 
/caBdirep rj t&v hevhptov /cal t&v ddfxvwv, 6fM)Lw 
earl /cal t&v aXXwv, &airep ecprjTai, t&v irXeiaTwv, 
&crirep zeal pdfivov /cal iraXiovpov /cal otaov [/cal 
oitov] /cal pov /cal klttov /cal ftaTov /cal eTepwv 


1 Lit. grape -stone. 

2 I omit ft before foa<f>opd with Sch. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xvu. 5 -xviii. i 

of leaf and bark is a dull green, the shape of the 
leaf is like that of the lime ; it is soft and broad, 
and in size it also corresponds ; the flower is like 
that of the medlar, and the tree blooms at the same 
time as that tree. The fruit, which they call a ' fig,' 
is red, and as large as an olive, but it is rounder 
and is like the medlar in taste ; the roots are thick 
like those of the cultivated fig, and tough. The 
tree does not rot, and it has a solid heart, instead of 
ordinary heart-wood. 

The ' vine ' (currant grape) grows about the place 
called Phalakrai in the district of Ida ; it is shrubby 
with small twigs ; the branches are about a cubit 
long, and attached to them at the side are black 
berries, which are the size of a bean and sweet; 
inside they have a sort of soft stone 1 ; the leaf is 
round undivided and small. 

Of the differences in various shrubs — buckthorn, withy \ ChrisVs 
thorn, bramble, sumach, ivy, smilax, [spindle-tree], 

XVIII. Most other mountains too have certain 
peculiar products, whether trees shrubs or other 
woody plants. However we have several times 
remarked as to such peculiarities that they occur in 
all regions. Moreover the variation 2 between things 
of the same kind which we find in trees obtains also 
among shrubs and most other things, as has been 
said : for instance, we find it in buckthorn Christ's 
thorn withy 3 sumach ivy bramble and many 

8 [*al oXtov] bracketed by W. ; icat Xaov Aid. ; koI Xaov koI 
oXrov MVP ; ical oXaov koX oXrov U. Only olaos is mentioned in 
the following descriptions. 


Digitized by 


2 'Pa/z^o? T€ yap iariv rj fiev fiiXaiva rj he XevKrj, 
Kal 6 Kapirov hid<f>opo$ f afcavOocpopoc he dfi(j)Ci). 

Tov re otaov to pkv XevKov to he jieXav Kal to 
avQo<* ifcaTepov teal 6 Kapirbs xaTct \6yov 6 fiev 
XevKos 6 he fiekav evioi he fcal &cnrep dva pueaov, 
&v Kal to av0o$ i7rnrop<f>vpl£ei Kal ovtc oIvwttov 
ovt€ exXevKov eaTiv wairep twv eTepoov, e^ei he 
Kal tcl <f>vXXa XeirTOTepa Kal XeioTepa Kal tcl<s 
pdfihovs to Xcvkov. 

3 f/ T€ iraXiovpos eyei hia<f>opa<; . . . airavTa he 
Tama Kapiro(f)6pa. Kal 6 ye iraXlovpo^ ev Xo/3q> 
tlvl tov Kapirov e%€i KaQairepei <f>vXX<p, ev a> TpCa 
rj TCTTapa yiveTai* yp&VTai h y avT<p 7rpo? ra? 
@VX a< > 01 i aT P°l KOTTTOVTes* e%64 yap Tiva 
y\iaxpoT7}Ta Kal Xiiros, &airep to tov Xivov 
Gireppua* cfrveTai he Kal 67ri to& e<f>vhpoi<; Kal ev 
to?9 f?/PoZ?, &airep 6 /8aVo?. [ov% fjTTOv he eaTi 
to hevhpov irdpvhpov.] <j>vXXo/36Xov he Kal ov% 
&airep rj pafxvos ael<f>vKXov, 

4 v Et* he Kal tov (Scltov irXeico yevrj, fieyiaTrjv he 
e^oi>T€9 hiacfropav on 6 fiev opOocfrvrj*; Kal tn/ro? 
eywv, 6 h* iirl t?}? yfjs Kal ev0v<; KaT(o vevcov Kal 
OTav avvaTTTrj ttj yfj pi£ovfievo$ TrdXiv, ov hrj 
KaXovaL Tives xafiaiftaTov, to he KWoafiaTov 
tov Kapirov virepvBpov e^ei Kal *irapairXr)Giov t£ 
t^5 poar eaTL he Odfivov Kal hevhpov fieTa^v Kal 
irapbfioiov Tat? poais, to he <j>vXXov aKavO&hes. 

1 c/. 1. 9. 4; 3. 18. 12; CP. 1. 10. 7. 

2 Some words are missing, which described various forms 
of iraX'iovpos, alluded to in irdvra ravra (Sch.). c/. 4. 3. 3, 
where an African ira\lovpos is described. 

3 Kadavtpel <pv\\(j> conj. W., cf. 3. 11. 2 ; KaOdwfp rh <p{>\\ov 


Digitized by 


1 Thus of buckthorn there is the black and the 
white form, and there is difference in the fruit, 
though both bear thorns. 

Of the withy there is a black and a white form ; 
the flower and fruit of each respectively correspond 
in colour to the name ; but some specimens are, as 
it were, intermediate, the flower being purplish, and 
neither wine-coloured nor whitish as in the others. 
The leaves in the white kind are also slenderer and 
smoother, as also are the branches. 

There is variation also in the Christ's thorn ... 2 
all these forms are fruit-bearing. Christ's thorn has 
its fruit in a sort of pod, resembling a leaf, 8 which 
contains three or four seeds. Doctors bruise 4 them 
and use them against coughs ; for they have a certain 
viscous and oily character, like linseed. The shrub 
grows in wet and dry places alike, like the bramble. 5 
But it is deciduous, and not evergreen like buckthorn. 

Of the bramble again there are several kinds, 
shewing very great variation ; one is erect and tall, 
another runs along the ground and from the first 
bends downwards, and, when it touches the earth, it 
roots again ; this some call the ' ground bramble.' 
The ' dog's bramble ' (wild rose) has a reddish fruit, 
like that of the pomegranate 6 ; and, like the pome- 
granate, it is intermediate between a shrub and a 
tree ; but the leaf is spinous. 7 

4 kSittovtcs : for the tense c/. 3. 17. 2, wpof}p€X ovra s- 

6 ovx • . • rrdpvtipov probably a gloss, W. 

• t>6an UMV (?) Aid.; fates conj. Sch. from Plin. 16. 180. 
Athen. (2. 82) cites the passage with Trap air. ttj jtolq. The 
Schol. on Theocr. 5. 92 seems to have traces of both readings. 

7 aKavetafos conj. Sch. from Schol. on Theocr. (see last note), 
which quotes the passage with aicavOwlits ; kyvwti* s UAld. ; so 
also Athen. I.e. Plin. (24. 121) seems to have read ixv&tes 
(vestigio hominis simile). 


Digitized by 


5 he pov to fiev dppev to he BrfXv /caXovat 
T6) to /4€i> dtcapirov elvai to tcdpirifiov. ovk 
e%€i he oihe Ta? pd/3hov<; vyfrrjXa? ovhe 7ra%eta9, 
pXXoy o° ofioiov irreXea 7r\rjv fit k pov Trpofir)- 
Kearepov ical eirihaav. ra>v he ickwviwv r&v vicov 
e£ Xaov tcl </>v\\a el? hvo, tear a\\rj\a he i/c tG>v 
irXayicov &are CTOL^eiv. fidirrovci he tovt<p ical 
ol aKUToSeyfrai ra hepfiara ra Xevtcd. avOos 
Xevicbv fiorpv&hes, rq> axv/ JLarl 70 oXoaxepe? 
oarXiyyas eypv &<nrep ical 6 fiorpw oTravvr)- 
aavros he 6 /capird? dfia rfj <na<^v\rj ipvOpaiverai, 
teal yivovrai olov <f>atcol Xe7rrol avyxeifievor 
fiorpvebhes he to ayr\iLa teal tovtcov. e^ei he to 
$>apfxaKO)he$ tovto o tcaXelrai pov? ev aincp 
dar&hes, o teal ttJ? pov Sir)Trrjfi€vr]<; e^ei iroXkdw 
pi^a 8' eTwroXaios ical /jLOVO<f>vrj<; &<tt€ ava- 
tcdprtneaQai pa$LQ)<; 6Xoppi£a* to he %vXov ivre- 

piCOVTfV €X€t, €V<f)0apTOV he Kdl KOTTTOfieVOV. €V 

iravi he yiyverai T019 to7to£9, eidevel he jidXiara 
ev to?9 dpyiXwheai. 

6 Uo\veiBi)<; he 6 #ht6V ical yap eiriyeios, 6 he* 
eh {/^09 alpofievor /cat rcov ev vyjrei irXeita yevrj. 
rpia 8' ovv fyaiverai rd fieyiara o re Xevtcb? zeal 
6 fieXa? teal rpirov rj ekijj. eihrj he zeal etcdarov 
rovrav irXeico. Xevicbs yap 6 fiev t£ icapircp 
fjuovov, 6 he teal T019 (frvXXot? eari. udXiv he r&v 

'Xevfco/cdpircov fiovov 6 fiev dhpbv teal irvicvbv teal 
(Tvveo-TrjfcoTa rbv tcapirbv e^et KaOairepeX afyaipav, 

1 Plin. 13. 55 ; 24. 91. 

2 aroix^v: cf. 3. 5. 3 ; Plin. 13. 55. 

8 froTpv&fcs conj. W. ; froTpwi)Z6v U ; 0orpvd6v Aid. 
4 6 ftovs masc. c/. Diosc. 1. 108. 

Digitized by 


1 Of the sumach they recognise a 4 male ' and a 
4 female ' form, the former being barren, the latter 
fruit-bearing. The branches are not lofty nor stout, 
the leaf is like that of the elm, but small more 
oblong and hairy. On the young shoots the leaves 
grow in pairs at equal distances apart, corresponding 
to each other on the two sides, so that they are in 
regular rows. 2 Tanners use tin's tree for dyeing 
white leather. The flower is white and grows in 
clusters ; the general form of it, with branchlets, is 
like that of the grape-bunch ; when the flowering is 
over, the fruit reddens like the grape, and the 
appearance of it is like small lentils set close 
together; the form of these too is clustering. 3 The 
fruit contains the drug called by the same name, 4 
which is a bony substance ; it is often still found 
even when the fruit has been put through a sieve. 
The root is shallow and single, so that these trees 
are easily bent right over, 5 root and all. The wood 
has heart-wood, and it readily perishes and gets 
worm-eaten. 6 The tree occurs in all regions, but 
flourishes most in clayey soils. 

7 The ivy also has many forms; one kind grows 
on the ground, another grows tall, and of the tall- 
growing ivies there are several kinds. However the 
three most important seem to be the white the 
black and the helix. And of each of these there are 
several forms. Of the < white ' one is white only in 
its fruit, another in its leaves also. Again to take 
only white-fruited sorts, one of these has its fruit 
well formed close and compact like a ball ; and this 

5 i.e. nearly uprooted by wind. 
8 KOTrr6^.ivov : cf. 8. 11. 2, 3 and 5. 
7 Plin. 16. 144-147. 

2 73 

VOL. 1. T 

Digitized by 


bv Br) teaXovat teopvp,/3iav, oi S* 'AOrjvyo-iv 

y Axapvifcov. 6 Be iXdrrcov Biatc€Xvp>evo<; &airep 
teal 6 fieXa?' e%€t Be teal 6 fieXa? Bia<f>opa$ aXX 
ovx 6/jlolq><; <j>avepd<;. 

7 f H Be eXil; ev fieyuarais Biafyopalv teal yap 
to?? <}>vXXot<; irXelarov Bia<f>epet rf) re /MtcpoTrjTi 
teal T(p ycovoeiBr) teal evpvOyborepa elvar ra Be tov 
kvttov irepL^epearepa teal dirXa' ica\ r& prf/cei 
tcov Kkrjfidrcov teal €tl t$ aKapTTOs elvai. Bia- 
TeLvovrai yap rive? t^> firj diroKvriovaO ai rfj 
<f>v<rei rrfv eXitca dXXa rrjv etc tov /cittov TeXeiov- 
/jL€vt)v, {el Be iraaa diroteiTTOVTai, teaOdrcep Ttve? 
<f>aaiv, ffXifdas av etrj /cal BiaOecrecos ov/c €?8ou? 
Bia<j)opd f teaOdirep teal rrjs dirtov 7roo? tt)v 
dxpdBa.) ttXtjv to ye (j)vXXov teal ravrr)^ woXv 
Biatfrepei 7rpo? top kittov. airdviov Be tovto teal 
ev oXiyois €0~tIv &GTe iraXaiovfievov fieTaftdXXeiv, 

8 &a*irep eirl t?}? Xevtcrjs teal tov /cpoTcovo?. elBrj 
S' 60"Tt irkeieo Tr)? eXitco?, o>? fiev to, irpofyave- 
GTaTa teal fieyiaTa Xafteiv Tpia, r) tc xXoepa teal 
7roia>Br)<; rynep teal TrXeCaTrj, teal CTepa r) Xevter), teal 
TpLTrj r) TroitclXrj, fjv Br) tcaXovai Tives ®pateiav. 

1 cf. Theocr. 11. 46. 2 Plin. 16. 145 foil. 
8 i.e. is the most ' distinct ' of the ivies. 

4 cf. 1. 10. 1 ; Diosc. 2. 179. 

5 i.e. as an explanation of the barrenness of helix. 
• i.e. and so becomes fertile. 

7 Ziartlvovrai : cf. CP. 4. 6. 1. 5mr. t£ . . . apparently 
= " insist on the view that," . . . but the dative is strange. 
The sentence, which is highly elliptical, is freely emended by 
most editors. 


Digitized by 


kind some call korymbias, but the Athenians call it the 
s Acharnian ' ivy. Another kind is smaller and loose 
in growth like the black ivy. 1 There are also vari- 
ations in the black kind, but they are not so well 

2 The helix presents the greatest differences 3 ; the 
principal difference is in the leaves, 4 which are small 
angular and of more graceful proportions, while 
those of the ivy proper are rounder and simple ; 
there is also difference in the length of the twigs, 
and further in the fact that this tree is barren. For, 5 
as to the view that the helix by natural development 
turns into the ivy, 6 some insist 7 that this is not so, 
the only true ivy according to these being that which 
was ivy from the first 8 ; (whereas if, as some say, the 
helix invariably 9 turns into ivy, the difference would 
be merely one of age and condition, and not of kind, 
like the difference between the cultivated and the 
wild pear). However the leaf even of the full- 
grown helix is very different from that of the ivy, 
and it happens but rarely and in a few specimens 
that in this plant a change in the leaf occurs as it 
grows older, as it does in the abele and the castor-oil 
plant. 10 11 There are several forms of the helix, of 
which the three most conspicuous and important are 
the green ' herbaceous ' kind (which is the common- 
est), the white, and the variegated, which some call 
the 'Thracian' helix. Each of these appears to 

8 i.e. and helix being a distinct plant which is always 

9 iraaa conj. Sch.; was Aid. 

10 Sc. as well as in ivy ; cf. 1. 10. 1, where this change is 
said to be characteristic of these three trees. (The rendering 
attempted of this obscure section is mainly from W.'s note.) 

11 Plin. 16. 148 foil. 


T 2 

Digitized by 


€/cd<TT7) 8k TOVTWV 8oK€l 8lCUj>€p€tV Kal yap 

XXod>8ov<; v Xeirrorepa Kal rafyfyvXXoTepa 
Kal en 7rvKvo(j>vXXoTepa t f) 8' fjrrov irdvra ravr 
exovaa. Kal rf}<; ttoikLXtj^ rj jikv jiel^ov r) 8' 
eXarrov to <f>vXXov, Kal ttjv TroiKiXLav 8t,a~ 
<j>epovaa. d>aavTco<; 8k Kal ra ttjs XevKrj? t$ 
jieyedei Kal Tjj XP 0l § 8ia<j>epovaiv. eiav^eardrrj 
8k f) 7rocco8r)<; Kal enl irXelarov irpolovaa. <f>avepdv 
8* elvaL <f>aaiv rrjv diroKLTTOvjievrjv oi) jjlovov to?9 
<j>vXXoi$ OTi jjl€l£co Kal irXarvrepa l^et dXXa 
Kal to?? ftXaaTolv ev6v<; yap 6p0oi><; eyec, Kal 
oix wairep rj erepa KaraKeKajijievrj, Kal 8ia ttjv 
XeTTTOTrjTa Kal 8ta to jirjKO^' rfjs 8k kltt(o8ov^ 
koX fipaxvTGpoi Kal 7raxvrepoi. Kal 6 kitto? 
orav apxryrai airepjiovaBai jierecopov e^ei xal 
opdbv rbv fiXaarov. 

9 Ho\vppi£o? /lev o&v aira? kittos Kal irvKvbppi- 
£o9 avvearpajJLjievo<; rat? pL£ai$ Kal ^vXd>8eai Kal 
TTax*LcLi<i Kal ovk ayav fiadvppi^os, jidXiara S' o 
jiiXas, Kal tov Xcvkov 6 rpaxvraro^ Kal dypido- 
rarov 8C o Kal ^a\67T05 7rapa<f>v€a6ai iraav to?9 
8iv8poi<f diroXXvai yap iravra Kal cupavaLvei 
Tiapaipovjievo? ttjv rpo^rjv. Xajifidvei 8k jidXiara 
Travo? outo? Kal diro8ev8povTai Kal yiverai airb 
Kau avTo kittov oevbpov. a>9 o eiri to nXetov 
elvai tt/309 crept? </>tXet xal fyret Kal &airep 

10 eiraXXoKavXov iaTiv. e%€4 8' eiOi/s Kal t^9 

1 ra^t<f>v\\or4pa conj. W. from Plin. 16. 149, folia in 
ordinem digesta ; naicpoQvWortpa MSS. cf. 1. 10. 8. 

2 Karate* Kanntvr) conj. W.; Karate* Kavufry UAld. ; KaraiccKafi- 
fxevovs conj. Sch. 

8 KtrrASovs MSS.; ico&lovs conj. St. 4 cf. CP. 1. 16. 4. 


Digitized by 


present variations ; of the green one form is slenderer 
and has more regular 1 and also closer leaves, the 
other has all these characteristics in a less degree. 
Of the variegated kind again one sort has a larger, 
one a smaller leaf, and the variegation is variable. 
In like manner the various forms of the white helix 
differ in size and colour. The ' herbaceous ' kind is 
the most vigorous and covers most space. They say 
that the form which is supposed to turn into ivy is 
clearly marked not only by its leaves, because they 
are larger and broader, but also by its shoots ; for 
these are straight from the first, and this form does 
not bend over 2 like the other; also because the 
shoots are slenderer and larger, while those of the 
ivy-like 8 form are shorter and stouter. 4 The ivy 
too, when it begins to seed, has its shoots upward- 
growing and erect. 

All ivies have numerous close roots, which are 
tangled together woody and stout, and do not run 
very deep ; but this is specially true of the black 
kind and of the roughest and wildest forms of the 
white. Wherefore it is mischievous to plant this 
against any tree ; for it destroys and starves any 
tree by withdrawing the moisture. This form also 
more than the others grows stout and becomes tree- 
like, and in fact becomes itself an independent ivy 
tree, though in general it likes and seeks to be 5 
against another tree, and is, as it were, parasitic. 6 
7 Moreover from the first it has also this natural 

• chat conj. W. ; aid UM ; Ac 2 Aid. 

6 i.e. depends on another tree ; not, of course, in the 
strict botanical sense, cf. 3. 18. 11. 4ira\\6Kav\ov conj. 
Seal.; i*av\6Ka\ov MVAld.U (with v corrected), cf. n-epi- 
a\\6Kav\os t 7. 8. 1 ; CP. 2. 18. 2. 

f Plin. 16. 152. 


Digitized by 


<f>VO €G)9 TL TOIOVTOW €ZC JCtp T&V fiXaaT&V dfyllfOTlV 

del pl£a<; dva fieaov tS>v <j>vXX(ov, alcirep evhverai 
rot? SevSpoi? zeal rot? Te^io^ olov ifjeTrLTTjSes 
ireiroirffievaL*; vtto tt)? fyvaew Si o zeal igaipov- 
fievo? ttjv vyporrjra zeal eXzccov d<f>avaCv€i, zeal iav 
dirozcoirfj /cdrcodev SvvaTai Stafieveiv /eat %rjv. 
e%6t Se teal errepav Siacfropdv Kara tov zcaptrbv ov 
fiizcpdv 6 fiev yap eiriyXvievs cctiv 6 Se a $68 pa 
in/epos zeal tov Xevzeov /cal tov fieXavov o-rjfielop 
8' on tov fiev iaOLovaiv oi opvides tov 8' ov. 
rd fiev ovv irepl rbv zccttov ovtcos !%e*. 
n e H Se cficXd^ ean fiev eiraXXozeavXov, 6 Se 
zeavXb<; dzcavOcbSiys zeal &o"irep dp0dzcav0o$, to 
Se <f>vXXov zciTT&Ses fiizcpbv dycoviov, Kara rrfv 
fiivypv irp6a<f>vcnv TvXrjpov, ISiov 8' ore rr\v re 
Sid fieaov ravTrjv (bairep pd^iv Xcttttjv e%et 
zeal rds ctt) fioviovs SiaX^yfrei^ ovze dirb TavTrj?, 
&airep rd r&v aXXcov, dXXd irepl avrrjv irepicfcepeis 
ffyfievas dirb t?}9 irpoafyvae&s tov fiiayov T<p 
<f>vXXq>. irapd Se tov zeavXov ra ydvaTa /cal 
irapd Ta9 SiaXeiyfrei^ ra? <f>vXXizcd<; eze t&v avT&v 
fiiax<ov rot? <f>vXXoi<i irapaire^v/eev tovXos XeirTo? 
zeal eXizcTos 9 dv0o<; Se Xev/ebv zeal ei&Ses Xeipivov 

1 (Tfiikaii ? tfKat W. cf. 1. 10. 5; Plin. 16. 153-155. 

2 iira\\6Kav\ov conj. Sch. ; 4icavX6Kav\ov V. cf. 3. 18. 10. 
8 KavKhs conj. R. Const. ; icapicbs UMVAld. 

4 rv\r\p6v conj. W. ; vori\p6v Ald.U (corrected). 

5\v\ cf. rb 0uXok«5«? tovto, 3. 7. 3. Is the pronoun 


Digitized by 


characteristic, that it regularly puts forth roots from 
the shoots between the leaves, by means of which 
it gets a hold of trees and walls, as if these roots 
were made by nature on purpose. Wherefore also 
by withdrawing and drinking up the moisture it 
starves its host, while, if it is cut off below, it is able 
to survive and live. There are also other not incon- 
siderable differences in the fruit ; both in the white 
and in the black kind it is in some cases rather 
sweet, in others extremely bitter ; in proof whereof 
birds eat one but not the other. Such are the 
facts about ivy. 

The smilax 1 is parasitic, 2 but its stem 8 is thorny 
and has, as it were, straight thorns ; the leaf is ivy- 
like small and without angles, and makes a callus 4 
at the junction with the stalk. A peculiarity of 
it is its conspicuous 5 slender midrib, so to call it, 
which divides it in two; also the fact that the 
thread-like branchings 6 do not start from this, as in 
other leaves, but are carried in circles round it, 
starting from the junction of the leaflet with the 
leaf. And at the joints of the stem 7 and the 
spaces between the leaves there grows from the 
same stalk as the leaves a fine spiral tendril. 3 The 
flower is white and fragrant like a lily. 9 The fruit 

deictic, referring to an actual specimen shewn in lecture? 
cf. also 4. 7. 1. 

6 5*aA^€is Aid.; 8mA«t»|/€(j UMV. A mistake probably 
due to SiaAetyei* below, where it is right. Sidx-n^is is the 
Aristotelian word for a 'division.' 

7 tow KavKov rcfe y6vara conj. Sch.; rbv tcav\bv rbv Ultovov Aid. 

8 This must be the meaning of Uv\os here, qualified by 
€\ikt4s; but elsewhere it = catkin, df. 3. 5. 5. 

9 \ctpivov conj. R. Const, from Plin. l,c, ohnte lilium ; 
fav6v UAld. 


Digitized by 


top Be tcapnop e%€$ irpoaefKfyeprj tg> VTpvyyto teal 
tg5 firjX&Optp teal fiaXiara rfj /caXovfiivrj <na<f>v\fj 

12 dypia* Kara/cpefiaaroi 8' ol ^SoV/ove? klttov rpo- 
irov irapeyyi&i B* 6 irapaOpiytciafibs 7rpo? ttjp 
(TTa^vXtjv* dirb yap ivbs crrjfieiov ol fua^oi ol 
payitcoL 6 Be Kapirb^ ipvffpos, e%G>i> irvpfjvas to 
fikv €7rl ttclp Bvo, iv to?? fiel^oai rpels iv Be to?? 
/M/cpois eva* atcXrjpbs 8' 6 Trvprjp ev fidXa real tq3 
Xpcbfiari fieXas et;G>0€p. IBiop Be to t&v /3orpva)v, 
ot* etc irXayiap re tov tcavXbv irapadpcyKL^ovo-ip, 
/cat tear diepop 6 /neyiaTOS fioTpv? tov tcavXov, 
&cirep iirl rrjs pdfipov teal tov ftdrov. tovto Be 
BrjXop <w? /cat d/cp6/cap7rov teal TrXayioteapTrov. 

13 [To S* evcovvfios tcaXovfiepop BepBpop <j>v€Tai fiev 
aXXodi T€ teal Tf}? Aeafiov ip t<Z> opei t& 'OpBvp- 
prp tca\ovfi€P<p* €cttc Be fjXitcop poa teal to <J>vXXop 
%X €L P &Be<s t fiec^op Be fj xafiaiBd<j) prjs, teal fiaXa- 
tcop Be &airep r) poa. r) Be ffXdcrTrjai? ap^erai 
fiep avTtp irepl top TloaeiBe&pa' dvOel Be tov 
fjpov to he apffo? o/jloiop ttjp %poav t$ Xevtc& 
lep' 8%ei he Beipbp &airep <j>6vov. 6 Be teapirb^ 
efupeprj? ttjp fwptfyrjp fierd tov fceXv^ov? T(p tov 
arjadfiov Xo/3q>* epBodep Be arepebp ttXtjp Biyprj- 
fiepop Kara ttjp TeTpaaTOiyLap. tovto eaOto- 

1 Presumably <r. 6 idAtii/jios. See Index. 

2 •Kapeyyifet 5' 6 irapaOptyKurfibs I conj., c/. irapadptyKt(ou(ri 
below ; irapotyytfci Se irapa9pivaK((*t he &s U ; icapayyl(ct he 
irapa$privaKl(u 5e 4>s MV; irapaOpiyK^ei he &>s conj. W. 


Digitized by 


is like the slrykhnos 1 and the melothron (bryony), 
and most of all like the berry which is called the 
' wild grape ' (bryony). The clusters hang down as 
in the ivy, but the regular setting 2 of the berries 
resembles the grape-cluster more closely; for the 
stalks which bear the berries start from a single 
point. The fruit is red, having generally two stones, 
the larger ones three and the smaller one ; the 
stone is very hard and in colour black outside. A 
peculiarity of the clusters is that they make a row 3 
along the sides of the stalk, and the longest cluster 
is at the end of the stalk, as in the buckthorn and 
the bramble. It is clear that the fruit is produced 
both at the end and at the sides. 

4 The tree called the spindle-tree 5 grows, among 
other places, in Lesbos, on the mountain called 
Ordynnos. 6 It is as large as the pomegranate and 
has a leaf like that of that tree, but larger than that 
of the periwinkle, 7 and soft, like the pomegranate 
leaf. It begins to shoot about the month Poseideon, 8 
and flowers in the spring ; the flower in colour is 
like the gilliflower, but it has a horrible smell, like 
shed blood. 9 The fruit, with its case, is like the 
pod of sesame 10 ; inside it is hard, but it splits easily 
according to its four divisions. This tree, if eaten 

3 Trapa0ptyKl(ovffiP conj. Sch. ; Trapa6pvyicl(ov(rav U (cor- 
rected) ; trapadpvyyi(ov(ri M. 

4 This section down to the word &u6x<p is clearly out of 
place : *v&wnos was not one of the plants proposed for dis- 
cussion 3. 18. 1. It should come somewhere among the 
descriptions of trees characteristic of special localities. 

5 Plin. 13. 118. 6 cf. Plin. 5. 140. 

7 This irrelevant comparison probably indicates confusion 
in the text, as is shewn also by Pletho's excerpt of part of 
this section : see Sch. 

8 January. 9 <p6vov: cf. 6. 4. 6, 10 cf. 8. 5. 2. 


Digitized by 


fievov V7TO t&v Trpofidrayv airoKTivvveiy zeal to 
<j>vk\ov /cat, 6 /capiros, zeal fidXiaTa ras cuya<; 
ikv fir) fcaOdpcreox; tvxji* KaOaiperai he av- 
°X<P'] 7T€pl filv ovv h&vhptov koX OdflVWV 
elprjTar ev he Tofc 6^9 irepl rcov Xenrofiivcov 


Digitized by Google 


by sheep, is fatal 1 to them, both the leaf and the 
fruit, and it is especially fatal to goats unless they 
are purged by it; and the purging is effected by 
diarrhoea. 2 So we have spoken of trees and 
shrubs ; in what follows we must speak of the 
plants which remain. 

1 In Pletho's excerpt (see above) this is said of periwinkle. 

2 i.e. and not by vomiting. 


Digitized by 

Digitized by Google 


Digitized by Google 


I. Ai fiev ovv Bia<f>opal r&v ofwyev&v reOeco- 
prjvTai irporepov. airavra 8' ev to?9 ol/cetoi? 
tottoi? /caXXico yiverai teal fjuaXXov evaOevel' teal 
yap toa9 dypioi? elcrlv eKaarot^ ol/eeZoi, /caddnep 
to?9 fjfiepow tcl fiev yap <f>iXeZ tou9 i(f>vBpov$ 
koX eXtoBeis, olov alyeipo? Xev/erj irea teal o\ft)9 ra 
iraph tou9 TTOTdfiovs <j>v6fieva, ra Be roi/9 evace- 
7T€i9 zeal evrjXiovs, ra Be fiaXXov tov$ 7raXia/cL0v<;. 
irevfCT) fiev yap ev T0Z9 TrpoaeLXois KaXXlarrj /col 
fieyiarrj, ev Be Tofc 7raXicr/doi<t o\a)9 ov (pverac 
iXdrrj Bk dvdiraXiv ev T049 TraXiaiciois KaXkiarr) 
to?9 B* eveiXoi? oi>x ofiolw. 
2 'Ej/ 'Ap/caBla, yovv irepl ttjv Kpdvrjv teaXov- 
fievqv T07T09 earl t*9 koiXo<; /cat airvovs, eh ov 
ovBeiroO' o\o)9 ijXiov e/ifidXXeiv <f>aaiv ev rovray 
B£ ttoXv Bta<f>epov<riv ai eXdrai zeal rq> firficei ical 
t$ irdyei, ov firjv ofiotco? ye ttvkvoX ovB* oopalai 
dXX' r}/ciaTa, KaOdirep teal ai nev/cai ai ev T0Z9 
TraXiGKiow Si /cat 7T/)09 Tct TroXvTeXrj t&v 
epycov, olov dvpdafiara /cal et ti aXXo airovBaiov, 
ov yptovrai tovtois aXXa 717909 t«9 vav7rr)yia<; 
fiaXXov /cat ra9 ol/coBofids* /cal yap Bo/col fcdXXi- 


Digitized by 


Of the Trees and Plants special to particular 
Districts and Positions. 

Of the importance of position and climate. 

I. The differences between trees of the same kind 
have already been considered. Now all grow fairer 
and are more vigorous in their proper positions ; for 
wild, no less than cultivated trees, have each their 
own positions : some love wet and marshy ground, as 
black poplar abele willow, and in general those that 
grow by rivers ; some love exposed 1 and sunny 
positions ; some prefer a shady place. The fir is 
fairest and tallest in a sunny position, and does not 
grow at all in a shady one ; the silver-fir on the 
contrary is fairest in a shady place, and not so 
vigorous in a sunny one. 

Thus there is in Arcadia near the place called 
Krane a low-lying district sheltered from wind, into 
which they say that the sun never strikes ; and in 
this district the silver-firs excel greatly in height and 
stoutness, though they have not such close grain 
nor such comely wood, but quite the reverse, — like 
the fir when it grows in a shady place. Where- 
fore men do not use these for expensive work, such 
as doors or other choice articles, but rather for 
ship-building and house-building. For excellent 

1 cv<TK€ire7s should mean * sheltered,' but cannot in this 
context, nor in CP. 1. 13. 11 and 12: the word seems to 
have been confused with etiaicoiros. 


Digitized by 


arcu /cal ravetai /cal /cepaiai ai i/c tovt&v, cti 8' 
iarol rq> firjKei 8ia<f>€povT€<; dXTC 01% 6fioia><; 
icyvpoi* /cal i/c t&v Trpoo-eiXav afia tt} fipajfVTffTi 
TrvKvorepoL re i/ceivcov /cal layvporepov ylvovTai. 

3 Xalp€L Se cr<f>6$pa /cal 17 fu\o<; T0Z9 irakia/clots 
zeal r) 7raSo9 /cal fj 0pav7raXo$. irepl 8e ra9 
/copv<f>a<; t&v opecov ical tov$ yfrvxpovs tottovs 8 via 
fiev tpveTai /cal €t9 £tyro9, ekdrr) 8k /cal ap/cevOo? 
<j>v€rai fih ov/c €t9 vyjro? 84, /caOdirep /cal nepl rrjv 
a/cpav KvXXijvrjv <j)V€Tai 8e /cal 7) /crfkao-Tpo*; 
inl t&v a/cpoov /cal xeijxepiayTaTayv. ravra fiev 
ovv av Tt9 ffeirj (faiXoyjrvxpa' rd 8* aXXa irdvra 
&>9 elirelv [ov] fiaXXov yaipei ro?9 Trpoaeikois. 
ov firjv dXXd /cal tovto ovfiftalvei Kara ttjv 
X&pav ttjv ol/celav €/cdo~T<p t&v SivSpcov. iv 
Kprjrrj yovv <f>aaiv iv Tois'lSaloi? opeai /calivTOi? 
Aev/cois /caXov pivot? iirl t&v a/epwv oOev ov8iiroT 
eTTiXeiTrei X l ^ v fcvwdpiTTov elvar ifKeiarrj yap 
avTtj tt/9 UX779 teal o\a>9 iv rfj vijcrqi /cal iv T0Z9 
pea iv. 

4 "Eari 8i, &airep /cal irporepov eiprjrai, /cal r&v 
dyp'uov /cal t&v f/fiipcov rd fxev 6 peep a ra 8k 
ireheivd fiaXXov. dvaXoyia 8k /cal iv avrois T0Z9 
Spec 1 Ta fiev iv T049 vTro/cdra) ret 8k ire pi rd? 
/copv<j>d<;, &aT€ /cal /caXXiao yiverat /cal €v<T0€vf}. 
iravTaxov 8k /cal irdcrj? T779 v\r)$ 7rpo9 {Joppav 
Ta gvXa irvicvoTepa /cal oiXoT€pa /cal aTrk&s 
/caXXiw /cal oXax; 8k irXeito iv t<h9 Trpoaftopelois 
<j>v€Tai. avfjdverai 8k /cal iirihihwo-i ret irvtcva 

1 I omit a/ before Kcpaiai with P. 

2 a/xo I conj. ; dAAck Aid. ; om. W. after Sch. ; ojua 
conj. St. 


Digitized by 


rafters beams and yard-arms 1 are made from these, 
and also masts of great length which are not however 
equally strong ; while masts made of trees grown in 
a sunny place are necessarily 2 short but of closer 
grain and stronger than the others. 

Yew pados and joint-fir rejoice exceedingly in 
shade. On mountain tops and in cold positions 
odorous cedar grows even to a height, while silver-fir 
and Phoenician cedar grow, but not to a height, — 
for instance on the top of Mount Cyllene ; and holly 
also grows in high and very wintry positions. These 
trees then we may reckon as cold-loving ; all others, 
one may say in general, prefer a sunny position. 
However this too depends partly on the soil appro- 
priate to each tree ; thus they say that in Crete on 
the mountains of Ida and on those called the White 
Mountains the cypress is found on the peaks whence 
the snow never disappears ; for this is the principal 
tree both in the island generally and in the moun- 

Again, as has been said 3 already, both of wild and 
of cultivated trees some belong more to the moun- 
tains, some to the plains. And on the mountains 
themselves in proportion to the height some grow 
fairer 4 and more vigorous in the lower regions, some 
about the peaks. However it is true of all trees 
anywhere that with a north aspect the wood is 
closer and more compact 5 and better generally; and, 
generally speaking, more trees grow in positions 
facing the north. Again trees which are close 

8 3. 2 4. 

4 Something seems to have dropped out before &<tt€. 
6 ov\6r(pa conj. W. from mutilated word in U ; KaX\tu>r*pa 
MV; k*\\Iw Aid. 


VOL. I. U 

Digitized by 


fiev ovra fidXKov eh firj/cos, 81 b /cal avo^a /cal 
evOea /cal 6p6o<f>vrj yiverai, /cal /coo7r€&V€$ i/c 
tovtcov tcdWiaroi* <rd 8k puava> fiaXKov els 
ft d6 KC& irayps* 8i b /cal aKoXidarepa /cal 
o^oaheaTepa /cal to o\ov aTepecorepa /cal irvKvorepa 


6 Xj^eSbv 8k ra$ avTaq e\ei Sia$opa<; tovtoi? 
/cal ev Toh iraXiG/ciois /cal ev Toh eveiXois /cal ev 
roh airvooi? /cal evirvoow o^coSea-repa yap /cal 
ftpa'xyrepa /cal ^ttov evOea ra ev Toh eveiXoi? 
rj ro?9 Trpoarjvefioi*;. oti 8k e/cacrTOV farei /cal 
X&pav ol/ceiav /cal /cpaaiv aepo? fyavepbv rq> ra 
fiev <f>epeiv eviovs tottovs ra 8k firj <f>epeiv fi^re 
• aura yiyvbpeva p,rjTe ^vrevofieva pah'uos, idv 8k 
/cal dvTiXdfirjTai firj /cap7ro<f>opeiv t &airep eirl rou 
<f>oivi/co<; ikexfft) /cal t?/9 Alyvirria^ au/cafilvou 
/cal aXXcov elcrlyap irXeico /cal ev irXeioai %o)pa*9 
ra fikv oXoos ov <f>v6pbeva ra 8k <f>v6fieva fiev 
dvavgrj 8k /cal a/capira /cal to 6\ov <f>avXa. irepl 
&v ?<7G)9 Xe/creov e<f> oaov e^pp^ev iaropias. 

II. 'Ev Alyvirrtp yap eariv I8ia 8ev8pa irXeito, 
r\ re av/cdp,ivo<; /cal f) irepaea /caXovpevrj /cal f) 
ftdXavo? /cal f\ a/cavda /cal erep* arret. 

v E<7Tt 8k rj pukv av/edptvos irapairXrjo-ta tt<w9 rfj 
ivravOa av/capiv<p 9 k at yap to <f>vXXov irapopAiov 

1 Kcwwewve* : cf. 5. 1. 7. 3 t& 5« fiavk add. W. 
» cf. 5. 1. 8. 4 2. 2. 10. 

* 8a«5 . . . fitv conj. W. ; t\ws oh <pvrtv6u€va U : ZKvos <t>vr*v6- 


Digitized by 


together grow and increase more in height, and so 
become unbranched straight and erect, and the best 
oar-spars 1 are made from these, while those that 
grow far apart 2 are of greater bulk and denser 
habit 8 ; wherefore they grow less straight and with 
more branches, and in general have harder wood and 
a closer grain. 

Such trees exhibit nearly the same differences, 
whether the position be shady or sunny, windless or 
windy ; for trees growing in a sunny or windy 
position are more branched shorter and less straight. 
Further that each tree seeks an appropriate position 
and climate is plain from the fact that some districts 
bear some trees but not others ; (the latter do not 
grow there of their own accord, nor can they easily 
be made to grow), and that, even if they obtain a 
hold, they do not bear fruit — as was said 4 of the 
date-palm the sycamore and others ; for there are 
many trees which in many places either do not grow 
at all, or, 5 if they do, do not thrive nor bear fruit, 
but are in general of inferior quality. And perhaps 
we should discuss this matter, so far as our enquiries 

Of the trees special to Egypt, and of the carob. 

II. 6 Thus in Egypt there are a number of trees 
which are peculiar 7 to that country, the sycamore 
the tree called persea the balanos the acacia and 
some others. 

Now the sycamore to a certain extent resembles 
the tree which bears that name 8 in our country ; its 

8 Plin. 13. 56 and 57. 

7 tSix conj. R. Const. ; tvia Aid. 

8 i.e. mulberry. See Index. 


u 2 

Digitized by 


fyec /cal to p£ye0o$ teal ttjv oXrjv irpoaotyw, rov 
Be /capirov IBLtos <f>epet irapa to, a\\a, /caff dire p 
iXeyOrj /cal ev T019 e£ apXV$' °v V&P ^ ,7ro r & v 
pXaarcov ovo airo rcov a/cpe/iovcov aU tou 
o-T6\e%oi;9, fieyedos fiev rfkitcov gvkov /cal tt} oyfrei 
Be irapairXrj<nov, rq> Be ical rfj yXv/cvrrjn 

rot? 6Xvv0oi$, irXfjv yXv/cvrepov iroXv /cat /cey- 
XpafjdBa? o\fi)9 ov/c tyopra, irXijOei Be iroXvv. 
/cat 7T€TT€lv ov Bvvarat fit) eirucviaOevTa* dXX' 
%xovt€<; Sweets <nBr)pov<; iiri/cvi^ovariv a 8' hv 
eiritcvicrOf) leraprala irerrerar tovtcdv 8' d(f>ai- 
pedevTwv irdXiv aXXa (bverac /cal &Xka teal etc 
rov avrov rbnrov firjBev irapaXXdrrovra* teal 
tov0* oi fiev rpU oi Be irXeovd/ci? <f>aal ylveaQai. 

2 iroXvoirov Be to BevBpov <r<f>6Bpa earl teal to gvXov 
avrov eh iroXXct xptfat/iov. tBiov Bk e^eiv Botcet 
irapa raXXa* rfirjdev yap evffv? xXtopov earrr 
avaiverai Be ififivdiov el$ fioOpov Be ijifidXXovo-i 
/cal eh Ta? Xifivas evOvs tca\ Tapiyevovav 
fipexofievov 8' ev r$ fivdep %r)paiverai* /cal orav 
reXeco? grjpbv yevrjrai, Tore dva<f>€oerai /cal eirivei 
real Bo/cel Tore /ca\a>9 rerapix^vcdaf ylverai yap 
/cov(f>ov /cal fiavov. 17 puev ovv av/edfiivos ex €l 
Tai?Ta9 Ta9 IBiorrjra^. 

8 v Eoi#€ Be t^9 irapairXijaia rj <f>vo-i$ elvai teal 
rrj^ ev Kprfrj) tcaXovfievrj? Kvirpia? avtcffc* teal 
yap e/ceivr) <f>epei rov /eapirbv i/c rov areXex ov ? 
/cal i/c r&v TraxvTaTtov d/cpe/xovcov, irXrjv on 
fiXaarov nva dfarjai fitfcpov a<f>vXXov &airep 
pityov, 7T/0O9 a) ye 6 /capiros. to Bk areXexo? fieya 

1 1. 1. 7 ; cf. 1. 14 2. 

2 cf. CP. 1. 17. 9; Diosc. 1. 127; Athen. 2. 36. This 

Digitized by 


leaf is similar, its size, and its general appearance ; 
but it bears its fruit in a quite peculiar manner, as 
was said at the very outset 1 ; it is borne not on the 
shoots or branches, but on the stem ; in size it is as 
large as a fig, which it resembles also in appearance, 
but in flavour and sweetness it is like the ' immature 
figs,' except that it is much sweeter and contains 
absolutely no seeds, and it is produced in large 
numbers. It cannot ripen unless it is scraped ; but 
they scrape it with iron 'claws' 2 ; the fruits thus 
scraped ripen in four days. If these are removed, 
others and others again grow from exactly the same 
point, and this some say occurs three times over, 
others say it can happen more times than that. 
Again the tree is very full of sap, and its wood is 
useful for many purposes. There is another peculiar 
property which it appears to possess ; when it is 
cut, it is at first green, but it dries in deep water 3 ; 
they put it at once in a hole or in pools and so season 
it ; and it becomes dry by being soaked in the deep 
water, and when it is completely dry, it is fetched up 
and floats and is then thought to be duly seasoned ; 
for it is now light and porous. Such are the 
peculiarities of the sycamore. 

Somewhat similar appears to be the character of 
the tree which in Crete is called the ( Cyprian fig ' 4 
(sycamore). For this also bears its fruit on the stem 
and on the thickest branches ; but in this case there 
is a small leafless shoot, like a root, to which the 
fruit is attached. The stem is large and like the 

scraping was the prophet Amos' occupation : c/. Amos 7. 14. 

* itfiBiov conj. W. ; tts &60ov UMVPAld. ? iv &v$v %v. 
4 See Index, cf. Athen. 3. 11 ; Plin. 13. 58 ; Diosc. 1. 127. 3. 


Digitized by 


/cal irapofioiov rfj Xev/cy, <f>vXXop Be Trj TTTeXea. 
ireiraipei Be TeTTapas tcapirovs, oaanrep avrov /cal 
at fiXaaTTjaretr ovBepa Be ireiraipeL fir) iirLTjir)- 
Bepro? tov ipipov /cal i/cpvevTOs tov oirov. r) Bk 
yXv/cvTrj? 7rpoaep^>epr)<; t$ av/c<p /cal ra ea&Oep 
toU epwolr fieyedo? r)Xc/cop /co/e/cvp,r)Xop. 

4 (Tavrrj Be irapairKrjaLa ical rjv oi "laves K€p(D- 
viav /caXovaiv i/e tov areXi^ovs yap teal avTrj 
<f>epei top irXelaTov Kapirov, diro Be t&v a/cpefiovow, 
&cnrep eliropev, oXiyop. 6 Be /capirbs eXXofios, op 
/caXovai Tipes AlyvirTiop av/cop BirjfAapTrj/coTes* 
ov ytP€Tai yap oXgo$ irepl AiyuirTOP d\\' iv Xvpia 
/cal ip 'ItDPia Be /cal irepl KplBop /cal 'PoBop. 
ael(f>vXXop 8i /cal av0o$ e/cXev/cop eypp /cal ti 
/3apvTr)TO<;, fir) fi€Te(opi£op Be a<f)6Bpa /cal SX&s 
i/e tcop /caTO) irapafUXaaTrjTiKov apcoOep Bk 
v7rol;r)paip6fjL€POP. e^ei Be ajia ical top epop /cal 
top peov /capirop* afyaipovpipov yap BaTepov fieTa 
Kvpa /cal 6 ere/so? evdvs <f>apepb<; /cvovpLevov 
KveTai yap &aire^ fioTpv? opLoaxrjficop' € * T ' av^rj- 
Oels opOel irepl Ap/cTovpop ical larf/iepiav airb 
tovtov Br) Biapbepei top ^eifi&va p>&xpi Ktwo?. r) 
fiep ovp 6fLoiOTr)$ oti GTeXe)(o/capTra ical raOra* 
Bta<f>opal Bk ai eiprfpuepai irpbs ttjp av/cdp,iPOP.) 

6 *Ev Alyv7TT(p o ecTLP €T€pop r) irepaea /caXov- 
fiepop, Trj fiep irpoao-tyei fieya ical /caXop, irapa- 
irXrjaiop Be pudXiaTa Trj dirLcp ical <f>vXXot,<; /cal 
avdecri /cal a/cpefiocrc /cal T<p oX(p a^rj/iaTr irXijv 

1 iaanrtp conj. R. Const., etc., c/. Athen. I.e.; tea Mp 
avrov U (corrected) ; 8<ra flwip avrov M ; #<ra vircp avrov Aid. 

2 Plin. 13. 59. 8 1. 14. 2. 


Digitized by 


abele, but the leaf is like that of the elm. It ripens 
its fruit four times a year, having also 1 four periods 
of growth ; but it ripens no fruit unless the € fig ' is 
split and the juice let out. The sweet taste resembles 
that of the fig, and the inside of the fruit is like 
that of wild figs : it is as large as a plum. 

2 (Like this too is the tree which the Ionians call 
carob ; for this too bears most of its fruit on the 
stem, though it bears a little also on the branches, as 
we said. 3 The fruit is in a pod; some call it the 
' Egyptian fig ' — erroneously ; for it does not occur at 
all in Egypt, but in Syria and Ionia and also in 
Cnidos and Rhodes. It is evergreen and has a 
whitish flower and is somewhat acrid ; it does not 
attain to a great height, and it sends out side-shoots 
entirely from its lower parts, while it withers above. 
It has on it at the same time both last year's fruit 
and the new fruit ; for if the one is removed after the 
rising of the dog-star, immediately the other is seen 
swelling up ; for there swells 4 up as it were another 
similar cluster. This then increases and flowers 
about the rising of Arcturus and the equinox ; and 
thenceforward it 5 persists through the winter to the 
rising of the dog-star. The likeness then consists in 
the fact that these trees too bear fruit on their stems, 
and the differences between them and the sycamore 
are as has been said.) 

6 In Egypt there is another tree called the persca, 
which in appearance is large and fair, and it most 
resembles the pear in leaves flowers branches and 
general form, but it is evergreen, while the other is 

4 Kverai conj. W. from G ; kv*i MSS. 

5 i.e. the cluster, now in the fruit stage. 

6 Plin. 13. 60 and 61. 


Digitized by 


to fiev dei<f>vXXov to Be (f>vXXo/36Xov. Kapirov Be 
(frepei iroXvv Kal irdaav &pav TrepiKaTaXapbfidvet, 
yap 6 veos del tov evov* irerreL Be vtto toi>9 
€T7)cr{a<;' tov B* dXXov oapuoTepov d(j>aipovai /ecu 
airoTiOkaaw. can Be to fieye0o<; fyXiKov amos, 
tw a^pbari Be irpofiaKpo^ dfivyBaXdoBrjs, xpa>/j,a 
Be aVTOV TTOl&Be?. e^ei Be 6UT09 fcdpvov, &arirep 
to KOKKvp/qkov, irXrjv eXarrov iroXif Kal paXa/ca>~ 
repov tt)v Be <rdp/ca yXv/celav <r<f>6Bpa Kal rjBelav 
Kal eviteiTTOv* ovBev yap evo'xXel ttoXv irpoa- 
eveyKapLevcov. evpitpv Be to BevBpov Kal fiifcei 
Kal irdyei Kal irXr\Qei ttoXv- e^ei Be Kal gvXov 
icxypbv Kal koXov rfj oyfrec pueXav, wcrirep 6 Xcotos, 
ef ov Kal ra dydX/iara Kal rd KXivLa Kal 
rpairefya Kal rdXXa rd roiavra iroiovaiv. 

o f H Be fidXavos eyei fiev ttjv irpoo-rjyopLav dirb 
tov Kapirov* <f>vXXov S' airrj irapairXr]Giov tg> 
t^? pLvpplvrj^ irXrjv TrpopLrjKearepov. eart Be to 
BevBpov evirate? p,ev Kal evfiiyeBe?, oxjk ev<f>ve<; 
Be dXXd Trap€o-Tpap,p,evov. tov Kapirov Bk to?9 
KeXvfacn xp&VTai oi p,vpe>Jrol ko7ttovt€<;' ei&Be? 
yap e^efc tov Bk Kapirov avTbv d%peiov. eaTL Be 
Kal tw pueyWei Kal tt) oyfrei irapairXijaios t$ ttj? 
Kairirdpw gvXov Be la^vpbv Kal eh aXXa T€ 
XprjaipLov Kal eh t<z9 vavirrjyia^. 

7 To Be KaXovjievov KOVKi6(f>op6v ecrTiv ofioiov t£> 
<f>OLVtfcr Trjv Be opLOioTrjTa KaTa to CTeXexo? 
exei Kal Ta <f>vXXa* Biatyepei Be oti 6 p,ev <f>olvi^ 
jxovo<f>ve<; Kal dirXovv iaTi, tovto 8k irpocrav^rjOev 
a-x^€Tai Kal yLveTai BiKpovv, eiTa irdXiv eK&Wepov 

1 airoTiQtaaiv conj. R. Const, from G (recondurU) ; ri$4curi 


Digitized by 


deciduous. It bears abundant fruit and at every 
season, for the new fruit always overtakes that of 
last year. It ripens its fruit at the season of the 
etesian winds : the other fruit they gather somewhat 
unripe and store 1 it. In size it is as large as a pear, 
but in shape it is oblong, almond-shaped, and its 
colour is grass-green. It has inside a stone like the 
plum, but much smaller and softer; the flesh is 
sweet and luscious and easily digested ; for it does 
no hurt if one eats it in quantity. The tree has good 
roots as to length thickness and number. Moreover 
its wood is strong and fair in appearance, black like 
the nettle-tree : out of it men make their images 
beds tables and other such things. 

2 The balanos gets its name from its fruit 8 ; its leaf 
is like that of the myrtle 4 but it is longer. The 
tree is of a good stoutness 5 and stature, but not of a 
good shape, being crooked. The perfumers use the 
husks of the fruit, which they bruise; for this is 
fragrant, though the fruit itself is useless. In size 
and appearance it is like the fruit of the caper ; the 
wood is strong and useful for shipbuilding and other 

6 The tree called the doum-palm is like the date- 
palm ; the resemblance is in the stem and the leaves, 
but it differs in that the date-palm is a tree with a 
single undivided stem, while the other, as it increases, 
splits and becomes forked, 7 and tl?en each of the two 

2 Plin. 13. 61. 

• i.e. it is like an acorn (Bd\ayos). 

4 fivpplvris MVP Aid.; fivpUris U. 

6 •incaxis conj. Sch.; cvnadh U; aira$h Ald.H. 

6 Plin. 13. 62. 

7 c/. 2. 6. 9, where the same tree is evidently indicated. 
Zlicpovv conj. Salm., Seal., etc.; &Kpov UAld.H. 


Digitized by 


tovt(0V ofAOLW €71 Be Ta? pdftBov? y8/)a%€ia9 6^6^ 
a<f>6Bpa teal ov iroXXd?. yjp&vrai Be t$ <pvXX<p, 
/caddirep t& §o'ivi/ci s irpbs Ta irXeyfiaTa. /capirbv 
B\ IBiov e)(€i ttoXv Bia<f>epovTa /cal fieyiBei /cal 
a^Tj/xari /cal %iA,g>* fieyedos piev yap e^ei o-%eSoi> 
X€ipO7r\r)0€<r GTpoyyvXov Be ical ov irpofitf/cr)' 
%p&p,a eiri^avOov %v\bv Be yXv/cvv tea I evarofiov 
ob/c aOpoov Be, Sxrirep 6 (f>oivi^, dXXd Ke^pLd^evov 
/cad* eva* irvprjva Be fiiyav ical a<f>6Bpa c/cXrjpov, 
ef ov tov9 icpl/covs Topvevovai, roil? ek tou? 
GTpCOfMlTeZs TOU9 BLairOl/CLXoVV Bia<f>epei Be 7roXv 
rb £vXov tov <f>oiviKO<r to fi€P yap fiavbv KCU 
Iv&Be? /cal xavvov, to Be irv/cvbv /cal fHapv /cat 
aap/c&Be<; /cal BiaTfirjdev obXov a<j>6Bpa /cal 
a/cXrjpov iarriv. ical ol ye Btj Hepo-ai irdvv 
eTLficov avrb /cal e/c tovtov t&v kXlv&v eiroiovvTO 
tov<; 7r6Sa9. 

? H Be a/cavOa /caXeiTai p,ev Bia, to d/cavO&Be? 
oXov to BevBpov eivai irXrjv tov aTeXe^ov^* teal 
yap iwl t&v d/cpe/xovcov /cal eirl t&v fHXaaT&v 
/cal iirl t&v <f>vXXcov e^ei. pueyeOeL Be fieya, /cal 
yap BooBe/cdTrrfxv? eg avTr)? epeyfnpLO? vXrj Te/MveTai. 
Blttov Be to 76^09 avTrj^, 17 p^v yap eaTt T^ev/crj 
7) Be fieXaiva* /cal rj fiev Xev/crj da6evr)$ T€ /cal 
evGr}TTTo<;* fj Be fieXaiva iayypoTepa t€ /cal 
darjTTTOS, Bi /cal ev tcu9 vavrnqyiaw yjp&VTai 
717)09 tcl iy/colXia avTrj. to BevBpov Bk ov/c dyav 
6p0o<f>v€<;. 6 Be /capTrbs eXXofios, /caffdirep t&v 
^eBpoir&v, c5 xp&VTat ol eyx^opioi wpb? Ta BepfiaTa 
dvTi /crj/ciBo?. to 8' avffo? real Trj osfrei icaXov, 
wcrTe /cal aT€<f)dvov<; iroielv e£ avTOv, /cal (pap/Mi- 


Digitized by 


branches forks again : moreover the twigs are very 
short and not numerous. They use the leaf, like the 
palm-leaf, for plaiting. It has a peculiar fruit, very 
different from that of the date-palm in size form and 
taste ; for in size it is nearly big enough to fill the 
hand, but it is round rather than long ; the colour is 
yellowish, the flavour sweet and palatable. It does 
not grow bunched together, like the fruit of the date- 
palm, but each fruit grows separately ; it has a large 
and very hard stone, out of which they turn the 
rings for embroidered bed -hangings. 1 The wood is 
very different to that of the date-palm ; whereas the 
latter is of loose texture fibrous and porous, 2 that of 
the doum-palm is close heavy and fleshy, and when 
split is exceedingly compact and hard. The Persians s 
used to esteem it highly and made the feet of their 
couches out of it. 

4 The akanlha (acacia) is so called because the 
whole tree is spinous (akanthodes) except the stem ; 
for it has spines on the branches shoots and leaves. 
It is of large stature, since lengths of timber for 
roofing of twelve cubits are cut from it. There are 
two kinds, the white and the black ; the white is weak 
and easily decays, the black is stronger and less 
liable to decay ; wherefore they use it in shipbuilding 
for the ribs. 5 The tree is not very erect in growth. 
The fruit is in a pod, like that of leguminous plants, 
and the natives use it for tanning hides instead of 
gall. 6 The flower is very beautiful in appearance, so 
that they make garlands of it, and it has medicinal 

1 Plin. I.e., velares annidos ; cf. Athen. 12. 71, ad Jin. 

2 x a ^ vov coiij. Sch.; x^vpbv Aid. 

3 i.e. during their occupation of Egypt. 

4 Plin. 13. 63 ; Athen. 15. 25. 

* cf. Hdt. 2. 96. 6 cf. Athen. U. 


Digitized by 


/ccoSes, Bi b Kal ovXXeyovaiv oi iarpoL yivercu 
B% etc Tavrr)<; Kal to /eofifif teal peei teal TrXrj- 
yeiar)? Kal avrofmrov avev a^aGea)?. otov Bk 
Koirfj, fiera, rpirov Ito? eiffv? dva/3e/3Xd<rTr)K€* 
7roXv Be to BevBpov iarriy Kal Bpvp,b$ p,eya$ irepl 
tov QrjfiaiKdv vo/jlov, ovirep Kal r) Bpvs Kal r) 
irepaea TrXeiaTr) Kal r) iXaa. 

Kai ydp r) iXda irepl tovtov tov tottov iari, 
t$ iroTapLq* fiep ovk apBevopLevrj, irXeico yap fj 
Tpia/coaia ardBia direye^ vapaTiaioi? B' vBaaiv 
ei<rl ydp Kprjvai iroXXaL to 8* eXaiov oi/Bev 
X e ^P 0V tov evddBe, ttXtjv KaKcoBearepov Bid to 
(TiravCoi^ to?9 dXal xpr}<r0ar <f>vaei Be to gvXov 
tov BevBpov xal aKXrjpbv Kal irapairXrjGiov 
Tep.vop.evov ttjv XP° av T £ XcoTWtp. 

v A\Xo Be ti BevBpov r) KOKKvpyXea, peya p,ev 
t$ pueyeOei Kal ttjv <\>vgiv tov Kapirov opoiov Tofc 
peairlXoL^, Kal to p>iyeOo<; irapairXr\aiov irXrjv 
e^pVTa irvprjva GTpoyyvXov apyerrai Bk dvQeiv 
prjvbs Hvaveyfn&vos, tov Be Kapirov ireiraivei irepl 
fj)dov Tpoira? %eip,epivd<;* dei<f>vXXov 8' eaTiv. 
oi Be Trepl tt)v QrjfUaiBa KaToiKovvTes Bid ttjv 
d<f>0oviav tov BevBpov l-rjpalvovai tov Kapirov Kal 
tov irvprjva igaipovvT€<; koittovgi Kal iroiovai 

tfr TXrjp,a Be iBiov ti ^>V€Tai irepl Mep,<f)iv, oi 
Kara <f>vXXa Kal flXao-TOv? xal ttjv oXrjv popcfnjv 

1 cf. Hdt. I.e. 

2 ox* ***** conj. R. Const. ; <rxf<T€ws Aid. 

8 wXe/cTTi? conj. R. Const. ; irAfirH) UMVAld. 

4 cf. CP. 6. 8. 7, where this olive is said to produce no oil. 

* cf. Strabo, 17. 1. 35. 


Digitized by 


properties, wherefore physicians gather it. 1 Gum 
is also produced from it, which flows both when the 
tree is wounded and also of its own accord without 
any incision 2 being made. When the tree is cut 
down, after the third year it immediately shoots up 
again ; it is a common tree, and there is a great wood 
of it in the Thebaid, where grow the oak, the 'per sea 
in great abundance, 8 and the olive. 

4 For the olive also grows in that district, though 
it is not watered by the river, being more than 300 
furlongs distant from it, but by brooks ; for there 
are many springs. The oil produced is not inferior 
to that of our country, except that it has a less 
pleasing smell, 5 because it has not a sufficient 
natural supply of salt. 6 The wood of the tree is hard 
in character, and, when split, is like in colour 7 to 
that of the nettle-tree. 

8 There is another tree, the (Egyptian) plum 
(sebesten), which is of great stature, and the 
character of its fruit 9 is like the medlar (which it 
resembles in size), except that it has a round stone. 
It begins to flower in the month Pyanepsion, 10 and 
ripens its fruit about the winter solstice, and it is 
evergreen. 11 The inhabitants of the Thebaid, because 
of the abundance of the tree, dry the fruit ; they 
take out the stones, bruise it, and make cakes of it. 

There is a peculiar bush 12 which grows about 
Memphis, whose peculiarity does not lie in its leaves 

6 iriravlois . . . <f>vff€i conj. W.; aicavlus rois aKtrl XP- r V 
<pv<T(i Aid. ; so U, but omitting tJ. 

7 t.e. black, cjf. 4. 3. 1. 8 Plin. 13. 64 and 65. 

9 rou Kapnov add. Seal, from G and Plin. I.e. 10 October. 
11 kilfvMoy conj. Seal, from G and Plin. /. c. ; ^XXovUMV Aid. 
13 Mimosa atperata ; see Index, App. (2). 0A.i)/m conj. ScaL 

from G (materia) ; oXZi)fxa MAld.U (corrected). 


Digitized by 


*X 0V T0 IBiov dXX' ek to cvjifiaivov irepl avro 
irddos* 7) fiev yap irpoao^i^ d/cavda>8r]$ itrrlv 
avrov, teal to <f>vXXov irapoixotov rals irrep- 
law orav Be tl$ ayjrrjrai r&v kXcovlcov, &airep 
d(f>avaiv6fieva ra <f>vXXa avfiirlirreiv <f>aalv elra 
fierd riva yfiovov dvafiteoa/ceo-Oai irdXiv /cal 
0dXXetv. /cal ra fiev IB La t?}9 ^a>/oa9> oar a y 
av BevBpa t*9 rj Qdfivovs etiroi, rd y iirupave- 
arara ravr earl, irepl yap r&v ev r<p iroraficp 
/cal rot? eXeaiv vcrrepov epovfiev, orav /cal irepl 
r&v aXXcov evvBpcov. 
12 [ f, Airavra Be ev r{) X^P a T ^ BevBpa ra roiavra 
fieydXa /cal Tofc firf/ceai /cal to?9 ird^eaiv ev 
yovv Mefuf>iBi rrjXiKovro BevBpov elvai Xeyerai 
to ird'xp^t h Tpels avSpes ov Bvvavrai irepiXafifid- 
veiv. ean Be /cal rfirjOev to I*vXov /caXov irv/cvov 
re yap a<f>6Bpa /cal ra> xpd>fiaTi X<oroet,8e<;.] 

III. 'Ei/ Aiftvy Be* 6 Xq)to9 7r\ero*T09 /cal /cdX- 
Xiaro? /cal 6 iraXiovpo? /cal ev rial fiepeai rj) re 
N ao-aficovi/cy /cal irap "Afificovi ical aXXois 6 
<j>oivi^* ev Be tt) fcvprjvaia /cvirdpLcraos /cal iXdac 
re /cdXXiarrai /cal ekaiov irXelarov. IBidorarov 
Be irdvrcov to aiXfaov en /cpo/cov iroXvv 17 ^(opa 
<f>epet /cal evoafiov. cart Be rov Xcorov to fiev 
oXov BevBpov lBlov eifieyeBe? ffXi/cov airios r) 
fii/cpbv eXarrov <j>vXXov 8k ivrofias eypv /cal 
irpiv&Ses' to fiev gvXov fieXav yevrj Be avrov 
irXeioa 8ia<f>opa<; fyovra rots /capirois* 6 Be /capirb? 

1 waflof : cf. 1. 1. 1 n. 

1 cf. Schol. ad Nic. Ther. 683 of a sensitive plant called 
(TKopwlovpos or Iffx^ovaa. a<pavatv6/j.€va conj. Seal.; b.<pav\iv6- 
/*€vo UMVP 2 Ald. 


Digitized by 


shoots and general form, but in the strange property 1 
which belongs to it. Its appearance is spinous and 
the leaf is like ferns, but, when one touches the twigs, 
they say that the leaves as it were wither up 2 and 
collapse and then after a time come to life again and 
flourish. Such are the most conspicuous things 
peculiar to the country, to speak only of trees or 
shrubs. For we will speak later of the things which 
grow in the river and the marshes, when we come to 
speak of the other water plants. 

8 All the trees of this kind in that country are 
large, both in height and stoutness ; thus at Memphis 
there is said to be a tree of such girth that three 
men cannot embrace it. The wood too, when split, 
is good, being of extremely close grain and in colour 
like the nettle-tree. 

Of the trtes and shrubs special to Libya. 

III. 4 In Libya the lotos is most abundant and 
fairest; so also is the Christ's thorn, and in some 
parts, such as the Nasamonian district and near the 
temple of Zeus Ammon, the date-palm. In the 
Cyrenaica the cypress grows and the olives are fairest 
and the oil most abundant. Most special of all to 
this district is the silphium, and the land also bears 
abundant fragrant saffron-crocus. As to the lotos — 
the whole tree is peculiar, of good stature, as tall as 
a pear-tree, or nearly so ; the leaf is divided and like 
that of the kermes-oak, and the wood is black. There 
are several sorts, which differ in their fruits ; the fruit 

8 This section is evidently out of place ; its probable place 
is at the end of § 10, so that the description will belong to 
the ' Egyptian plum.' 

4 See Index. Plin. 13. 104-106. 


Digitized by 


rfXi/co? /cvafws, ireiraiveTai 84, &airep oi fioTpves, 
fieTafidXXwv Ta$ %poid<;' <f>verai Be, KaOdirep Ta 
fivpra, Trap' aXXrjXa ttvkvos iirl t&v fSkaarr&v 
iaOiofLevo? S* 6 iv to?? Aa>TO<f>dyoi<; KaXovfievois 
yXvKv? Kal fjBv? Kal daivrj^ Kal cti Trpbs ttjv 
KOiXiav dyaffo?' rjBicov 8* 6 dirvprjvos, can yctp 
Kal toiovtov ti yevos* iroiovai Be Kal olvov €% 

2 TIoXu Bk to BevBpov Kal iroXvKapirov to y 
oZv 'O^eXXov GTpaTOireBov, rjvLKa efidBi^ev eh 
JZapxqBova, Kal TovTfp <f>aal Tpajtrjvat irXeiov<; 
7) fie pas €7n\nr6vT(ov t&v €7nTr)BeLG)v. eaTi p£v 
ovv Kal iv Tfj vrjcrtp t$ AwTO^ayiTiBi KaXovfievtj 
iroXvv avTi) 8' eiriKeiTai Kal a7T€%et fiixpov ov 
firjv ovOev ye fiepos dWd iroXXq) irXelov iv Ttj 
rjireiptp* irXelaTov yap o\g>9 iv tjj Aifivg, Kaddirep 
etprjTat, tovto Kal 6 iraXiovpos iaTiv iv yap 
^veairepiai tovtol? Kavai/AOts xp&VTai. Bia<f>epei 
Be OUT09 O \fi)T09 TOV TTUpd Tofc A(DTO<f>dyoi<;. 

3 r O Be iraXiovpos OapuvoaBearTepo^ tov Xcdtov* 
(fyvXXov 8k irapofioiov e^ei t$> ivTavda, tov Be* 
Kapirbv Bid<f>opov ov yctp irXaTvv d\Xd aTpoyyv- 
Xov Kal ipvdpov, /Jbeyeffos Be rfSlKOV t^9 fceBpov rj 
fjbiKotp fiel^ov irvprjva Be e^ei oi avveaOiofievov 
Kaddirep Tafc poais* fjBvv Be tov Kapirov Kal idv 
t*9 olvov int^ey Kal avTov r/8i(o yiveadai (paac 
Kal tov olvov rjBico iroielv. 

1 cf. Hdt. 4. 177; Athen. 14. 651 ; Scyl. Peripl. Lotophagi. 

2 A ruler of Cyrene, who invaded Carthaginian territory in 
conjunction with Agathocles, b.o. 308. 

8 t$ XooToQayirdii conj. W. ; tJ Auro(payla $ip<5i UM Aid. 
4 fi4pos : ficlwv conj. Sch. {non minor G). 


Digitized by 


is as large as a bean, and in ripening like grapes it 
changes its colour : it grows, like myrtle-berries, 
close together on the shoots ; to eat, that which grows 
among the people called the Lotus-eaters 1 is sweet 
pleasant and harmless, and even good for the stomach ; 
but that which has no stone is pleasanter (for 
there is also such a sort), and they also make wine 
from it. 

The tree is abundant and produces much fruit ; 
thus the army of Ophelias, 2 when it was marching 
on Carthage, was fed, they say, on this alone for 
several days, when the provisions ran short. It is 
abundant also in the island called the island of 
the Lotus-eaters ; 3 this lies off the mainland at 
no great distance : it grows however in no less 
quantity, 4 but even more abundantly 5 on the main- 
land ; for, as has been said, 6 this tree is common in 
Libya generally as well as the Christ's thorn ; for in 
the islands called Euesperides 7 they use these trees 
as fuel. However this lotos s differs from that found 
in the land of the Lotus-eaters. 

9 The (Egyptian) ( Christ's thorn ' is more shrubby 
than the lotos ; it has a leaf like the tree of the same 
name of our country, but the fruit is different ; for 
it is not flat, but round and red, and in size as large 
as the fruit of the prickly cedar or a little larger; 
it has a stone which is not eaten with the fruit, as in 
the case of the pomegranate, but the fruit is sweet, 
and, if one pours wine over it, they say that it 
becomes sweeter and that it makes the wine sweeter. 

5 irXeiov U; ? ir\c(<av with MV. 

6 4. 3. 1. 7 cf. Hdt. 4. 191. 

8 cf. Hdt. 2. 96. 

9 See Index. Plin. 13. 111. 


VOL. I. X 

Digitized by 


4 "Eatioi 8k to tov Xcotov 8ev8pov Oafiv&Ses elvai 
/cal iroXv/cXa8ov, t$ arek&xet, 8k evirayer tov 8k 
icapirbv fieya to /cdpvov fyew to o €kt6<; ov 
aap/ccbSe? aXXa 8epiutTG>8eaTepov iaOiojxevov 8k 
ov% ovtg) yXv/cvv t»9 evcTOfiov /cal tov olvov ov 
if; avTov iroiovaiv ov 8iap,eveiv a\X' r\ 8vo fj 
Tpel? rjfjLepa? eW o^vveiv. t)8i(o fikv ovv tov 
icapirbv tov iv Tofc Aa>TO(f)dyoi<;, fjvXov 8k 
/cdXXiov to iv JZvprjvaia 9 depfWTepav 8k elvai 
Trjv x&pav ttjv t&v A(OTO<f>ayo)V tov fjvXov 8k 
ttjv pi£av elvai fieXavrepav fikv ttoXv irvfcvrjv 8k 
?Ittov /cal eh iXaTTio 'Xp^ifirfv* € ^ Y^P T ^ 
iyy(eipl8ia /cal Tct iiri/coXXrifxaTa yjprfaQai, T<p 
%vXq> 8k efc T€ Tou? avXov? /cal eh aXXa irXeico. 

6 *Ev 8k Tjj fii) vofievy Trj$ Aiftvrj? aXXa T€ irXeio} 
<f)V€cr0ai /cal <f>oivi/cas fieydXovs /cal kclXovv oi 
fitjv d\X' oirov fjbkv <f>oivif; dXfivp[8a t€ elvai /cal 

' €<f>v8pOV TOV T07TOV, OV/C iv TTOXX(p 8k /3d0€l aXXa 

fidXiaTa €7r' opyvlai? Tpiaiv. to 8* v8cop evda 
fikv yXv/cv a<f>68pa evda 8k dXv/cbv irXrfaiov ovtcov 
aXXrjXow ottov 8k tcl aXXa <f>veTai fjiypbv /cal 
avv8pov iviaftov 8k /cal tc\ <f>peaTa elvai e/caTOv 
dpyvi&v, &ct€ virotyylois airb Tpo^rjXia<; dvifiav 
8i b /cal OavfiacTOV irm iroTe &pvx0r) TtjXt/cavTa 
paurj' to o ovv T(ov voaTcov t<dv vtto tov$ 
<f>otvi/ca$ /cal iv "Afifiavo*; elvai 8ia<f>opav e^pv 
ttjv etprffievrjv. jyveaOai 8k iv tt) fii) vofievrj to 
Ovfiov ttoXv /cal aXXa X8id T€ /cal irXeia) yiveaOai 

1 Sch. after Seal, places this section before § 3, making the 
account of this tree consecutive. 2 Plin. 13. 17. 104-106. 
8 cfrraxes conj. R. Const.; cfarrax^J U ; ttarax** MP 2 Ald. 
* c/. Hdt. 2. 96. 


Digitized by 


1 Some say that the lotos 2 is shrubby and much 
branched, though it has a stout 8 stem ; and that the 
stone in the fruit is large, while the outside is not 
fleshy but somewhat leathery ; and that to eat it is not 
so much sweet as palatable ; and that the wine which 
they make out of it does not keep more than two 
or three days, after which it gets sour ; and so that 
the fruit 4 found in the Lotus-eaters' country is 
sweeter, while the wood in the Cyrenaica is better ; 
and that the country of the Lotus-eaters is hotter ; 
and that the root is much blacker than the wood, 
but of less close grain, and of use for fewer purposes ; 
for they use it only for dagger-handles and tessellated 
work, 5 while the wood is used for pipes and many 
other things. 

In the part of Libya where no rain falls they say 
that, besides many other trees, there grow tall and 
fine date-palms ; however they add that, where the 
date-palm is found, the soil' 5 is salt and contains 
water, and that at no great depth, not more than 
three fathoms. They say also that the water is in 
some places quite sweet, but in others quite close 
by it is brackish ; that where however other things 
grow, the soil is dry and waterless ; and that in 
places even the wells are a hundred fathoms deep, 
so that they draw water by means of a windlass 
worked by beasts. Wherefore it is wonderful how 
at any time digging to such depths was carried out. 
Such, they say, is the special character of the water 
supply which feeds the date-palms in the district 
also of the temple of Zeus Ammon. Further it is 
said that in the land where no rain falls thyme 7 is 

* iiriKoW'huara: lit. 4 pieces glued on'; cf. Plin. I.e. 
8 cf. Hdt. 3. 183. 

7 einov mBas.H.; OdfAvoy UMVAld. cf. 6. 2. 3. 


X 2 

Digitized by 


evravOa, Kal rrr&Ka Kal BopKaBa teal arpovObv 

6 teal erepa r&v Orjplav. dXXd ravra fiev dBrfXov 
el i/eTom&i irov mopjeva* (Bid yap ro rd^o? 
Bvvarai fia/cpdv re Kal ra^y rrapayeveaOai), 
aXX&>5 re Kel Si r)fiep&v nvcov irivovai, Kaddttep 
ical rd fjfiepa irapd rplrrjv rj rerdprrfv irori^erai 
ravra' ro Be r&v aXXxov £d>a>v, olov 8<f>ecov 
aavp&v koX r&v rotovrcov, <f>avepov on airora, 
tou9 Bk Aty8t>a? Xeyeiv on rov ovov eaOlei ravra 
$5 Kal irap rjfxlv yiverai, iroXinrovv re teal fieXav 
avaneiptofievov efc eavro* rovrov Bk ttoXvv re 
yiveaQai <r<f>6Bpa Kal iypbv rrjv (pvav elvai. 

7 Apoaov Be del iriirreiv ev rfj fir) vofievrj iroXXqv, 
&are SrjXov on rov fiev <f>oCvi/ca real et n dWo 
<f>verat iv dvvSpoi? ro re Ik t?}? yr\<; dvibv e/crpefei 
Kal irpbs rovrtp r) Spoaos. iKavrj ydp a>9 Kara 
fieyeOrj Kal rrjv <f>vaiv avr&v %rjpdv ovaav Kal ex 
roiovro)v cvvearrjKviav. Kal BevSpa fiev ravra 
irXelara Kal ISmrara. rrepl Be rov aiX<f>iov 
XeKreov varepov irolov n rrjv (pvaiv. 

IV. 'Ez/ Be rfi 'Aaiq, Trap eKaaroi? tSi drra 
rvyyavev rd fikv yap (f>epovaiv at %&pai rd B* 

1 Lepu3 Aegyptiacus. cf. Arist. H.A. 8. 28. 

2 us Karck conj. Seal, from G ; &<ttc t* Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


abundant, and that there are various other peculiar 
plants there, and that there are found the hare 1 
gazelle ostrich and other animals. However it is 
uncertain whether these do not migrate in order to 
find drink somewhere, (for by reason of their fleet- 
ness they are able to appear at a distant place in a 
short space of time), especially if they can go for 
several days without drinking, even as these animals, 
when domesticated, are only given drink every third 
or fourth day. While as to other animals, such as 
snakes lizards and the like, it is plain that they go 
without drink. And we are told that according to 
the Libyans, these animals eat the wood-louse, which 
is of the same kind that is found also in our 
country, being black, with many feet, and rolling 
itself into a ball ; this, they say, is extremely common 
and is juicy by nature. 

They say also that dew always falls abundantly 
in the land in which no rain falls, so that it is plain 
that the date-palm, as well as anything else which 
grows in waterless places, is kept alive by the 
moisture which rises from the ground, and also by 
the dew. For the latter is sufficient, considering 2 the 
size of such trees and their natural character, which 
is dry and formed of dry components. And trees of 
that character are most abundant in, and most 
specially belong to such country. The character 
of the silphium we must discuss later. 

Of the trees and herbs special to Asia, 

IV. In different parts of Asia also there are 
special trees, for the soil of the various regions 
produces some but not others. 3 Thus they say that 

8 Plin. 16. 144. 


Digitized by 


ov <f>vovaiv olov klttov kcu iXdav ov <f>aaiv elvai 
t?}? 'Ao-/a? iv to?? avco t% 2t//ota? airo OoXcltt^ 
irkvff rjfiep&v dXX* iv '1 1/80?? (ftavrjvai klttov 
iv tg> opei t$ Mrjpq> KaXovfievcp, o6ev hr) Kal tov 
Aiovvaov elvai fivOoXoyovai. he b zeal 'AXeljav- 
S/oo? a7r e£o8£a? XeyeTac ainibv icTecfravcofiivo*; 
KiTT(p elvai Kal avTbs Kal r) (TTpaTid* tcov he 
aXX(ov iv MrySta fiovov irepLKXeietv yap avTrj 
Sofcel xal avvdiTTeiv Tra)? t$ Tl6vT<p. KaiTov ye 
Bie(f>i\oTifii]0r] " KpiraXo? iv to?? irapaheiaoL^ to?? 
Trepl Ha/3vX&va <f>vTeva>v TroXXdtci? Kal irpay- 
fiaTevofievos, aU' oihev iirolei irXeov ov yap 
ihvvaTo £r}v &airep TaXXa to, iK t*}? f E\\a8o?. 
toOto fiev otrv ov hfyeTai f\ x^P a T V V T °v 
ae/)o? Kpaaiv dvayKaiw h\ oexeTai Kal irv^ov 
Kal <f>iXvpav Kal yap irepl TavTa irovovaiv oi iv 
to?? irapaheiaoL^ . erepa he cSca <f>epet, Kal Sep 8 pa 
2 Kal vKrjfiaTa* Kal eoLKev o\g>? o toVo? o 7rpt? 
amToXa? xal fiearjfAfipLav wairep Kal £a>a Kal 
<f>VTa <f>€peiv cSia irapa tou? a\\ot>?* oIoi> f\ tc 
Mrjhia x^P a KaL Ilepo-l? aXXa t€ e%ei TrXeia Kal 
to firjXov to MrjhiKov fj to UepaiKOV KaXov/ievov. 
e)(€i he to hevhpov tovto <j>vXXov fiev Sfioiov xal 
o"Xehbv icov t$ t?J? dvhpdxXr)?, aKavQas he ola? 
outtlo^ rj o^vaKavOos, Xeia$ he Kal o£eta? a<f>6hpa 
Kal to"xypd<f to he firjXov ovk iaQleTai fiev 9 

1 i\ conj. Spr.; 4\drriv MSS. c/. Hdt. 1. 193; Xen. 
Anab. 4. 4. 13 ; Arr. Ind. 40. 

2 Kcrrhv conj. W., cf. Arr. Anab. 5. 1. 6 ; kou rfyu UMV; 
K a\ T9? Ald.H. • Uytrai add. W. 

4 Radius UMVP ; 'Ivtlas W. with Aid. 

5 kittQ elvai conj. W. ; *lra puvai U J eZra fi^i elvai MVP Aid. 

Digitized by 


ivy and olive 1 do not grow in Asia in the parts of 
Syria which are five days' journey from the sea ; but 
that in India ivy 2 appears on the mountain called 
Meros, whence, according to the tale, Dionysus 
came. Wherefore it is said 3 that Alexander, when 
he came back from an expedition, 4 was crowned 
with ivy, 5 himself and his army. But elsewhere in 
Asia it is said to grow only in Media, for that country 
seems in a way to surround and join on to the Euxine 
Sea. 6 However, 7 when Harpalus took great pains 
over and over again to plant it in the gardens of 
Babylon, and made a special point of it, he failed: 
since it could not live like the other things intro- 
duced from Hellas. The country then does not 8 
admit this plant on account of the climate, and it 
grudgingly admits the box and the lime ; for even 
these give much trouble to those engaged in the 
gardens. It also produces some peculiar trees and 
shrubs. And in general the lands of the East and 
South appear to have peculiar plants, as they have 
peculiar animals ; for instance, Media and Persia have, 
among many others, that which is called the 
' Median ' or * Persian apple ' (citron). 9 This tree 10 
has a leaf like to and almost identical with that of 
the andrachne, but it has thorns like those of the 
pear 11 or white-thorn, which however are smooth 
and very sharp and strong. The * apple ' is not 

6 i.e. and so Greek plants may be expected to grow there. 
But the text is probably defective ; cf. the citation of this 
passage, Plut. Quaest. Conv. 3. 2. 1. 

7 xalroi yc. This sentence does not connect properly with 
the preceding. 8 ov add. Sch. 

9 Plin. 12. 15 and 16; cited also Athen. 3. 26. 

10 cf. Verg. Q. 2. 131-135. 

11 &mos: ? here=dxf"k R- Const, cf. CP. 1. 15. 2. 


Digitized by 


evoa/iov he irdvv teal to if>v\\ov tov hevhpov rcav 
et? i/Jbdria T€0j) to firjXov aKoira hiaTrjpel. XPV~ 
aifjLov S* iireihav rvxv <W> irenco/cox; (pdp/Miteov 
<&avdai/xov hoOev yap iv otvep hiatcoiTTei ttjv 
KoChlav teal igdyei to <j>dp/j,atcov> teal tt/jo? cjto- 
/lmxto? eimhiav idv ydp ti$ eyfr7]CT7j iv £co/iq>, fj iv 
a\\q> rivl to ecrcoffev tov firfKov itcmear) el$ to 
arofia teal Karapo^rjarjy irotet rrjv dcrfirjv f)helav. 

3 crneiperai he tov 7700? et<; irpaGia^ i^aipeOev to 
cirep/Mi hueLpyaa/xeva^ iirifi€\&$, eiTa apheveTai 
hid T€TapTr)<; fj TrifiTTTrj^ rjixepas* oTav he dhpbv 

hiacf>VT€V€Tai irdXiv tov ea/009 et9 yap' 101 * /* a " 
\ateov teal e<j>vhpov teal oi \iav Xstttov <f>i\el 
yap ra ToiavTa. <f>epei he tcl firjXa iracrav &pav 
tcl fiev yap dcfrrjprjTai tcl he dvOel tcl he i/cireTTei. 
t&v hi dvQ&v oaa, &cnrep etiro/jLev, e^ei KaOdirep 
rjkaKaTr\v itc fiecrov tiv ijjexovcrav, raura io~Ti 
yovufiay oaa he /xrj ayova, cnreipeTai he teal eh 
SaTpatca hiaT€Tpr)/neva, tcaddirep teal oi (poivitces. 
tovto fiev ovv, &cnrep etprjTai, irepl tt)v Uepcrlha 
teal ttjv ^Ar]hLav iaTiv. 

4 f H he 'Ivhitcr) x&pa Tr\v T€ tcaXovfievrjv e^ei 
ervtcrjv, fj tcaOirjcnv itc tcov tcXdhw Ta? av 
etca&TOV ero?, &airep eipryrai irpoTepov d^Lrjcrt, 
hk ovtc itc tcov vecov a\\' itc tcov evcov teal cti 
iraXaiOTepcov* avTai he crvvdirTovcrai ttj yfj 
Troiovaiv &o"7rep hpvcfratcTov tcvtcXcp irepl to hev- 
hpov, &aT€ ylvecrOai KaOdirep crfcrjvtfv, ov hrj teal 

1 tis add. W. from Athen. I.e.; Oavda-ifiou . . . <pdpfiaKOP 
add. Sch. from Athen. I.e. 2 Plin. 11. 278 ; 12. 16. 

* atybv f W. from Athen. I.e. , whence dia<pvr€vtrcu W. etc. 
for StcupvTcvrtrat Ald.H. abp6v ri UMVAld. 


Digitized by 


eaten, but it is very fragrant, as also is the leaf of the 
tree. And if the 'apple* is placed among clothes, 
it keeps them from being moth-eaten. It is also 
useful when one 1 has drunk deadly poison ; for being 
given in wine it upsets the stomach and brings up the 
poison ; also for producing sweetness of breath ; 2 
for, if one boils the inner part of the ' apple ' in a 
sauce, or squeezes it into the mouth in some other 
medium, and then inhales it, it makes the breath 
sweet. The seed is taken from the fruit and sown 
in spring in carefully tilled beds, and is then watered 
every fourth or fifth day. And, when it is growing 
vigorously, 3 it is transplanted, also in spring, to a 
soft well-watered place, where the soil is not too 
fine ; for such places it loves. And it bears its ' apples ' 
at all seasons ; for when some have been gathered, 
the flower of others is on the tree and it is ripening 
others. Of the flowers, as we have said, 4 those 
which have, as it were, a distaff 6 projecting in the 
middle are fertile, while those that have it not are 
infertile. It is also sown, like date-palms, in pots 6 
with a hole in them. This tree, as has been said, 
grows in Persia and Media. 

7 The Indian land has its so-called ( fig-tree ' 
(banyan), which drops its roots from its branches 
every year, as has been said above 8 ; and it drops 
them, not from the new branches, but from those 
of last year or even from older ones ; these take 
hold of the earth and make, as it were, a fence 
about the tree, so that it becomes like a tent, in 

4 1. 13. 4. 5 i.e. the pistil. 

8 Plin. 12. 16, Jictilibus in vasis, dato per cavemas radicibus 
8piramento : the object, as Plin. explains, was to export it 
for medical use. 

' Plin. 12. 22 and 23. 8 1. 7. 3. 


Digitized by 


eicaOaai hiaTpifieiv. elal he al pl^ai <f>v6fievai 
hidhrjXoi 7T/30? Toy? fiXao-TOvs' XevKorepai yap 
teal haaelai teal crKoXial zeal d<j>vXXoi. ej^ei he 
teal ttjv dvco KOfirjv iroXXrjv, zeal to oXov hevhpov 
cvkvkXov /cal T(p fieyeOei /xeya a<f>6hpa' Kal yap 
iirl hvo ardBia iroielv <f>aai ttjv CKidv /cal to 
7Ttt^09 toO CTeXe^ou? evia irXeiovcov fj e^rj/covra 
ftrj/jLarayv, tcl he irdXka TerrapatcovTa. to he 76 
cf>vXXov ovk eKarrov e)(ei ireKrr)^, /capirbv he 
a(f>68pa fii/cpbv ffXiKov epefiivOov Sfioiov he <rv/c<p' 
hi fcal i/cdXovv avrb oi "EAA^i/e? av/cfjv oXiyov 
he 0avp,acrT&<; rbv fcapirbv ov^ oti Kara to tou 
hevhpov fieyeOos dWa /cal to 6\ov. (bverat he 
Kal to hevhpov irepl rbv 'A/ceaivTjv irora/xov. 
6 v Eo~ti he Kal erepov hevhpov /cal ra> /xeyeOei 
fieya /cal rjhvKapirov Oavfiaarw Kal fieyaXo- 
Kapirov Kal yjp&wai Tpo<f>f) t&v 'lvh&v oi cro<f>ol 
Kal fit) dpmeypp,evoi. 

"JLrepov he ov to <j>vXXov Trjv /xev fiop<f>rjv 
7rp6jj,r)K€<; to?? t&v o-Tpovdcov irTepoi? o/xoiov, a 
uapaTiQevTai irapa to, Kpdvrj, firj/co? he a>? 

V A\\0 T€ €0~T*P OV 6 KapTTO? fJULKpOS Kal OVK 

evOvs dXXd aKo\ib<; iaOiofievo? hk yXvKvs. o5to? 
ev rfj KoCXia hrjy/ibv e/JLiroiei Kal hvaevrepiav, hi 
h 'AXegavhpo? direK^pv^e firf eaOCeiv. eari he 
Kal hrepov ov 6 Kapirb? o/toto? to?? xpaveois. 

1 oZ conj. W. ; aTs UM VAld. 

2 &<pvWot conj. Dalec. ; Bl<pv\\oi UVAld.; so also MH., 
omitting xal. 

3 4tf\Kovra . . . rerrap^Kovra MSS.; . , . rtrrdpwv conj. 
Salm. c/. Plin. I.e.; Strabo 15. 1. 21, 


Digitized by 


which 1 men sometimes even live. The roots as they 
grow are easily distinguished from the branches, 
being whiter hairy crooked and leafless. 2 The 
foliage above is also abundant, and the whole tree is 
round and exceedingly large. They say that it 
extends its shade for as much as two furlongs ; and 
the thickness of the stem is in some instances more 
than sixty 3 paces, while many specimens are as 
much as forty 3 paces through. The leaf is quite as 
large as a shield, 4 but the fruit is very small, 5 only as 
large as a chick-pea, and it resembles a fig. And 
this is why the Greeks 6 named this tree a ' fig-tree.' 
The fruit is curiously scanty, not only relatively to 
the size of the tree, but absolutely. The tree also 
grows near the river Akesines. 7 

There is also another tree 8 which is very large 
and has wonderfully sweet and large fruit ; it is 
used for food by the sages of India who wear no 

There is another tree 9 whose leaf is oblong in 
shape, like the feathers of the ostrich ; this they 
fasten on to their helmets, and it is about two cubits 

There is also another 10 whose fruit is long and not 
straight, but crooked, and it is sweet to the taste. 
This causes griping in the stomach and dysentery ; 
wherefore Alexander ordered that it should not be 
eaten. There is also another 11 whose fruit is like the 
fruit of the cornelian cherry. 

4 WAT*; : a small round shield. 6 cf. CP. 2. 10. 2. 
6 i.e. in Alexander's expedition. 7 Chenab. 

8 Jack-fruit. See Index App. (3). Plin. 12. 24. 

9 Banana. See Index App. (4). 

10 Mango. See Index App. (5). Plin. 12. 24. 

11 Jujube. See Index App. (6). 


Digitized by 


Kal erepa he irXeito xal hia<f>epovra t&v iv 
to£? "EXXtjciv aXX* dvwvvfia. Oavfiacrbv 8* 
oihev tt?? ISioTrjTOf axehbv yap, (5? ye hrj rwis 
<f>aaiv, ovOev o\g>? t&v hevhpa>v ovhe t&v vXrj- 
fidrcov ovhk t&v iroicoh&v o/noiov iaTi Tot? iv t# 
JLXXdhi ttXtjv oXiyav. 

*\hiov he xal t) ifievr) t?)? %a>/>a? TavTrjr Tavrrj^ 
he hvo yevrj, to fiev evgvXov xal xaXbv to hk 
<f>av\ov. airdviov he to xaXbv Oarepov he iroXv. 
ttjv hk xpoav ov Orjaavpi^opAvrj Xapfidvei ttjv 
evxpovv dXX y evOvs tt) (pvcrei. ccti he* to hevhpov 
Oa/Av&hes, &airep 6 kutico?. 

<£>aal 8* elvai xal TepfiivOov, oi 8 Sfioiov 
Tepplvd(py b to fiev <f>vXXov xal tol>? xX&va? Kal 
TaWa iravra oyuoia eyei tt) repfiLvOcp tov he 
Kapirbv hid<f>opov Sfioiov yap Tat? dfivyhaXais. 
elvai yap Kal iv BaKTf)oi$ ttjv TepfiivOov Tavrqv 
Kal xdpva <frepeiv fjXixa dfivyhaXa hia to firj 
fieydXa* Kal tt) oyjret he irapofioia, irXrjv to 
xeXvfos ov Tpaxv, tt) 8' evGTopia Kal T)hovfj 
KpeiTTG) t&v dfivyhdXcov. hi b Kal yjpy)aOai tov? 
ixei fiaXXov. 

'E£ &v hk tcl ifiaTia iroiovai to fiev <f>vXXov 
Ofioiov e^€i tt) avxafiivtp, to he oXov <f>vTov to*? 
Kvvopohoi? Sfioiov. <f)VT€vovai hk iv Tot? irehiois 
avTo xaT opxov?, hi b xal iroppwOev a<f>op&ai 
a/jbireXoi <f>aivovTai. e^et Be xal <f>oivtKa$ evia 

1 Plin. 12. 25. 

2 See Index. Plin. 12. 17-19. 

3 Pistachio-nut. See Index App. (7). Plin. 12. 25. Nic. 
Ther. 894. 


Digitized by 


There are also many more 1 which are different to 
those found among the Hellenes, but they have no 
names. There is nothing surprising in the fact that 
these trees have so special a character ; indeed, as 
some say, there is hardly a single tree or shrub or 
herbaceous plant, except quite a few, like those in 

The ebony 2 is also peculiar to this country; of 
this there are two kinds, one with good handsome 
wood, the other inferior. The better sort is rare, but 
the inferior one is common. It does not acquire its 
good colour by being kept, but it is natural to it from 
the first. The tree is bushy, like laburnum. 

Some say that a 6 terebinth ' 8 grows there also, 
others that it is a tree like the terebinth ; this in 
leaf twigs and all other respects resembles that 
tree, but the fruit is different, being like almonds. 
In fact they say that this sort of terebinth grows also 
in Bactria and bears nuts only as big as almonds, 
inasmuch as they are not large for the size of the 
tree 4 ; and they closely resemble almonds in appear- 
ance, except that the shell is not rough ; and in 
palatableness and sweetness they are superior to 
almonds ; wherefore the people of the country use 
them in preference to almonds. 

6 The trees from which they make their clothes 
have a leaf like the mulberry, but the whole tree 
resembles the wild rose. They plant them in the 
plains in rows, wherefore, when seen from a distance, 
they look like vines. Some parts also have many 

4 81& . . . fiiya\a : Sch. omits these words, and W. con- 
siders them corrupt ; but G seems to have had them in his 
text. The translation is tentative. 

» Cotton-plant, cf. 4. 7. 7 and 8. Plin. 12. 25. 


Digitized by 

flip*} TroWoifc. /cal ravra fiev iv BevBpov 


Qepei 8k /cal (TirepixaTa IBia, rh fiev to*? 
Xeipoirol^ ofAoia ra 8k Tofc irvpol^ /cal reus' 
/cpi0aT$. ipeftivOo? fiev yap /cal <j>a/cb<; /cal raXKa 
Ta wap' rjfilv ov/c eariv erepa 8' iarlv &<tt€ 
irapairXrjaLa iroteiv ra ktyrffiaTa /cal firj 8ia- 
yiyvwa/ceiv, w? (pacriv, civ firj t*? d/covarj, /cpiOal 
ok /cal irvpol /cal a\\o ti yevos aypieov /cpi0&v f 
e£ &v /cal apToi qBels /cal ftovSpos /ca\6$. Taura? 
ol Ximoi iaOlovre? to irp&rov 8i€(f>0eipovTo, /cara 
fu/epbv 8k oiv iOiaOivres iv a^ypois oiBkv 

Mdkiara Bk aireipovai to /cdkovfievov opvfyv, 
ef ov to esjrrjfia. tovto Be Ofioiov rfj fyia /cal 
irepiirTtaOkv olov xovhpo? evireinov Be, rrjv oyfriv 
7r€<j)v/c6<; Sfiotov Tat? alpais /cal rov ttoXvv xpovov 
iv vSan, airox^trai Be ov/c et? ard^vv ak\ olov 
ofirjv, 3>GTrep 6 /ceyxpo? /cal 6 ekvfio?. aWo Be 

i/cd\ovv ol "EW^i/e? <f>a/cov tovto Be ofioiov 
fiev tjj oyfrei /cal to /3ov/cepa$, Oepl&Tat, 8k vepl 
HXeidSos Bvaiv. 

Aia<f>ep€i Be /cal avrrj f] %a>/)a Tip ttjv fikv 
<f>epeiv evia ttjv Be fir) <j>ep€iv r) yap opeivr) /cal 
dfiireXov e^€* /cal eXdav /cal tcl aKka d/cp6Bpva* 
ir\r)v cucapirov ttjv iXdav, /cal ax^Bbv /cal ttjv 
<f>vaiv &o"7T€p fi6Tal;v kotlvov /cal i\da$ iarl /cal 

1 c/. 8. 4. 2. whence it appears that the original text here 
contained a fuller account. Plin. 18. 71. 

2 Sorghum halepense. 8 Sc. of Alexander. 
4 The verb seems to have dropped out (W.). 


Digitized by 


date-palms. So much for what come under the 
heading of f trees.' 

These lands bear also peculiar grains, some like 
those of leguminous plants, some like wheat and 
barley. For the chick-pea lentil and other such 
plants found in our country do not occur ; but there 
are others, so that they make similar mashes, and 
one cannot, they say, tell the difference, unless one 
has been told. They have however barley wheat 1 
and another kind of wild barley, 2 which makes sweet 
bread and good porridge. When the horses 3 ate 
this, at first it proved fatal to them, but by degrees 
they became accustomed to it mixed with bran and 
took no hurt. 

But above all they sow the cereal called rice, of 
which they make their mash. This is like rice-wheat, 
and when bruised makes a sort of porridge, which is 
easily digested ; in its appearance as it grows it is 
like darnel, and for most of its time of growth it is 4 
in water ; however it shoots 5 up not into an ear, but 
as it were into a plume, 6 like the millet and Italian 
millet. There was another plant 7 which the Hel- 
lenes 8 called lentil ; this is like in appearance to 
( ox-horn ' (fenugreek), but it is reaped about the 
setting of the Pleiad. 

Moreover this country shews differences in that 
part of it bears certain things which another part 
does not ; thus the mountain country has the vine 
and olive and the other fruit-trees ; but the olive is 
barren, 9 and in its character it is as it were almost 
between a wild and a cultivated olive, and so it 

5 airoxurai : c/. 8. 8. 1. 6 cf. 8. 3. 4. 

7 Phaseolus Mungo ; Bee Index A pp. (8). 

8 i.e. of Alexander's expedition. 9 Plin. 12. 14. 


Digitized by 


T7) oXrj fiopd>j)' tcai to <f>vXXov rod fiev irXarv- 
repov tov Be arevorepov. ravra tiev oiv Kara 
rrjv IvOLKrjv. 

'Ez> Be rfj y Kpia X^P a /caXovftivy a/cavOd iariv, 
i(f> 9^9 yiverat Ba/cpvov o/jloiov rfj a/nvpvy /cal rfj 
oyfret Kal tt} 00741} • tovto Be orav eiuXafityri 6 
rjXLO? /carappei. iroXXa Bk /ecu aXXa irapa tcl 
evravda /cal iv Tjj ^copa Kal iv to?? iroTap,oZ$ 
yivcTcu. iv eTepois Be tottols earli* a/cav0a Xev/crj 
Tpio&s, i% fj<; /cal a/cvraXia /cal fta/crypta? ttoi- 
ovaw OTrwBrjs Be /cal ixavrr ravTTjv Be /caXovaiv 

"AXXo Be vXtj/ml fieyeOos fiev rjXl/cov pd<f>avo$, 
to Bk <f>vXXov opuoiov Bd<f>vrj /cal r<p jxeyeOei /cal 
Tjj fiop(f)fj. tovto o° et ti (j>dyoi evairoOvr\G/ceu 



'Ei> Be TV VeBpcoo-ia yd) pa irecbv/cevai (baalv ev 
p.ev ofioiov tjj ba<pvj) cpvXXov e^pv, ov Ta viro^vyia 
Kal otiovv el (j>dyoi fii/cpov iwiaxovTa Bi€<f>0el- 
povro irapairXr)ai(o<i BiaTiOe/ieva /cal oir<ap,eva 
o poled? Tot? eTnXrjiTTOis. 

r 'FiT€pov Be a/cavOdv Tiva elvar TavTrjv Be 
<f>vXXov fiev oiBev €X €IV 7r€<f>v/cevai i/c fua$ 
plfyv ifi e/cdaTG) Be t£>v o£cdv a/cavQav e^etz/ 
oljeiav cr<j>6Bpa, zeal tovtmv Be* KaTaywpAveov rj 
7rpoaTpifiofJL€va>v ottov i/cpecv iroXvi', 09 a7roTV<f>Xoi 

1 Kal cx&bv . . . fiopfrj conj. W. ; <rx«&&? 8c Kal tV <pu<riv 
&(ric€p /act. kot. Kal 4\. icn 5< tt) ixopfpy Kal rb <p. Aid. ; so 
also U, omitting the first Kal. 

2 Bahaniodendron Mukul; see Index App. (9). Plin. 12. 


Digitized by 


is also in its general appearance, 1 and the leaf is 
broader than that of the one and narrower than that 
of the other. So much for the Indian land. 

In the country called Aria there is a ' thorn ' 2 
on which is found a gum resembling myrrh 8 in 
appearance and smell, and this drops when the sun 
shines on it. There are also many other plants 
besides those of our land, both in the country and in 
its rivers. In other parts there is a white ' thorn ' 4 
which branches in three, of which they make batons 
and sticks ; its wood is sappy and of loose texture, 
and they call it the thorn 'of Herakles.' 

There is another shrub 5 as large as a cabbage, 
whose leaf is like that of the bay in size and shape. 
And if any animal should eat this, it is certain to die 
of it. Wherefore, wherever there were horses, 6 they 
kept them under control. 

In Gedrosia they say that there grows one tree 7 
with a leaf like that of the bay, of which if the 
beasts or anything else ate, they very shortly died 
with the same convulsive symptoms as in epilepsy. 

And they say that another tree 8 there is a sort of 
€ thorn ' (spurge), and that this has no leaf and grows 
from a single root ; and on each of its branches it has 
a very sharp spine, and if these are broken or bruised 
a quantity of juice flows out, which blinds animals or 

3 fffivpmp conj. Sch. from 9. 1. 2 ; Plin. I.e. ; Ty l\Xvpia Ald.H. 

4 See Index. 

5 Asa/oetida ; see Index App. (10). Plin. 12. 33. 

6 i.e. in Alexander's expedition. Probably a verb, such 
as u>0<ppalvovro, has dropped out after twwoi (Sch.). Odore 
equos invitans Plin. I.e. 

7 Nerium odorum ; see Index App. (11). c/. 4. 4. 13 ; Strabo 
15. 2. 7; Plin. I.e. 

8 Plin. I.e.; Arrian, Anab. 6. 22. 7. 


VOL. I. Y 

Digitized by 


r3X\a £&a irdvra /ecu 717909 tou9 dvOpcoirovs el 
w wpoapaiveiev avTols. iv Be tottoi? tvgX 7T€<£v- 
Kevai riva fioTavrjv, v<f> rj avveaireipoifievov^ o<f)€i<; 
eivai fuicpovs afyoBpa* tovtois 8' et ti$ e/i/9a? 
irKriyeirj Qvr\GKeiv. diromviyecrQai Be KaX cltto 

T&V (f>OLVLK(OV T&V &fJL&V €1 T*9 <j>dyOl, KaX TOVTO 

varepov KaravorjOrjvaL. roiavrat fiev ovv Bvvd- 
p,ei<; KaX £(og>v KaX <J>vt&v taeoi KaX irap aWoi? 

14 TlepiTTorepa Be t&v fyvopevwv KaX irXelaTOv 
i^rfKKay fieva 7rpo9 Ta aWa Ta €uoo~ p,a Ta 7repi 
'Apafiiav KaX %vplav KaX *lvBov$ t olov o re 
\i/3avcord<; KaX i) afxvpva KaX 17 xaaia KaX to 
oiro^dXaafiov KaX to Kivdfjuopov KaX oaa aWa 
TOiavra* irepX &v iv aXXot? elprjTai Bia trXetbvwv, 
iv fiev oZv to?9 717009 &> re KaX fiearj/ifipiav KaX 
ravr IBia koX $Tepa Be tovtcov ifXeim ear'tv. 

V. 'Ei/ he to?9 7T/0O9 apKTOv ovx o/jLOiw ovBev 
yap on aljiov \6yov Xeyerat irapa ret koivcl t&v 
BevBpeov a KaX <j>i\6y]rvxpd re Tvyydvei KaX eart 
KaX irap rjfuv, olov irevKt} 8pv$ iXdrrj 7rt5fo9 
BioafidXavo? $i\vpa KaX id aWa Be ret roiavra' 
axeBbv yap ovBev erepov irapa ravrd Scrip, dWd 
t&v aWwv vXrj/iaTcov evia a TOU9 yjrvxpovs 
pbdXKov tyyrel toVo t>9, KaOdirep Keviavptov 
dtyLvQiov, €tl Be tcl (jyapfiaKcoBrf Tafc f>t£ai$ KaX 
Tot? oVofc, oIoz> eWeftopos eKaTTjpiov aKa/jL/iaovia, 
afteBbv irdvia Ta pL^OTop,ovfxeva, 

2 Ta [lev yap iv t$> U6vT<p KaX Trj @paKrj yiveTai, 

1 Ta aAAa 8« : ? om. to ; 8* om. Sch. 


Digitized by 


even a man, if any drops of it should fall on him. 
Also they say that in some parts grows a herb under 
which very small snakes lie coiled up, and that, if 
anyone treads on these and is bitten, he dies. They 
also say that, if anyone should eat of unripe dates, 
he chokes to death, and that this fact was not 
discovered at first. Now it may be that animals and 
plants have such properties elsewhere also. 

Among the plants that grow in Arabia Syria and 
India the aromatic plants are somewhat exceptional 
and distinct from the plants of other lands ; for 
instance, frankincense myrrh cassia balsam of Mecca 
cinnamon and all other such plants, about which we 
have spoken at greater length elsewhere. So in 
the parts towards the east and south there are these 
special plants and many others besides. 

Of the plants special to northern regions. 

V. In the northern regions it is not so, for nothing 
worthy of record is mentioned except the ordinary 
trees which love the cold and are found also in our 
country, as fir oak silver-fir box chestnut lime, as 
well as other similar, trees. There is hardly any 
other 1 besides these ;[but of shrubs there are some 
which for choice 2 seek cold regions, as centaury] and 
wormwood, and further those that have medicinal 
properties in their roots and juices, such as hellebore 
squirting cucumber scammony, and nearly all those 
whose roots are gathered. 3 

Some of these grow in Pontus and Thrace, some 

2 I have moved paWov, which in the MSS. comes before 
raw liWotv. 

* i.e. which have medicinal uses. 


Y 2 

Digitized by 


ra Be ire pi tt\v Otrrjv Kal tov Hapvaabv Kal to 
TirjXiov Kal T7)v "Oaaav Kal to TeXe0piov /cat iv 
Tourot? 8i rivh <j>a<ri, irXeZaTov iroXXa Be Kal 
iv tt) 'Ap/caBia Kal iv rfj Aa/ccovifcjj' <j>ap/jLaK(b8ei$ 
yap Kal axrrai. rcov Be evcoB&v ovBev iv Tavrais, 
ttXtjv lpL$ iv rfj 'lXXvpiBi Kal irepl rbv 'ABpiav 
ravrrj yap XPy ar V KaL tto^v 8ia<f>epovaa r&v 
aXXcov dXX* iv rot? dXeeivoi<; Kal to?9 7r/oo? 
fiearjfJLjSpLav &a7rep dvTtKeLpieva ra eidoBrj. e%ovai 
Bh Kal KVTrdpiTTOv ol aXeeivol fiaXXov, &airep 
Kpt]rrf AvKia 'PoSo?, KeBpov Be Kal tcl ®patcta 
oprj Kal ra <$>pvyui. 
3 T(bv Be 7}fJL€povp,€vcov r)Ki<JTa <f>aaiv iv t<H9 
yfrvxpoU vTrofjueveiv Bd<f>vrjv Kal fivppivrjv, Kal 


Xeyovaiv otl iv t£ 'OXv/jlttoj Bdcfrvr) fiev iroXXrj, 

flVpplVO? 8% 0X,0)9 OVK €<TTIV. iv 8% T(p HoVTtp 

irepl TlavTiKairaiov ovB' €T€pov Kaiirep airovBa- 
£6vt(dv Kal irdvTa firj^aveo/juevcov 717)09 Ta$ iepo- 
avvav avKac Be iroXKal Kal ev/ieyeOeis Kal 
poial 8% irepi<TK€7ra£6jj,€var ainoi Be Kal firfXeai 
irXelaTai Kal iravToBairooTaTai Kal yjpr)araL' 
avTai B 9 iapwal ttXtjv el dpa 6tyiar r?}9 8k 
dypias vXr)<; ecrl 8pv$ TTTeXea fieXia Kal oaa 
TOiavTa* irevKrj Be Kal eXaTt] Kal ttitvs ovk €<ttiv 
ovBe o\g>9 ovBev evBqBow vypa 8k avTrj xal 
Xeipcov ttoXv 7*779 %Lva)7riKf}<;, &<tt ovBe iroXv 
Xp&VTai avTrj ttXtjv 7T/oo9 Ta viraLQpia. TavTa 

1 Te\4$piov conj. Sch. (in Euboea), c/. 9. 15. 4 ; Tl*\4epiov 
UMVP; napd4viov Ald.G. 

2 Whose rhizome was used for perfumes ; c/. 1. 7. 2 ; de 
odor. 22. 23. 28. 32 ; Dykes, The Genus Iris, p. 237, gives an 
interesting account of the modern uses of * orris-root.' 


Digitized by 


about Oeta Parnassus Pelion Ossa and Telethrion, 1 
and in these parts some say that there is great abund- 
ance ; so also is there in Arcadia and Laconia, for 
these districts too produce medicinal plants. But of 
the aromatic plants none grows in these lands, except 
the iris 2 in Illyria on the shores of the Adriatic ; for 
here it is excellent and far superior to that which 
grows elsewhere ; but in hot places and those which 
face the south the fragrant plants grow, as if by con- 
trast to the medicinal plants. And the warm places 
have also the cypress in greater abundance ; for in- 
stance, Crete Lycia Rhodes, while the prickly cedar 
grows in the Thracian and the Phrygian mountains. 

Of cultivated plants they say that those least 
able to thrive in cold regions are the bay and 
myrtle, especially the myrtle, and they give for 
proof 8 that on Mount Olympus the bay is abundant, 
but the myrtle does not occur at all. In Pontus 
about Panticapaeum neither grows, though they are 
anxious to grow them and take special pains 4 to do 
so for religious purposes. But there are many well 
grown fig-trees and pomegranates, which are given 
shelter; pears and apples are abundant in a great 
variety of forms and are excellent. These are spring- 
fruiting trees, except that they may fruit later here 
than elsewhere. Of wild trees there are oak elm 
manna-ash and the like (while there is no fir silver- 
fir nor Aleppo pine, nor indeed any resinous tree). 
But the wood of such trees 6 in this country is damp 
and much inferior to that of Sinope, so that they do 
not much use it except for outdoor purposes. These 

8 Plin. 16. 137. 

4 Plin., I.e., says that Mithridates made this attempt. 

5 i.e. oak, etc. 


Digitized by 


fiep oiv irepl top Hoptop yj ep rial ye toitols 

4 'Ei/ Be rfi YlpoirovrLhi yuverai Kal fivppivos /ecu 
Bdd>prj iroXKa'Xpv ev to?9 opeaip. icco? S' ewa 

Kal T&P TOITCOP Ihld 0€T€OV 6/CCMTTOL jap €%OV<Tl 

Ta Bia<f>epoPTa f &airep etprjrai, /caret, ras vXa<; ov 
fxovov T<p /3eXrico /cal X ei P w T V V avTtjp ^X £LV dXXa 
/cal T(p <f>epeip f) pui) <j>ep€iv olov 6 fiev Tjjl&Xo? 
eyei /cal 6 Mvaio? "OXv/jlito? iroXv to /cdpvov 
/cal ttjp BioaftdXapop, en Be dpireXop /cal firfXeav 
/cal poav tj Be "I Br) ra fiep ovk e^ei tovtcop tcl 
Be airdvia' irepl Be Ma/ceBoviav /cat top Tliept/cbv 
^OXv/iirop ra fikp cgtl ret 8' ovk eari tovtw ep 
Be rfj EuySota /cal irepl ttjp MayPTjaiap ra fiev 
EiySoiVa iroXXa twp Be aXXcop ovOep* ovBe Btj irepl 
to HeXiop ovBe ra aXXa ra epravda oprj. 
6 Byoa^uv B* earl T6V09 09 e^et /cal o\g)9 ttjp 
pavirTjyrjaLfiov vXrjv* rr)<; pep yap Eu/ooj7rr;9 Bo/cei 
Tct irepl ttjp Ma/ceBoplap /cal oca tt}9 QpaKrjs /cal 
irepl '\raXlap' tt)$ Be 'Ao-ta9 tcl t€ ep JZlXlkicl 
/cal tcl ep Xipdoiry /cal 'AfiLacp, ert Be 6 Mvaios 
"OXvfiiro? /cal r) "IBtj itXtjp oi) itoXXtjp* tj yap 
Xvpia /ceBpop exei ical TavTy xpv )V ' TaL *npo<> Ta9 

6 'A\\a /cal tcl <f>iXvBpa ical tcl irapairordfiLa 
Tavd' ofioiw ep fiep yap tw 'ABpiq, irXarrapop ov 
cf>aacv elpai irXfjp irepl to AiofirfBov? iepop* 
airapiap Be* /cal ep 'IrdXia irdarf /calroi iroXXol 
/cal fieydXoi iroTapuol irap d/Mpolv dXX' ovk 

1 See Index. 

2 koL 8<ro : text probably defective, but sense clear. ? koL 

Digitized by 


are the trees of Pontus, or at least of certain districts 
of that country. 

In the land of Propontis myrtle and bay are 
found in many places on the mountains. Perhaps 
however some trees should be put down as special 
to particular places. For each district, as has been 
said, has different trees, differing not only in that the 
same trees occur but of variable quality, but also as 
to producing or not producing some particular tree. 
For instance, Tmolus and the Mysian Olympus have 
the hazel and chestnut 1 in abundance, and also the 
vine apple and pomegranate ; while Mount Ida has 
some of these not at all and others only in small 
quantity ; and in Macedonia and on the Pierian 
Olympus some of these occur, but not others ; and 
in Euboea and Magnesia the sweet chestnut 1 is com- 
mon, but none of the others is found ; nor yet on 
Pelion or the other mountains of that region. 

Again it is only a narrow extent of country which 
produces wood fit for shipbuilding at all, namely in 
Europe the Macedonian region, and certain parts 55 
of Thrace and Italy ; in Asia Cilicia Sinope and 
Amisus, and also the Mysian Olympus, and Mount 
Ida ; but in these parts it is not abundant. For Syria 
has Syrian cedar, and they use this for their galleys. 

The like is true of trees which love water and 
the riverside ; in the Adriatic region they say that 
the plane is not found, except near the Shrine of 
Diomedes, 3 and that it is scarce throughout Italy 4 ; 
yet there are many large rivers in both countries, 
in spite of which the localities do not seem to 

3 On one of the islands of Diomedes, off the coast of 
Apulia ; now called Isole di Tremiti. c/. Plin. 12. 6. 

4 cf. 2. 8. 1 n. 


Digitized by 


€OCK€ <j>epeiv 6 T07T09* iv 'Prjyiq) yovv Aiovvaio? 
TTpeafivrepos 6 rvpavvo? ifyvrevaev iv tc3 irapa- 
8eia<p, at elat vvv iv rq> yvfivaaia), <f>i\oTi/ii]0 cleat, 
ov 8e8vvr)vrai Xaftelv fieyedos, 

1&vioi 8e irSjelaTTjv e%ovat ifKaravov, oi 8k 
irrekeav /cat ireav, oi 8k fivpl/crjv, &airep 6 AX/aos. 
&<tt€ ra fikv roiavra, KaBdirep eXe^OVf T & v tottcov 
I8ta dereov ofioico? ev re rofc ayptois Kal rofc 
rj/juepois. ov firjv aXXa ratf av eii) Kal tovtcov 

€7TL TIVCOV &0T€ BiaKOCfirjdeVTCDV 8l>VaO~6aL T7)V 

X^P av <p€petv, b koX vvv fjvfifialvov op&fiev xal 

€7Tt fft)Ct)I/ ivtCDV Kal <f>VTO)V. 

VI. Meytarrjv 8k 8ia<f>opav airf}? Tf}$ <f>vo~€co<; 
ra>v 8ev8pcov /cat <z7r\a)9 r&v vkrjfidrcov viroXr)- 
irreov f\v Kal irporepov etTrofiev, ort ra fikv eyyaia 
to, S' evvBpa Tvyydvei, KaOdirep r&v ^coaov, Kal t&v 
<j>vT(bv ov /jlovov iv Tofc eXeai Kal rafc Xifivai? 
Kal to£? irorafiol^ yap aXka Kal iv rfj OaXdrry 
<f>verai xal vX^fmra evia ev re rfj efjco Kal 8ev8pa* 
iv fiev yap rfj irepl 97/169 fiLKpairavra ra <f>v6fieva, 
Kal oi8kv virepeypv a>? elirelv T779 OoKclttw iv 
iK€Lvr) 8k xal to, Toiavra Kal wrepexovTa, xal 
erepa 8k fiei^co 8iv8pa. 

Ta fiev oiv irepl r/fias iari rd8e* (fravepwrara 
fiev Kal Koivorara iraaw to re <f)VKO<; xal to 
fiipvov Kal 6a a aXka joiavra' (fravepdoTara 8k Kal 

1 <f>i\oTtfjLfi$e?(rai conj. St. ; (piXoTifxydels MSS ; Plin. 12. 7. 
8 0a\drrris conj. Seal, from G ; i\drris Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


produce this tree. At any rate those which King 
Dionysius the Elder planted at Rhegium in the park, 
and which are now in the grounds of the wrestling 
school and are thought much of, 1 have not been able 
to attain any size. 

Some of these regions however have the plane 
in abundance, and others the elm and willow, others 
the tamarisk, such as the district of Mount Haemus. 
Wherefore such trees we must, as was said, take to 
be peculiar to their districts, whether they are wild 
or cultivated. However it might well be that the 
country should be able to produce some of these 
trees, if they were carefully cultivated : this we do 
in fact find to be the case with some plants, as with 
some animals. 

Of the aquatic plants of the Mediterranean. 

VI. However the greatest difference in the natural 
character itself of trees and of tree-like plants gener- 
ally we must take to be that mentioned already, 
namely, that of plants, as of animals, some belong 
to the earth, some to water. Not only in swamps, 
lakes and rivers, but even in the sea there are some 
tree-like growths, and in the ocean there are even 
trees. In our own sea all the things that grow are 
small, and hardly any of them rise above the sur- 
face 2 ; but in the ocean we find the same kinds 
rising above the surface, and also other larger 

Those found in our own waters are as follows : 
most conspicuous of those which are of general 
occurrence are seaweed 3 oyster-green and the like ; 
most obvious of those peculiar to certain parts are the 
8 Plin. 13. 135. 


Digitized by 


iSicorara Kara tou9 tottov? iXdrrj <rv/cfj Bpv$ 
apnreXos <f)oivi!j. tovtcov Be ra p*v irpoayeia 
ra Be irbvTia ra B* dpxjyoTepcov t&v tott&v kolvol. 
kclI tcl pev iroXveiBrj, KaOdrrep to <f>v/co<;, tcl Bk 
piav ISeav eypvTa. tov yap <j>vKov<; to p,ev iari 
7rXaTv<j>vXXov TaivioeiBes y^ptopji irowBes %X 0V > 
o St) /col irpdaov KaXoval rives, oi Be ^coarijpa* 
pi£av Be e^et Baaelav egcoOev evBoOev Be XeirvprnBrj, 
fjLa/cpctv Be €7riei/c&<; Kal evwaxfj irapofioiav roi<; 

To Be Tpixo<f>vXXjov, &cnrep to pdpaOov, ov 
TroobBe*; d\V e^co^pov ovSe eyov KavXbv a\V 
bpOov 7Tft)9 ev avj(p' <j>veT(u' oe tovto eirl t&v 
oarpaKtov /ecu r&v Xtdcov, ovj( &<rirep Odrepov 
TT/oo? Tjj yf)' irpoayeia apxfrco, Kal to /jlcv 
Tpix6<j>vXXov 7r/oo? airy tt} yfj, iroXXaKi? Be wairep 
eTTitcXv&TCU fiovov V7r6 TYf? OaXaTTr)?, Odrepov Be 


riverac Be ev fiev rrj efjco rfj irepl *Hpa/e\eov<; 
arrjXas davpaarov ti to fieyedo?, a>9 <f>aai, teal to 
7r\aTO? p,el£ov <£>9 iraXaicrTiaiov. (freperai Bk 
tovto eh Tr)v eaeo ddXarrav a pa to5 py> t& 
efjcoOev Kal xaXovaiv uvto irpdaov ev tclvttj o 
ev TiaL T07roi<; &gt eirdvw tov 6p,$aXov. XeyeTai 
Be eireTetov elvcu /ecu fyveaQai puev tov 97/009 
XrjyovTOS, d/cpA^eiv Be tov Oepovs, tov pATOirdopov 
Be ()>0lv€LV, lecvra Be tov yeip.&va airoXXwOai Kal 
eKiriTTTeiv. diravTa Be Kal TaXXa to, <j>v6p,eva 
Xeipeo Kal dpuavpoTepa yiveadai tov ^€tyw!)i/09. 

1 See Index : trvierj, tipvs, etc. 

2 raivioettihs conj. Dalec. ; rcTavoeihls UP 2 Ald.H.; rh rtvo- 
ctfcs MV. 8 cf. Diosc. 4. 99 ; Plin. 13. 136. 


Digitized by 


sea-plants called ' fir ' 'fig' 'oak* 'vine' 'palm/ 1 
Of these some are found close to land, others 
in the deep sea, others equally in both positions. 
And some have many forms, as seaweed, some but 
one. Thus of seaweed there is the broad-leaved 
kind, riband-like 2 and green in colour, which some 
call ' green-weed' and others ' girdle-weed.' This 
has a root which on the outside is shaggy, but the 
inner part is made of several coats, and it is fairly 
long and stout, like kromyogeteion (a kind of onion). 

3 Another kind has hair-like leaves like fennel, 
and is not green but pale yellow ; nor has it a stalk, 
but it is, as it were, erect in itself ; this grows on 
oyster-shells and stones, not, like the other, attached 
to the bottom ; but both are plants of the shore, 
and the hair-leaved kind grows close to land, and 
sometimes is merely washed over by the sea 4 ; while 
the other is found further out. 

Again in the ocean about the pillars of Heracles 
there is a kind 5 of marvellous size, they say, which 
is larger, about a palmsbreadth. 6 This is carried into 
the inner sea along with the current from the outer 
sea, and they call it e sea-leek ' (riband-weed) ; 
and in this sea in some parts it grows higher than 
a man's waist. It is said to be annual and to come 
up at the end of spring, and to be at its best in 
summer, and to wither in autumn, while in winter it 
perishes and is thrown up on shore. Also, they say, 
all the other plants of the sea become weaker and 
feebler in winter. These then are, one may say, the 

4 i.e. grows above low water mark. 
8 See Index : Qvkos (2). 

6 i.e. the 'leaf: the comparison is doubtless with rh 
vKarby §2 ; as UMVAld.; *i W. after Sch.'s conj. 

33 1 

Digitized by 


ravra fikv ovv olov rrpdayeia ire^L ye rrjv 
OdXarrav. to Bk ttovtlov <f>vKO$ h ol airoyyiel^ 
avaKoXvfi^&aL rreXdyiov. 

Kal ev Kprjrr} Bk <j>verai 717)09 rf) yfj €7rl r&v 
irerp&v irXelarov Kal KaXXiarov cS fidirrovaw ov 
jliovov ras Tcuvia? dXXd Kal epia Kal Ifidria* Kal 
€G>9 hv rj rrpoafyaros fj fia^i], iroXv KaXXioov fj 
'Xpoa t?}? rropfyvpav yLverai S* ev rfj irpoaftopptp 
Kal irXelov Kal KaXXcov, &<iirep at airoyyial Kal 
aXXa roiavra. 

"AXXo 8* early ofioiov rfj dypdyarer Kal yap to 
<j>vXXov rrapairX^aiov eyei Kal rrjv pi^av yova- 
rdoBrj Kal fjuaxpav Kal ire^VKvlav irXayiav, wairep 
f) rrj? dypwariBov e^ei Bk Kal KavXbv KaXapbcoBt], 
KaOdirep fj asypaxrTW fieyedei Bk eXarrov ttoXv 

rov <f>VKOV<;, 

"AUo Bk to fipvov, h <j>vXXov fikv e%e* iro&Bes 
rfj xpoa, irXarv ok Kal ovk dvofioiov Tat? OpiBa- 
Kivais, ttXtjv pvriBwBearepov Kal &<rirep avv- 
eo-iraafiivov. KavXov 8k ovk ey^ei) aXX airo /jlicls 
dp^rjs 7rXeL<o ra roiavra Kal iraXiv air aXXr/9* 
<j>verai Be eirl r&v XlOcdv ra roiavra 7rpo? rj) yfj 
Kal r&v oarpaKcov. Kal ra fikv eXdrrw ayeBbv 
ravr eariv. 

'H Be Bpvs Kal f) iXdrtf rrapdyeioi fikv dpxpco* 
fyvovrai B y iirl 7udoi<; Kal oarpaKOis ptfa9 fikv ovk 
e^pvaai, irpoaire^VKviai Bk &airep ai Xe7rdBe$. 
dfJL<f)6repai fikv olov aapKo^vXXa* irpo/irfKiarepov 
Bk to <f>vXXov iroXv Kal irayyrepov rf)<; eXarrj^ 

1 Plin. 13. 136, cf. 32. 22 ; Diosc. 4. 99. 

1 litmus ; see Index, Qvkos (5). 

3 Plin. I.e. ; grass- wrack, see Index, (pvnos (6). 

33 2 

Digitized by 


sea-plants which are found near* the shore. But the 
' seaweed of ocean/ which is dived for by the 
sponge-fishers, belongs to the open sea. 

1 In Crete there is an abundant and luxuriant 
growth 2 on the rocks close to land, with which they 
dye not only their ribbons, but also wool and 
clothes. And, as long as the dye is fresh, the 
colour is far more beautiful than the purple dye ; 
it occurs on the north coast in greater abundance 
and fairer, as do the sponges and other such things. 

8 There is another kind like dog's-tooth grass ; 
the leaf is very like, the root is jointed and long, 
and grows out sideways, like that of that plant; it 
has also a reedy stalk like the same plant, and in 
size it is much smaller than ordinary seaweed. 

4 Another kind is the oyster-green, which has a 
leaf green in colour, but broad and not unlike 
lettuce leaves ; but it is more wrinkled 5 and as it 
were crumpled. It has no stalk, but from a single 
starting-point grow many of the kind, and again 
from another starting-point. These things grow on 
stones close to land and on oyster-shells. These 
are about all the smaller kinds. 

6 The ' sea-oak ' and ' sea-fir ' both belong to the 
shore ; they grow on stones and oyster-shells, having 
no roots, but being attached to them like limpets. 7 
Both have more or less fleshy leaves ; but the leaf 
of the f fir ' grows much longer and stouter, and is 8 

4 Plin. 13. 137 ; 27. 56 ; fytov conj. Seal, from G and Plin. 
I.e.; &6t P vov CJAld.H. 

8 f>vTih<ate<rr*pov conj. Seal, from G and Plin. I.e.; xpv<riwB4- 
arepov Aid. ; ^vcriafoVrepov mBas. 

6 Plin. I.e. 7 Aid.; \o*dtes W. with UMV. 

8 irpO/ULTlKtiTTCpOV . . . TttQvKt KOi COnj. W. J TTpOfJL. 5f rb <f>v\\OV 

*axb Ktd irax^epov rrjs iKdrw vo\v ical Aid. 


Digitized by 


7T€(j>VK€ Kal OVK dvoflOLOV TO*9 T&V OaTTpLCOV Xo/&H9, 

koTXov 8* evBoOev /cat oiBev e^pv iv avrols* to Be 
Tf)9 8/W09 XeiTTOV Kal /ivpifcaySeaTepov Xp&fJLO, 8' 
hrnropfyvpov afJL(j>OLv. 7) B\ oXt} floppy tt}<; fiev 
eXdrrj^ 6p0tf Kal avrr}$ Kal t&v aKpejiovcov, tt)? Be 
8/OV09 aKoXicorepa Kal fidXXov eyovcra ttXchw 
yiverai Be apxjxo Kal iroXvKavXa Kai <fiovoKavXa f > 
fjiovoKavKorepov Be rj ixdrr)' Ta9 Be a,Kpe/AOvtKa$ 
diro^vaei? rj fiev iXdrr) /iaKpa$ e^ei Kal evOeia? 
Kal p,avd$, y Be Bpvs /3pa^VTepa<; Kai o-KoXMorepa? 
Kal irvKvorepas. to 8' oXov fieyeOos dfi<j>OT€p(ov 
d>? irvytovialov rj jiiKpov virepatpov, fiel^ov Be d>9 
a7r\a>9 elirelv to tt/9 eXdrt^. xPV at l X0V ^ V &pv? 
eh /3a<j>r)v iplcov rals yvvait*Cv. inl fiev tg>v 
aKpepLOvav irpoo-rjpTrjfjiiva ra>v oarpaKoBepficov 
£co(ov evia* Kal Karco Bk wpo? avr& rq> /cavXw 
irepnrefyvKOTtov tiv&v y oX<p, iv tovtoi? BeBvKores 
ovivvoi re Kal aXX' arra Kal to o/jloiov ttoXvttoBi. 

Tavra fiev oiv trpbayeia Kal paBia 0€(oprf0r)var 
<j>aal Be rives Kal aXXrjv Bpvv eivai irovriav f) Kal 
Kapirbv <f)€pei t Kal r) fidXavos avrr)<; XPV^W 
tov$ Be (TKivOov? xal KoXvfi^rjrds Xeyeiv on Kal 
erepai fieydXai rives rois fieyedeaiv eirjo-av. 

f H Be afiireXos dficfrorepwae ytverar koI yap 
7T009 rfj yrj Kal irovTia* fiei^cj 8* fyei Kal ra 
<j>vXXa xai ra KXtfjiara Kal rov Kapirbv fj 

C H Bk avKt) a<j>vXXos fiev rep Be fieyeOet, ov 
fieydXrj, yjp&fia Be rov <f>Xoiov <f>oiviKOvv. 

1 aitrots Ald.H.; avrf conj. W. 

2 I have inserted fiov6icav\a. 


Digitized by 


not unlike the pods of pulses, but is hollow inside 
and contains nothing in the 'pods.' 1 That of the 
* oak ' is slender and more like the tamarisk ; the 
colour of both is purplish. The whole shape of the 
tf fir ' is erect, both as to the stem and the branches, 
but that of the ' oak ' is less straight and the plant is 
broader. Both are found both with many stems and 
with one, 2 but the 'fir* is more apt to have a single 
stem. The branchlike outgrowths in the f fir ' are 
long straight and spreading, while in the ' oak ' they 
are shorter less straight and closer. The whole size 
of either is about a cubit or rather more, but in 
general that of the € fir ' is the longer. The € oak ' 
is useful to women for dyeing wool. To the branches 
are attached certain creatures with shells, and below 
they are also found attached to the stem itself, which 
in some cases they completely cover ; 3 and among 
these are found millepedes and other such creatures, 
including the one which resembles a cuttlefish. 

These plants occur close to land and are easy to 
observe ; but some report 4 that there is another ' sea 
oak' which even bears fruit and has a useful c acorn,' 
and that the sponge fishers 5 and divers told them 
that there were other large kinds. 

6 The ' sea-vine ' grows under both conditions, both 
close to land and in the deep sea ; but the deep sea 
form has larger leaves branches and fruit. 

7 The ' sea-fig ' is leafless and not of large size, and 
the colour of the bark is red. 

8 rivwv 7* 8A<jp conj. W. ; rivutv $\a>v Aid. ; rivSov ye $\tav U ; 
text uncertain : the next clause has no connecting particle. 

4 Plin. 13. 137. 

8 (tkIvBous, a vox nihili : perhaps conceals a proper name, 
e.g. 2iK*\tKovs ; aicoyyeis conj. St. 
6 Plin. 13. 138. ' Plin. I.e. 


Digitized by 


10 f O he <polvL^ Igti puev itovtlov yS/oa^i/o-TeXe^e? 
he a<f)6hpa, /cal vxehbv evdelai ai ifc<f)v<T€i^ t&v 
pdfthwv zeal /cdreoOev ov kvk\cd avrai, KaOdirep 
t&v pdfthwv ai a/cpe/moves, aU' axrav ev irXdrei 
Kara fiLav avve^eh, oXiya^ov Be /ecu diraX- 
Xdrrovaai. t&v he pdfthcov rj t&v d*iro<\>vae(ov 


aicavO&v <f>vXXoc<; t&v a/eavi/e&v, olov aoyteoi? 
teal to?9 toiovtols, irXrjv opOal Kal ov%, &<Tirep 
ifceiva, Trepi/ce/cXao-fievai Kal to <pvXXov eypvaai 
Bta/Se/SpcofJLevov vtto Tt)<; aXpuq^ eirel to ye hi 
oXov rj/eeiv tov fieaov ye KavXbv /cat rj aXXrj oyfrc<; 
irapairX'qaLa. to he ^p&fjua teal tovtcov /ecu t&v 
kclv\&v zeal oXov tov <^vtov iffepvOpov T€ afyohpa 
Kal <f)OLvi/covv. 

Kal tcl fjuev ev Tjjhe Ttj OaXaTTtj ToaavTa eaTiv. 
rj yap airoyyia /cal ai dirXvaLai /caXovfievai Kal 
et tl toiovtov eTepav exec (frvo-iv. 

VII. 'Ev he Tjj e£a> tjj irepl 'Hpa/eXiov? aTijXas 
to T€ irpdaov, &airep eiprfTai, <j>veTai /cal tcl 
diroXiOovfieva TavTa, olov Ov/ia zeal tcl hafyvoeihrj 
Kal tcl aXXa. t^9 he ipvOpa? KaXovfievrjs ev t{} 
'Apa/Sia /xiKpbv eirdveo Kotttov ev fiev Tjj yjj 

1 K<lra)0€v . . , airaWdrrovaai probably beyond certain re- 
storation : I have added ko\ before tcartadev (from G), altered 
kvk\q)$€v to ku/cA.$>, put a stop before ko\ k«£t»0€j/, and restored 
airaWdrrovaai (Ald.H.). 2 c/. 6. 4. 8 ; 7. 8. 3. 

8 ir€pi/f€«Aa<r/i^o, i.e. towards the ground, c/. Diosc. 3. 
68 and 69, where Plin. (27. 13) renders (<pv\\a) vvoirfpiKXarai 
ad terrain in/racta. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vi. io-vn. i 

The ' sea-palm* is a deep-sea plant, but with a 
very short stem, and the branches which spring from 
it are almost straight; and these under water are 
not set all round the stem, like the twigs which grow 
from the branches, but extend, as it were, quite 
flat in one direction, and are uniform ; though 
occasionally they are irregular. 1 The character of 
these branches or outgrowths to some extent re- 
sembles the leaves of thistle-like spinous plants, 
such as the sow-thistles 2 and the like, except that 
they are straight and not bent over 8 like these, 
and have their leaves eaten away by the brine ; in 
the fact that the central stalk 4 at least runs through 
the whole, they resemble these, and so does the 
general appearance. The colour both of the branches 
and of the stalks and of the plant as a whole is a 
deep red or scarlet. 

Such are the plants found in this sea. For sponges 
and what are called aplysiai 5 and such-like growths 
are of a different character. 

Of the aquatic plants of the ( outer sea 1 (i.e. Atlantic , Persian 
Gulf, etc.). 

VII. In the outer sea near the pillars of Heracles 
grows the e sea-leek/ as has been said 6 ; also the 
well known 7 plants which turn to stone, as thyma, 
the plants like the bay and others. And in the 
sea called the Red Sea 8 a little above Coptos 9 

4 i.e. midrib. 

5 Some kind of sponge. &ir\v<riai conj. R. Const. ; TrXtaiai 
UAld. ; irXvaicu M ; vKovvlai V. 6 4. 6. 4. 

7 ravra: cf. 3. 7. 3 ; 3. 18. 11. 

8 Plin. 13. 139. 

9 k6vtqv conj. Seal. ; k6tov MV; k6\itov UAld.; Capto G 
and Plin. I.e. 


VOL. I. Z 

Digitized by 


BevBpov ovBev (j>verai irXr)v T779 d/cdv0r)<; rr)<; 
BiyJrdBos KaKovjjbeirqf;' airavLa Bk teal avrrj Bid ret 
/eav/juara teal rrjv dvvBpiav ov% vei yap aXV r) 
Bi ir&v t€tt dpcov r) irevre fcal Tore Xd/Spco? fcal 
iir oXiyov ^povov. 

2 'Ez; B% rj} OaXdrTrj (frverai, fcaXovai B* avra 
Bdxjivrjv fcal ikdav. eari Be r) puev Bd<f>vr) 6/aolcl 
rrj dpia r) Be iXda <rf) eXdq> rq> <j>vXX(p* icapirov 
Be eye 1 r) ikda TrapairXrjaiov rah iXdais* d^>Lr\<ri 
Be zeal Bdtcpvov, eg ov oi larpol <f>dpfxaKOv evaiyuov 
avvTiOeaaiu yiverai acfroBpa dyaOov. orav Be 
vBara TrXeuco yevrjrai, fiv/crjre? <j>vovrai irpo? rfj 
OaXdrrr) /card riva tottov, ovtoi Be diroXiOovvTat, 
virb rod r)Xiov. r) Bk OdXarra OrjpiwBrjs* irXei- 
o-toi/9 Bk e%et tov? tcapxapLa*;, &are fir) eivai 

'Ez/ B& rtp Ko\ir(p T(p fca\ovfiev<p 'Hpwcov, i<f> J ov 
Kara/SaLvovaLV oi if; Alyvirrov, fyverai fiev Bd<f>vrj 
re Kal eXda teal Ov/jlov, ov firjv *)(X(Dpd ye dXXa 
Xi0o€iBrj Ta virepeyovra t?}? OaXdrrr]*;, ofioia Be 
zeal rot? <j>vXXoi<; /cat to?9 fSXaarols rofc xX<opoi<>. 
ev Be T(p 0vfi(p Kal to rov avdovs yjp&p.a BidBrjXov 
(haav firjiTG) reXew egrjvOrjfcos. firjter) Be r&v 
BepBpv<j>LG)v oaov €69 rpei? irrj^ei^. 

3 O/ Be, ore dvdirXovs rjv r&v el; J lvB&v diroara- 
XevTcvv virb *AXef;dvBpov, rd ev rfj OaXdrry 
<j>v6fieva, p>expi ov fiev hv rj ev r& vypfy, %p&fid 
<j)aaiv eyeiv o/aoiov to?9 (pvtciois, oirorav 8' if;- 

1 cf. Strabo 16. 1. 147. 2 See Index. 

3 The name of a tree seems to have dropped out : I have 
inserted ttj 4\dq. : cf. reus i\dais below. Bretzl suggests itieq. 


Digitized by 


in Arabia there grows on the land no tree except 
that called the ' thirsty* acacia, and even this is 
scarce by reason of the heat and the lack of water ; 
for it never rains except at intervals of four or five 
years, and then the rain comes down heavily and is 
soon over. 

1 But there are plants in the sea, which they call 
f bay ' and ' olive* (white mangrove 2 ). In foliage 
the s bay ' is like the aria (holm-oak), the ' olive ' 
like the real olive. 8 The latter has a fruit like olives, 
and it also discharges a gum, 4 from which the 
physicians 4 compound a drug 5 for stanching blood, 
which is extremely effective. And when there is 
more rain than usual, mushrooms grow in a certain 
place close to the sea, which are turned to stone by 
the sun. The sea is full of beasts, and produces 
sharks 6 in great numbers, so that diving is 

In the gulf called ' the Gulf of the Heroes/ 7 
to which the Egyptians go down, there grow a ' bay,' 
an ' olive,' and a ' thyme ' ; these however are not 
green, but like stones so far as they project above 
the sea, but in leaves and shoots they are like their 
green namesakes. In the ' thyme ' the colour of the 
flower is also conspicuous, looking as though the 
flower had not yet completely developed. These 
treelike growths are about three cubits in height. 

8 Now some, referring to the occasion when there 
was an expedition of those returning from India sent 
out by Alexander, report that the plants which grow in 
the sea, so long as they are kept damp, have a colour 

4 cf. Diosc. 1. 105 and 106. 

9 cf. Athen. 4. 83 ; Plin. 12. 77. 

« Plin. 13. 139. 7 cf. 9. 4. 4. 8 Plin. 13. 140. 

Digitized by 


eveyOevra reOfj 777)09 rbv rfkiov, iv okiycp XP° V( P 
igofioiovaOcu rq> a\L (frveaOai B% fcal a^ouvov^ 
XiOuvovs irap* avrrjv rrjv OdXarrav, 069 ovBeU &v 
BiayvoLr) rfj oyjrei 717)09 to £9 d\r)0ivov<;. Oavfia- 
aiooTepov Be ri rovrov Xeyovar <j)V€<r0cu yap 
BevBpv<j)i arret, rb p,ev xp&pa eypvra opoiov 
/cepari y8oo9 T0Z9 Be o£b*9 rpayeo* koX air a/cpov 
irvppd* ravra Be OpaveaOai fiev el avy/cXarrj t*9* 
etc Be rovrcov irvpl i/xfiaWofieva, /caOdirep rbv 
auBrjpov, Bidirvpa yivo/neva rraXiv orav arroyfrv- 
yoiro /caOlaraaOai /ecu rrjv avrrjv yjpoav Xafi- 

4 'Ei> Be rats vrjGois rals virb 7779 7r\r)p,p,vpLBo<; 
KaraXafifiavofiivais BevBpa p,eyd\a irefyvicevai 
rfKiicai irXdravot teal alyeipoi ai fieyiarcu* <rvp,- 
fiaivetv Be, 06* 7) ir\rjpLp,vp\<; iirekOoi, ra fjbkv aWa 
Karcucpvirreo-Bai oka, r&v Be pueyiarcov vrrepe^eiv 
to £9 fckdBovs, eg &v rd rrpvp^vrjaia dvdirreiv, el0* 
ore rrdkiv apfirwris yivoiro i/c r&v piffiv. e^eiv 
he rb BevBpov <f>vk\ov fiev opoiov rfj Bdcf>vrj, avBos 
Be to?9 ?<M9 fcal r<p xpaapbari teal rfj bajifj, /capirbv 
Be rfk'iKov ekda leal rovrov evd>Br) a<j)6Bpa' zeal ra 
fiev <j>vkka ov/c dirofidXkeiv, rb Be avQos real rbv 
/capirbv a pa rtp <j)0ivo7r<opep yiveaOai, rov Be ea/009 

6 w A\\a B* iv avrfj rfj Oakdrrrj ire<j>VKevai, del- 
<fnik\a p,ev rbv Be /capirbv opoiov eyeiv to?9 

Tlejzl Be* rrjv TlepaiBa rrjv Kara rrjv JZapfiavlav, 
/caO 1 o r) 7r\r)fip,vpl$ yLverai, BivBpa earlv ev/neyeOrj 
o/ioia rfj dvBpd'tfkrj zeal rfj fiop<f>fj zeal Tofc <f>vkkow 
/capirbv Be e%e* irokvv opjoiov r<2 y^poapxiri rals 


Digitized by 


like sea-weeds, but that when they are taken out and 
put in the sun, they shortly become like salt. They 
also say that rushes of stone grow close to the sea, 
which none could distinguish at sight from real 
rushes. They also report a more marvellous thing 
than this ; they say that there are certain tree-like 
growths which in colour resemble an ox-horn, but 
whose branches are rough, and red at the tip ; these 
break if they are doubled up, and some of them, if 
they are cast on a fire, become red-hot like iron, 
but recover when they cool and assume their original 

1 On the islands which get covered by the tide they 
say that great trees 2 grow, as big as planes or the 
tallest poplars, and that it came to pass that, when 
the tide 8 came up, while the other things were 
entirely buried, the branches of the biggest trees 
projected and they fastened the stern cables to them, 
and then, when the tide ebbed again, fastened them 
to the roots. And that the tree has a leaf like that 
of the bay, and a flower like gilliflowers in colour and 
smell, and a fruit the size of that of the olive, which 
is also very fragrant. And that it does not shed its 
leaves, and that the flower and the fruit form to- 
gether in autumn and are shed in spring. 

4 Also they say there are plants which actually 
grow in the sea, which are evergreen and have a fruit 
like lupins. 

5 In Persia in the Carmanian district, where the tide 
is felt, there are trees 6 of fair size like the andrachne 
in shape and in leaves ; and they bear much fruit like 

1 Plin. 13. 141. 

2 Mangroves. See Index App. (12). 

3 cf. Arr. Anab. 6. 22. 6. 

* Plin. I.e. Index App. (13). 5 Plin. 12. 37. 
8 White mangroves. Index App. (14). 

Digitized by 


afivySdkai? egcoOev, to S* «>to9 avveXLTTerat, 
teaddwep o-vvrjpTrj/xevov iraaiv. vTro&ifipwTcu he 
ravra ra hivhpa irdvra Kara fieaov vtto rr}? 
OakaTTrj? zeal €<nr)fc€v vtto tg>v pi^&v, &airep 
ttoKvttow;. orav yap r) a/jurcon? yevryrai Oecopeiv 

6 icTiv. vheop he* oX,a>9 ovtc eanv ev rq> tottq* Kara- 
\elirovTCU he Tives hidopvye? hi &v hiairXeovo-w 
avTai 6° elai OaXdrrr)^ a> real hrfXov oiovraL rives 
otl Tpe<j>ovrat tclvtt) /cat ov tc5 vhari, irXrjv et ti 
tcu<; pifcai? ex tt}<; 7^9 ek/covaiv. evXoyov he teal 
tovS* dXfjLVpbv elvar zeal yap ovhe teara fidOov? 
ai pi^ai. to be oXov ev to yevo$ eivai tojv t ev 
Trj OaXaTTy <f>vo/j,ev(t)v zeal tojv ev rfj yf} vtto t^9 
7r\7)fifivpiho<; /earaXa/iLftavo/iievoov /cat ra fiev ev 
rfj OaXaTTy fii/cpa fcal <pv/cd)hr) <pcuv6/j£va, ra S* 
ev rrj yf} /neydXa fcal xXoypa teal avOos evohfiov 
fyovTa, fcapTTOv hk olov Oepfio?. 

7 'Ez/ TvXq> he Trj vrjatp, /eeiTai S* avTrj ev T(p 
J Apa/3l(p KoXirtp, tcl fiiev irpbs ea> togovto TrXr)0o<; 
elvai <f)aai hevhpwv 6V i/c/Saivei rj 7rXr}fjL/ivpU 
&GT dirco^vp&aOai. irdvTa he TavTa fieyeOr) fiev 
e%eiv rjXifca av/crj, to he avOo? virepfiaXXov ttj 
evephua, fcapirbv he* d/3po)Tov opuoiov tt) oyjrei T<p 
Oepfitp. <f>epeiv he ttjv vfjaov teal tcl hevopa tcl 
epco(j>6pa iroXXd. TavTa he <f>vXXov ph> e^eiv 
irapofioiov Trj djj,TreX<p irXrjv fii/cpov, tcapirbv hk 
ovheva <f>ep€t,v ev cS he to epiov rfkitcov fjuijXov 
eapivbv av/Afiefiv/eo?' OTav he oopalov rj, eKireTav- 

1 Plin. I.e. Sicco litore radicibus nudis polyporum modo 
complexae steriles arenas aspectantur : he appears to have 
had a fuller text. 


Digitized by 


in colour to almonds on the outside, but the inside 
is coiled up as though the kernels were all united. 
1 These trees are all eaten away up to the middle by 
the sea and are held up by their roots, so that they 
look like a cuttle-fish. For one may see this at 
ebb-tide. And there is no rain at all in the district, 
but certain channels are left, along which they sail, 
and which are part of the sea. Which, some think, 
makes it plain that the trees derive nourishment from 
the sea and not from fresh water, except what they 
draw up with their roots from the land. And it is 
reasonable to suppose that this too is brackish ; for 
the roots do not run to any depth. In general they 
say that the trees which grow in the sea and those 
which grow on the land and are overtaken by the 
tide are of the. same kind, and that those which grow 
in the sea are small and look like seaweed, while 
those that grow 2 on land are large and green and 
have a fragrant flower and a fruit like a lupin. 

In the island of Tylos, 8 which is situated in the 
Arabian gulf, 4 they say that on the east side there is 
such a number of trees when the tide goes out that 
they make a regular fence. All these are in size 
as large as a fig-tree, the flower is exceedingly 
fragrant, and the fruit, which is not edible, is like in 
appearance to the lupin. They say that the island 
also produces the ' wool-bearing ' tree (cotton-plant) 
in abundance. This has a leaf like that of the vine, 
but small, and bears no fruit ; but the vessel in which 
the c wool ' is contained is as large as a spring apple, 

8 <pvKo>ht) <f>atu6ix€va rck 5' iv conj. W.; <f>vK. Qv. 5' iv MVAld.; 
U has <pep6/xcva (?). 
8 c/. 5. 4. 6 ; Plin. 12. 38 and 39 ; modern name Bahrein. 
4 i.e. Persian Gulf. 


Digitized by 


wa0ai teal ijjeupeiv to epcov, e£ ov t<z9 aivBova? 
v^aivovai, t<z9 fiev evTeXel? t<z9 Be iroXvTeXe- 

8 TLvercu Be tovto Kal iv 'Ii/Sofc, &airep i\e^07}, 
Kal iv 'Apafila. elvai Be aXXa BevBpa to av6o$ 
eyovTa o/ioiov t& XevKotqy, ifKrjv aoBfiov teal Tq> 
fieyedei TeT paifXcuriov t&v icov. /cal erepov Be ri 
BevBpov iro\v<\>vXKov &airep to poBov tovto Be 
ttjv fiev vvKTa vvfifiveiv afia Be t$ ?/\tct> clviovti 
Biolyvua0ac, fiearjfifipLas Be T€\ea>9 BieiTTvxffai, 
irdkw Be t?i<; BeLXrj? avvdyeaOai fcaTa fiiKpbv /cal 
ttjv vvKTa o-vfifiveiv Xeyeiv Be* zeal tou9 iyX *' 
plow otl icadevBei. ylveaBai Be teal <j>oLvt,/ca<; iv 
Tjj vrjaq* teal dfiirekovs /cal TaXka d/cpoBpva Kal 
gvkcl<; ov (frvWoppoovaa?. vBwp Be oipdviov ytve- 
a9ai fiev, oi firjv xprjaOaL ye 7r/0O9 to £9 Kapirov^' 
oXV elvai icprjvas iv Tjj vrja<p 7roWa9, d<f> &v 
TTavTa fipexeiv, b teal av fifyepeiv fiaXkov T(p aLTtp 
Kal to?9 BevBpeaiv. Bi b teal oTav vay tovto €7r- 
a^ievai, Ka8 aire pel KaTairhvvovTas i/eelvo. teal 
Ta fiev iv Tjj egoo daXaTTy BevBpa Ta ye vvv 
T€0€G)pr}fjL€va aveBbv ToaavTa iaTiv. 

VIII. tr £irep Be t&v iv T019 iroTafiol^ Kal Tofc 
eXeai Kal Tafc \lfivai? fieTa TavTa Xcktcov* Tpua 
Be iaTiv eiBrj t&v iv tovtol?, Ta fiev BevBpa tcl S' 

1 itelpciv conj. W.; ifriaipeiv P 2 ; Qalpeiv Aid. 2 4. 5. 8. 
8 Tamarind. See Index App. (15). Plin. 12. 40. 

4 ir\V &0&/XOP conj. H. Steph.; v\elova fopov UMAld. 

5 t# fityedti Kal I conj.; Kal r$ fieytBci UMVP ; /cal om. Aid. 

6 Tamarind also. See Index App. (16). 7 i.e. leaflets. 

8 Ficw laccifera. See Index App. (17). ov <f>v\\oppoov<ras 
conj. W., cf. G and Plin. I.e.; at QvKXoppoovaiv Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


and closed, but when it is ripe, it unfolds and puts 
forth 1 the ' wool/ of which they weave their fabrics, 
some of which are cheap and some very expensive. 

This tree is also found, as was said, 2 in India 
as well as in Arabia. They say that there are other 
trees 3 with a flower like the gilliflower, but scent- 
less 4 and in size 5 four times as large as that flower. 
And that there is another tree 6 with many leaves 7 
like the rose, and that this closes at night, but opens 
at sunrise, and by noon is completely unfolded ; and 
at evening again it closes by degrees and remains 
shut at night, and the natives say that it goes to 
sleep. Also that there are date-palms on the island 
and vines and other fruit-trees, including evergreen 8 
figs. Also that there is water from heaven, but 
that they do not use it for the fruits, but that there 
are many springs on the island, from which they 
water everything, and that this is more beneficial 9 
to the corn and the trees. Wherefore, even when it 
rains, they let this water over the fields, 10 as though 
they were washing away the rain water. Such 
are the trees as so far observed which grow in the 
outer sea. 

Of the plants of rivers, marshes, and lakes, especially in Egypt, 

VIII. Next we must speak of plants which live in 
rivers marshes and lakes. Of these there are three 
classes, trees, plants of ' herbaceous ' 11 character, and 

9 t» koI <rvfi(f)4p€iv conj. Sch.; & teal avn<p4pci Aid.; U has 

10 cf. G. P. 2. 5. 5, where Androsthenes, one of Alexander's 
admirals, is given as the authority for this statement. 

11 The term rh. wokoHtj seems to be given here a narrower 
connotation than usual, in order that t& Kox/u&tiy ma y be 


Digitized by 


&airep TToicoSrj ra he Xoxpuwhr). Xeyeo he Troieohrj 
fjbkv olov to aeXivov to eXeiov KCLL oera cCKXa TOi~ 
clvtcl* Xoxfieohr) he tcaXafiov tevireipov efrXecb v%oi- 
vov /3ovto/jlov, airep axehbv tcoiva iravrcov t&v 
TTOTafi&v teal rdov toiovtcov tottcdv. 

'FiViaxov he teal ftaToi teal iraXiovpoi teal to, 
aXXa hevhpa, teaddirep irea Xevtcr) irXaTavos. tcl 
fiev ovv p>kxpi tov /caratc pvirreaOai, tcl Be & are 
futepbv VTrepkyeiv, twv he ai fiev pityu teal fiitepbv 
tov aTeXivovs ev tg> vyp&, to he aXXo acoua irav 
ef Q). tovto yap /cat iTea teat /cXrjvpa /cat irXaTavtp 
real <f>iXvpa zeal tract Tofc <J)iXvhpoi^ crv^aLvei. 

2 2%eSoz/ he teal Tavra tcocva irdvTeov t&v irora- 
fitav iaTiv iirel /cat ev T<p NeiXeo ireefrv/eev ov 
firjv iroXXrj ye r\ TrXaTavos, aXXa airavieoTepa cti 
Tavrr)<; 7] \evfC7j, irXeiaTrj he fxeXia teal ftovfiiXio?. 
t<ov yovv ev AlyvirTtp (frvofjuevcov to p,ev oXov 
ttoXv Tr\f}06$ iaTiv 777309 to dpiO/xijaaaOai tcaff* 
etcaaTov oi p,rjv aU' 009 ye airXoi)^ elireiv diravTa 
ehetihifjua teal ^vXoi;? eypvTa yXvtcei?. hia<j>epecv 
he hotcel Trj yXvtcvT^Ti teal T<p Tp6<f>ipu p,dXiGTa 
elvai TpLa TavTa, o tc irdirvpo^ teal to tcaXov- 
fievov crdpi teal TpiTov b fivdaiov teaXovcri. 

3 <i>v€Tai he 6 irdirvpos oite ev /3d0ei tov vhaTO? 
oXV oaov ev hvo irfyeaiv, evtaxov he teal ev 
eXaTTOvi. irdyps fiev ovv Trjs ptfo? rjXitcov tcap- 
7T09 X €L P * dvhpbs eipcoo-TOV, firj/eo^ he virep T€- 
TpdirrYxv* <f>v€Tai he virep Tr)<; 7779 avTrj?, irXayua*; 
pi£a<; et9 tov irrjXbv tcaOielaa Xctttcl^ teal irvtcvd?, 
avco he tol>9 irairvpov? teaXovfievovs Tpcycovovs, 

1 r&v yovp k.t.\.: text probably defective; what follows 
appears to relate to rh. troidSri. 


Digitized by 


plants growing in clumps. By ' herbaceous ' I mean 
here such plants as the marsh celery and the like ; 
by c plants growing in clumps ' I mean reeds galin- 
gale pkleo rush sedge — which are common to almost 
all rivers and such situations. 

And in some such places are found brambles 
Christ's thorn and other trees, such as willow abele 
plane. Some of these are water plants to the extent 
of being submerged, while some project a little from 
the water ; of some again the roots and a small part 
of the stem are under water, but the rest of the 
body is altogether above it. This is the case with 
willow alder plane lime, and all water-loving trees. 

These too are common to almost all rivers, for 
they grow even in the Nile. However the plane is 
not abundant by rivers, while the abele is even more 
scarce, and the manna-ash and ash are commonest. 
At any rate of those 1 that grow in Egypt the list is 
too long to enumerate separately ; however, to speak 
generally, they are all edible and have sweet flavours. 
But they differ in sweetness, and we may distinguish 
also three as the most useful for food, namely the 
papyrus, the plant called sari, and the plant which 
they call mnasion. 

2 The papyrus does not grow in deep water, but 
only in a depth of about two cubits, and sometimes 
shallower. The thickness of the root is that of the 
wrist of a stalwart man, and the length above four 
cubits 8 ; it grows above the ground itself, throwing 
down slender matted roots into the mud, and 
producing above the stalks which give it its name 
' papyrus ' ; these are three-cornered and about ten 

8 Plin. 13. 71-73. 

3 rex pdvrixv : Bexa w^x«** MSS. See next note. 


Digitized by 


peyeOo? e!>9 hetea irr^yei^, teoprjv e^ovTas dytpelov 
daffevi] teapirbv he oXco<; oitheva 9 tovtov? 8' dvahl- 
hcoai Kara iroXXa peprj. yjp&vrai he Tat? fxev 
pl£ai$ dvrl £vXcav ov fiovov T<p tedeiv dXXd teal t<o 
(Tfcevrj dXXa iroielv avf&v iravTohaird' iroXv 
yap e^ei to %vXov teal tcaXov. avrb? Be 6 ird- 
irvpos 777)09 irXelara ^prjaipuo^ teal yap irXola 
iroiovaiv i% avTov, teal etc rf)<; /3l/3Xov laria re 
irXeteovaL teal tyiddov? teal iadrjTd riva teal 
(TTpoD/xva^ teal a^pivLa re teal erepa irXeieo. teal 
ifi(f>ave(7TaTa hrj to 19 e£cr> tcl fiiftXia* fidXiara hk 
teal irXeLaTrj fiorjOeia 7r/>o? ttjv rpotprjv air avrov 
yiverai. paa&VTai yap airawes oi ev rfj yoapa 
top irdirvpov teal oapbv teal e<j>0bv teal oVtoV teal 
tov fiev 'xyXbv tear air Lv ova i, to he pdarjpa itcfidX- 
Xovaiv. 6 fiev oiv irdirvpos toiovto? t€ teal rav- 
Ta? irape^erai t<z9 %peta?. yiverat he teal ev 
*%vpla irepl ttjv Xipvrjv ev fj teal 6 tedXapos 6 
eidohr)?' odev teal * AvrLyovos eis rd? vav$ eiroielTO 
rd aypivLa. 

To he adpt (fiverac pev ev tg> vhari irepl rd (tXrj 
teal rd irehLa, iireihdv 6 irora/xb^ direXOrf, pL^av hk 
e^ei atcXrjpdv teal o-vveaTpappevrjv, teal avTrj? 
<j)V€Tai rd aapla teaXovpeva* ravra he prjteo? pev 
(W9 hvo 7Ti/%€t9, 77*0^09 hk rjXuteov 6 hdtCTvXo? 6 
peyas t^9 xeipos* rptycovov he teal tovto, tcaOdirep 
6 irdirvpo?, teal Koprjv €\ov irapairXtjaiov, pa- 
Gtopevot, hk itefidXXovai teal tovto to pdarj/jua, tt) 
pity he oi aihrjpovpyol yjp&vTav top ydp dvdpatea 
iroiei xpV aTOP ro cteXrjpbv elvai to £vXov. 

To ok pvdaiov iroi&hes eaTiv, &>oV ovhepLav 
irapeyeTai yjpeiav irXrjv ttjv eh Tpo<j)7]v. 


Digitized by 


cubits 1 long, having a plume which is useless and 
weak, and no fruit whatever ; and these stalks the 
plant sends up at many points. They use the roots 
instead of wood, not only for burning, but also for 
making a great variety of articles ; for the wood is 
abundant and good. The ' papyrus ' itself 2 is useful 
for many purposes ; for they make boats from it, 
and from the rind they weave sails mats a kind of 
raiment coverlets ropes and many other things. 
Most familiar to foreigners are the papyrus-rolls 
made of it ; but above all the plant also is of very 
great use in the way of food. 8 For all the natives 
chew the papyrus both raw boiled and roasted ; they 
swallow the juice and spit out the quid. Such is 
the papyrus and such its uses. It grows also in 
Syria about the lake in which grows also sweet- 
flag ; and Antigonus made of it the cables for his 

4 The sari grows in the water in marshes and 
plains, when the river has left them ; it has a hard 
twisted root, and from it grow what they call the 
saria 6 ; these are about two cubits long and as 
thick as a man's thumb ; this stalk too is three- 
cornered, like the papyrus, and has similar foliage. 
This also they chew, spitting out the quid ; and 
smiths use the root, for it makes excellent charcoal, 
because the wood is hard. 

Mnasio7i is herbaceous, so that it has no use except 
for food. 

1 detect wlix €ts '• T€Tpaw^x ei * MSS. The two numbers seem 
to have changed places (Bartels ap. Sen. ). cf. Plin. I.e. 

2 i.e. the stalk. 

8 cf. Diod. 1. 80. 4 Plin. 13. 128. 

6 i.e. stalks, like those of the papyrus. 


Digitized by 


Kai Tct jjb€v yXvKVTTjri 8ia<j)€povTa ravTa iari. 
<f>v€Tcu 8k teal ercpov iv Tofc eXecri /cat rals XipL- 
vai? b ov crvvdiTTei rfj yfj, ttjv pukv <j>v<riv o/jloiov 
to?9 icplvois, iroXv^vXXoTepov 8k fcai Trap aXXrfXa 
ra cfyvXXa /caOdirep iv 8i(rT0ij(ia' y^&pa 8k ^A,g>- 
pov e%€t <r<j)68pa. yjp&VTai 8k oi larpol 777309 re 
ra yvvaifcela avrq> zeal 717)09 Ta Kardy/Jbara. 
7 [Tavra 8k yiverai iv rq> irorap,^ cl fifj /00O9 
ige&epev avp,fialvei he &are teal airo&epeaOar 
erepa air avToyv irXetco.} 

f O Be Kvcifios <j)V€Tai p*v iv rofc eXeat /cal Xip,- 
vai$, /cavXb? 8k avrov p,rjico<; pukv 6 pa/cpoTaTO? 

€19 T€TTapa$ 7T^6A9, 7Ta^09 8k 8aKTvXiaiO<; , 

ofjioio? 8k KaXdjjb(p p,aXa/eq> ayovdra). 8ia<f>v(T€L<; 
8k ev8o0ev €X €t oXov 8ieiXr]p,peva<} opoias to*9 
fcrjpLow iirl Tovrtp 8k rj /ccoSva, irapopoia a^TjKLcp 

7T€pK^€p€l, Ko\ iv €Ka(TT(p T&V KVTTap(OV KVapbO^ 

fiiKpov virepai^cov avTrjs, irXrjOo^ 8k oi irXelaTOi 
rptd/covTa, to 8k avOos 8nrXdaiov rj prjKwvo*;, 
XP&fia 8k oixolov p68<p Kara/copes* iirdvo) 8k rod 
v8aro<; 17 K(o8va. irapa^verai 8k <pvXXa pueydXa 
Trap* eKaarov t&v /cvdpucov, &v vaa ra peyedrj 
Trerdaq* ©erraXi/cfj rbv avrbv expvra /cavXbv r<p 
t&v Kvdpxov. awTptyavri 6° efcaarov t&v xvd- 
ficvv <j)avep6v iaTL to iriKpbv avveaTpappevov, e£ 

1 Ottelia cUismoeides. See Index App. (18). 

2 tout a . . . ir\eiw conj. VV. after Sch.; I have also trans- 
posed the two sentences, after Sch. The whole passage in [ ] 
(which is omitted by G) is apparently either an interpolation 
or defective, aijixatvei &€ &<rir€p koI avoQepeadai' %repa 8e iir' 
avruv ra ir\ua' Tavra 5« yivcrai iv r$ irora/iy* ei fify 6 (>ovs 
4^4<f>ep€y Aid. ; so also U, but abr&v ir\*lo». 


Digitized by 


Such are the plants which excel in sweetness of 
taste. There is also another plant 1 which grows in 
the marshes and lakes, but which does not take hold 
of the ground ; in character it is like a lily, but it is 
more leafy, and has its leaves opposite to one 
another, as it were in a double row ; the colour is a 
deep green. Physicians use it for the complaints of 
women and for fractures. 

Now these plants grow in the river, unless the 
stream has thrown them up on land ; it sometimes 
happens that they are borne down the stream, and 
that then other plants grow from them. 2 

3 But the ' Egyptian bean ' grows in the marshes 
and lakes ; the length of its stalk at longest is four 
cubits, it is as thick as a man's finger, and resembles 
a pliant 4 reed without joints. Inside it has tubes 
which run distinct from one another right through, 
like a honey-comb : on this is set the ' head,' which 
is like a round wasps' nest, and in each of the cells is 
a 'bean,' which slightly projects from it; at most 
there are thirty of these. The flower is twice as 
large as a poppy's, and the colour is like a rose, of a 
deep shade ; the 6 head ' is above the water. Large 
leaves grow at the side of each plant, equal 5 in size 
to a Thessalian hat 6 ; these have a stalk exactly like 
that 7 of the plant. If one of the ' beans ' is crushed, 
you find the bitter substance coiled up, of which the 

3 Plin. 18. 121 and 122. 

4 pa\aK$ Ald.H.G Plin. I.e. Athen. 3. 2 cites the passage 
with fxa.Kp$. 

5 tea conj. W. ; ko\ Aid. 

6 ir€rdff<p conj. Sch. from Diosc. 2. 106; trl\<p Ald.H. ; ol 
itira<roi are mentioned below (§ 9) without explanation. The 
comparison is omitted by G and Plin. I.e. 

7 i.e. that which carries the kw8vo. 


Digitized by 


8 ov yLverai 6 ttIXos. to, fiev oftv irepl tov /capirbv 
ToiavTa. t) Be pL^a irayyTepa tov icaXdpjov tov 
ira^vTCLTov /cal Siafyvo-eis 6/j,olg)<; €%ovaa T<p 
/cavX<p. eaOLova-L S* avTrjv /cal cd/jltjv /cal e<f>0rjj/ 
ical OTtT^Vy /cal oi irepl tcl eXrj TovTcp aiT<p xp&v- 

TCLl, <f)V6TCU fl€V OVV 6 TToXv? aVTOpXtTO^' OV fJLTJV 

dXXd /cal /caTafidXXovaiv iv irrjXjp d^vpcoaavTe^ 
ev pdXa 7rpo9 to KaTeve^Orfval T6 /cal pelvat /cal 
p/rj SiacfrOapfjvai* /cal ovtco /caTaa/cevd^ovai rou9 
/cvap&vas* av B* dira^ dvTiXdfirjTai, pevei Sid 
TeXovs. la'xypd yap rj pL^a /cal ov iroppco T979 
t&v /caXdficov 7rXr)v iira/cavdv^ovaa 9 St /cal 6 
/cpo/coSeiXos <j)evyec pur] irpoaKO'^rj t$ 6(^6 aX pep 
t& jjurj 6%v /cadopav yuveTat Be OUT09 /cal iv 
Xvpta /cal /caT& JZiXi/ciav, a\V ov/c i/cireTTOvaiv 
at y&pav ical irepl Topcbvrfv T779 XaX/ciBt/cfj? iv 
Xi/Jbvr) Tivl fi€Tpia t$ fieyeder /cal avTov ireTTeTai 
TeXec*? /cal TeXeo/capireZ. 

9 c O Be Xg)to9 /caXovpuevos fyverai pkv 6 irXeio-Tos 
iv T0Z9 ireS'iois, OTav f) X ( ^ ) P a fcaTa/cXvady. tov- 
tov Be i] pkv tov /cavXov cfrvai? opoia tt) tov 
/cvdfiov, /cal oi TreTaaov Be &aavT(o^, ttXtjv iXaT- 
TOV9 /cal XeiTTOTepoL. iirifyveTai Be 6poL(o<$ 6 
icapTros T<p tov /cvdpov. to avQo<$ avTov Xev/cbv 
ifufrepe? Tjj GTevoTr\Ti tcov <f>vXX(ov T019 tov 
/cplvov, 7roXXd Be /cal irvKvd iir dXXrjXoi? (frveTai. 
TavTa Be otov pkv 6 tfXio? Bvrj avppvei /cal avy- 
/caXviTTei ttjv /ccoBvav, a pa Be tt} dvaToXfj Biol- 

1 6 tri\os UMV; ri *t\os Ald.H.; 1=germen Sch. 

2 c/. Diosc. 2. 107. 

8 ical /coTojS. conj. W.; kotojS. Aid.; Karafi. 5* UMV. 
4 Plin. 13. 107 and 108. 

Digitized by 


pilos 1 is made. So much for the fruit. The root 
is thicker than the thickest reed, and is made up of 
distinct tubes, like the stalk. 2 They eat it both 
raw boiled and roasted, and the people of the 
marshes make this their food. It mostly grows of 
its own accord ; however they also sow 3 it in the 
mud, having first well mixed the seed with chaff, so 
that it may be carried down and remain in the 
ground without being rotted ; and so they prepare 
the ' bean ' fields, and if the plant once takes hold it 
is permanent. For the root is strong and not unlike 
that of reeds, except that it is prickly on the surface. 
Wherefore the crocodile avoids it, lest he may strike 
his eye on it, since he has not sharp sight. This 
plant also grows in Syria and in parts of Cilicia, but 
these countries cannot ripen it ; also about Torone in 
Chalcidice in a certain lake of small size; and this 
lake ripens it perfectly and matures its fruit. 

4 The plant called the lotos (Nile water-lily) grows 
chiefly in the plains when the land is inundated. 
The character of the stalk of this plant is like that 
of the ' Egyptian bean/ and so are the ' hat-like' 
leaves, 5 except that they are smaller and slenderer. 
And the fruit 6 grows on the stalk in the same way 
as that of the 'bean.' The flower is white, resem- 
bling in the narrowness of its petals those of the 
lily, 7 but there are many petals growing close one 
upon another. When the sun sets, these close 8 and 
cover up the ' head,' but with sunrise they open and 

6 cf. 4. 8. 7. 

6 Kapwbs conj. W.; \wrbs MSS. Possibly the fruit was 
specially called \wt6s. 

7 cf. Hdt. 2. 92 ; Diosc. 4. 113. 

8 5<5?7, ffvf4.f4.6ct conj. St.; (rvfifAvei MV; avfxfxvr] U; avfifivrj 
(omitting koI) Aid. H. 


VOL. I. A A 

Digitized by 


yerai teal virep tov vBaTO? ylveTai. tovto Be 
noiei l*£%pi av rj tccoSva i/crekecoOf) teal avdrj 

10 irepippvfi. t»}s Be tcwBvas t6 p&ye6o$ rfKi/cov 
firj/ccovo? tt}? fieyiarr)?, teal 8i4£cocttcu rafc /cara- 
TOfials tov avrov Tpoirov tt} fjuq/ecovr ttXtjv ttvkvo- 
repo? iv TavTac? 6 tcapiro^. eo~Ti 8k TrapopuoLO^ 
r<p /ciyjqxp. iv 8k 7<p JLvcfrpdrr) tt\v tetoBvav <pao~l 
teal Ta avOrj Bvvecv teal viroteaTafiaLveiv tt)? dyjria? 
pueyjpi V&v&v vvktcov teal rq> fiddei iroppoy 9 ovBe 
yap teaOievTa ttjv %€t/)a Xaftelv elvai. fiera Be 
ravra orav opOpo? $ irdXiv iiravievai teal 7rp6<s 
7)pApav <!ti fuiXXov, a\xa T<p rfXitp (pave pop <6v> 
virip tov vharos teal dvoiyeiv to avOos, dvoiyOev- 
T09 Be 6Ti avafiaLveiv avxyov 8k to virepalpov 

11 elvai to vBcop. Ta? Be tcwBva? TavTas oi Alyv- 
irvioi GwdevTe? ek to avTd arjirovaiv iirav Be 
a airy to teeXvfyos, iv t$ iroTafiq) tcXv^ovTe? i£ai- 
povai tov Kapirov, grjpdvavTe? oh teal irTiaavTe^ 
apTov? TTOiovai teal TOVTtp ftp&vTai crmct>. rj Be 
pi^a tov Xcotov tcaXeiTai fiev teopaiov, iaTl Be 
o-TpoyyvXrj, to fieyedo? r/XUov firjXov KvBwvlov 
$>Xoio<; Be irepLtceiTac irepl avTrjv fteXas ifuf>eprf^ 
T(p KaaTavalKtp /capvtp* to Be ivTo? Xev/cov, eyjro- 
fievov Be teal oTTTco/ievov ylveTai XetctOcoBes, iJSu Be 
iv tjj irpoa<f>opa' iaOleTai Be teal (o/jlt], dpiGTV) 
Be iv [tg>] vBaTt e<f>07) teal otttt). teal tcl fiev 
iv toa? voaaiv ayeBov TavTa ioTiv. 

12 *Ev Be rot? dfificoBeai yap'tois, a iaTiv ov iroppco 

1 cf. Diosc. I.e. 2 cf. CP. 2. 19. 1 ; Tlin. 13. 109. 

3 dtytas conj. W. from Plin. I.e.; ? dtytas &pas. 

4 <&v> add. W. 

5 ic4\v(pos i.e. fruit : icapir6v i.e, seeds. 


Digitized by 


appear above the water. This the plant does until 
the ' head ' is matured and the flowers have fallen off. 
1 The size of the ' head ' is that of the largest poppy, 
and it has grooves all round it in the same way as 
the poppy, but the fruit is set closer in these. This 
is like millet. 2 In the Euphrates they say that the 
' head ' and the flowers sink and go under water in 
the evening 8 till midnight, and sink to a consider- 
able depth ; for one can not even reach them by 
plunging one's hand in; and that after this, when 
dawn comes round, they rise and go on rising towards 
day-break, being 4 visible above the water when the 
sun appears ; and that then the plant opens its flower, 
and, after it is open, it still rises ; and that it is 
a considerable part which projects above the water. 
These ' heads' the Egyptians heap together and 
leave to decay, and when the ' pod ' 5 has decayed, they 
wash the ' head ' in the river and take out the ( fruit,' 5 
and, having dried and pounded 6 it, they make loaves 
of it, which they use for food. The root of the lotos 
is called korsion, 7 and it is round and about the size 
of a quince ; it is enclosed in a black ( bark/ like the 
shell of a chestnut. The inside is white ; but when 
it is boiled or roasted, it becomes of the colour of 
the yolk of an egg and is sweet to taste. The root 
is also eaten raw, though it is best when boiled in 
water or roasted. 8 Such are the plants found in 

In sandy places which are not 9 far from the river 

6 tttiWtcs : cf. Hdt. 2. 92. 7 cf. Strabo 17. 2. 4. 

8 MUrai . . . btrry conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e. and G; iad. 
tie teal d}(x6v apiary tie <V rots Stiaatv avry a/Wf Aid. ; apiary tie 
koI rots Stiaatv abryv UMV, then o/xi) U, u>fiq V, wfiy M ; apiary 
tic 4v rQ ttiari i<f>By % koL h-nry H. 

9 ov was apparently not in Pliny's text ; (21. 88.) 


a a 2 

Digitized by GooQle' 


tov irorafiov, fyverai Kara 7779 b tcaXelrai fwXiv- 
aOdWr), GTpoyyvXov rq> ayrjfiaTL fieyeffos Be 
tjXlkov ixeairCKov aTrvprjvov oe a<f>\oiov (fyvWa 
Be d<j)L7j(nv air avrov Ofioia KvireLpfp' ravra 
avvdyovTes oi Kara rrjv X ( ^ ) P av <tyouaiv iv /3pvra> 
t$ diro tcjv KpiQwv ical yiveT at ykvicea acfroBpa* 
XP&vtcu Be irdvTes &airep Tpaytffiaai. 

13 Tofc Be fioval ical Tofc Trpoftdroi? airavra fiev 
rd <f>vo/j£va iBdoBifid eariv, ev Be ti yevos iv rah 
Xifivat,? ical to?9 ekeai <f>v6rai Biacfrepov, b ical 
Xkcopov vefiovrai icaX grjpaivovTe? 7rapexov<ri /card 
X^ifi&va Tofc fiovalv otov ipydacovTar ical rd 
acojjLara exovaiv € & o-ltov a\Xo XafifidvovTe? 

14 v Eo-ta Be ical aWo irapa^vopsvov avTofiarov 
iv t& tovto Be, otov ctato9 # /ca0apo<t, 
viroiTTiaavTe^ icaTafidXkovGi tov ^e*//,a>P09 vy- 
pdv €t9 yrjv pkaaTrja-avTo^ Be t€/j,6vt€<; ical 
grjpdvavre? irapexovac ical tovto fioval ical 
Tiriroi? ical Tofc viro^vyLois avv t& Kapirfp tg> ini- 
yivofievo)' 6 Bk fcapTros fieyeffo? fiev rjXi/cov arj- 
aafiov, GTpoyyvXos Be ical t$ ^co/iem %^ w /°o9, 
dyaObs Be Biac/)€p6vTG)$. iv AlyvirTCp jiev oiv 
Ta irepiTTa ax^Bbv tclvto, av ti$ Xdfioi. 

IX. hj/cao-Toi oe tcjv TroTafuov eoucaaiv loiqv 
tl <f>epeiv, &airep ical t&v xepaaicov. iirel oiBe 
6 tj)l/3o\o$ iv diraaw ovoe iravTayov <f>veTai, 
dXk iv T0Z9 eXdbBeai tcov TTOTaficov iv fieyio-Ttp 
Bk ftdOei irevTairr\x ei V P*t>Kp<p pzl&vi, icaOdirep 

1 Plin. I.e. anthalium, whence Salm. conj. avddWiov. 

2 Saccharum biflorum. See Index App. (19). 
8 c3 alrov &\\o conj. W.; cvatrovvra Aid. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vm. 12-ix. 1 

there grows under ground the thing called malina- 
tkalle 1 ; this is round in shape and as large as a medlar, 
but has no stone and no bark. It sends out leaves 
like those of galingale. These the people of the 
country collect and boil in beer made from barley, 
and they become extremely sweet, and all men use 
them as sweetmeats. 

All the things that grow in such places may be 
eaten by oxen and sheep, but there is one kind of 
plant 2 which grows in- the lakes and marshes which is 
specially good for food : they graze their cattle on it 
when it is green, and also dry it and give it in the 
winter to the oxen after their work ; and these keep 
in good condition when they have no other 8 kind 
of food. 

There is also another plant 4 which comes up of its 
own accord among the corn ; this, when the harvest 
is cleared, they crush slightly 5 and lay during the 
winter on 6 moist ground ; when it shoots, they cut 
and dry it and give this also to the cattle and horses 
and beasts of burden with the fruit which forms on 
it. The fruit in size is as large as sesame, but round 
and green in colour, and exceedingly good. Such 
one might take to be specially remarkable plants of 


IX. Every river seems to bear some peculiar plant, 
just as does each part of the dry land. 7 For not even 
the water-chestnut grows in all rivers nor everywhere, 
but only in marshy rivers, and only in those whose 
depth is not more or not much more than five cubits, 

4 Gorchorus trilocularis. See Index App. (20). 

5 G seems to have read virotTtaravTcs {leviter pimentes) ; 
vtrovriiaavrts W. with Ald.H. 

8 ets conj. W. ; r^v Aid. 
7 Plin. 21. 98 ; Diosc. 4. 15. 


Digitized by 


ire pi rbv Xrpvfwva' a^hbv he iv roaovrqt teal 
6 tcdXapxx; teal ra aXXa. vmpixei he ovOev 
avrov 7tXt}v air a ra <f>vXXa &atrep imviovra 
teal Kpvirrovra rbv rpifioXov, 6 he* rpt,j3oXo<t airbs 
iv T(p vharc vevcov eh fivdov. rb he <f>vXXov earl 
rrXarit Trpoaeficfyepes t$ t^<? irreXias, picrypv he 

2 e%ei <r<f)6Spa fta/cpov 6 he* tcavXbs e£ a/cpov 
rrayvraros, 80 ev ra <j)vXXa teal 6 tcaprros, ra 
he tear eo Xenrorepos del p&XP 1 t?}9 pufrf* e%€* 
he airoire^vKora air avrov rpix<ohr) ra puev 
irXelara Tra^dXXrfXa ra he teal rrapaXXdrrovra, 
tcdrcoOev airo W79 pLtyl? fieydXa ra he avco ael i\dr- 
to) Trpoiovaiv, &are ra reXevrala /ju/cpa rrdpmav 
eivai teal rrjv hiafyopav fieydXrjv rrjv dirb Trfc 
pi£y<> 7T/0O9 rbv tcapirov. eyei he ex rov evb$ 
tcavXov /ca\ TrapafSXaarrjpara rrXeiw seal yap 
rpla /cat rerrapa, pAyiarov h* alel rb rrXrjaiai- 
repov T/79 f>%V*>> € ^ ra T0 A*€Ta rovro teal ra 
aXXa Kara Xoyov, rb he rrapafiXaarrjfia iariv 
&arrep tcavXbs aUo9 \e7rrorepos fjukv rov rrpoarov, 
ra he <j>vXXa teal rbv tcapirbv e*ya>v ofiouo?. 6 
he tcaprrbs jieXas koX atcXrjpbs a<j>6hpa. pL^av 
he rjXitcqv zeal iroiav e^ei o-tcerrreov. rj jiev ovv 
0U(Tt9 rotavrrj. (fyverai fxev dirb rov tcapTrov 
rov rrLrrrovro% teal d<f>Lrjai fiXaarbv rov fjpov 

3 <j)aal he oi jiev elvai errereiov oi he hiapbeveiv 
rrjv fiev pi^av eh yjpovov, if; ^9 teal rrjv y8\a- 
arrjav eivai rov tcavXov. rovro pkv ovv atce- 
rrreov. thiov he irapa raXXa rb r&v irapa^vofJuevoDV 
etc rov tcavXov rpix°>^ p ' °^ T€ y&p <j>vXXa ravra 
ovre tcavXov iirel to ye T779 rrapafiXao-rijo-ecos 
kolvov tcaXdfjLOv ical aXXcov, 


Digitized by 


as the Strymon. (In rivers of such a depth grow 
also reeds and other plants.) No part of it projects 
from the water except just the leaves ; these float as 
it were and conceal the e chestnut/ which is itself 
under water and bends down towards the bottom. 
The leaf is broad, like that of the elm, and has a 
very long stalk. The stem is thickest at the top, 
whence spring the leaves and the fruit ; below it gets 
thinner down to the root. It has springing from it 
hair-like growths, most of which are parallel to each 
other, but some are irregular; below, starting from 
the root, they are large, but, as one gets higher up 
the plant, they become smaller, so that those at the 
top are quite small and there is a great contrast 
between the root and the top where the fruit grows. 
The plant also has on the same stalk several side- 
growths ; of these there are three or four, and the 
largest is always that which is nearer to the root, 
the next largest is the one next above it, and so on 
in proportion : this sidegrowth is like another stalk, 
but slenderer than the original one, though like that 
it has leaves and fruit. The fruit is black and 
extremely hard. The size and character of the root 
are matter for further enquiry. Such is the character 
of this plant. It grows from the fruit which falls, 
and begins to grow in spring. Some say that it is 
annual, others that the root persists for a time, and 
that from it grows the new stalk. This then is 
matter for enquiry. However quite peculiar to this 
plant is the hair-like character of the growths which 
spring from the stalk ; for these are neither leaves 
nor stalk ; though reeds and other things have also 


Digitized by 


X. Ta fiev odv iBia OecoprjTeov IBlco? BrjXov otl, 
tc\ Be Koiva koiv&s, Biaipelv Be xpt) /cal ravra 
Kara tol>9 to7tou9, olov el tcl fiev eXeta tcl Be 
XLfivala ra Be iroTafua fiaXXov rj /cat kolvcl uav- 


vyp<S /cal r<p i*VP$ <f>veTcu, /cal irdia ev rq> vypq> 
fiovov, a>9 d7r\<w9 elirelv irpb^ tcl /coivorara elprj- 
fieva irporepov. 

'Ei> 8 ovv Tji Xifivrj T7j irepl 'Op^ofievov raS' 
earl tcl <f>v6fieva BevBpa /cal vXrjfiaTa, irea 
eXaiayvos aLBrj /cdXafios o re avXrjTL/cbs /cal 6 
erepo? Kxmevpov <pXecb$ TV(/>rj f en ye fiijvavdo<; 
L/cfirj koX to /caXovfievov ittvov. o yap irpocrayo- 
pevovac Xefiva tovtov tcl irXelw /cad' liBaTos eaTi. 
2 Tovtcov Be tcl fiev aXXa yvcbptfia* 6 8' iXaiayvos 
/eat rj aiBt] /cal rj fir\vavQo<$ /cal rj Ik fir] /cal to 
litvov L<rco<; fiev (fyverai /cal eT&pcoOt, irpocayopeve- 
raL Be aXXoL? ovbfiacrv Xe/creov Be irepl avT&v. 
e<TTL Be 6 fiev eXalayvo? <f>vaei fiev OafivobBe? /cal 
irapbfioiov tols ay vol?, <j>vXXov Be e^ei tg3 fiev 
<TXVf jLaTl irapairXrjGLov fiaXa/cbv Be, &<7irep ai 
firfXeai /cal xyocbBes. ixvQos Be rq> rr}? Xev/crj? 
SfioLov eXarTov /capTrbv Be ovBeva <pepei, (j)V€TaL 
Be 6 irXeLCTTos fiev cttI t&v irXoaBcav vrjacov elal 
yap tlv€<; zeal evTavOa irXodBes, &<nrep ev AlyvTrrtp 

1 ra 5« Koiva koivS>s conj. Sch. from G ; ra 5t koiv&s Ald.H. 

2 ravra conj. Sch.; ravra Aid. 

3 vpbs ra, kolv. tip. *p. conj. W. supported by G ; Koiv6rara 
irpo<rupriix4va Ttp6r*pov Aid. H. 


Digitized by 


Of the 'plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake Copais), 
e»pecially its reeds ; and of reeds in general. 

X. Plants peculiar to particular places must be 
considered separately, while a general account may 
be given of those which are generally distributed. 1 
But even the latter must be classified according to 
locality ; thus some belong to marshes, others to 
lakes, others to rivers, or again others may be common 
to all kinds of locality : we must also distinguish which 
occur alike 2 in wet and in dry ground, and which 
only in wet ground, marking these off in a general 
way from those mentioned above as being most 
impartial. 3 

Now in the lake near Orchomenos grow the 
following trees and woody plants : willow goat-willow 
water-lily reeds (both that used for making pipes and 
the other kind) galingale phleos bulrush ; and also 
' moon-flower ' duckweed and the plant called 
marestail : as for the plant called water-chickweed 
the greater part of it grows under water. 4 

Now of these most are familiar : the goat-willow 
water-lily ' moon-flower ' duckweed and marestail 
probably grow also elsewhere, but are called by 
different names. Of these we must speak. The 
goat-willow is of shrubby habit and like the chaste- 
tree : its leaf resembles that leaf in shape, but it is 
soft like that of the apple, 5 and downy. The bloom 6 
is like that of the abele, but smaller, and it bears no 
fruit. It grows chiefly on the floating islands ; (for 
here too there are floating islands, as in the marshes 

4 rovrov to irAefw icad* u5. conj. Sch. ; rovro -wXtlca rb kclP u8. 
UM ; rovro irKtiov rb icatf 65. Aid. 

5 fin\4cu perhaps here = quince (nn\4a Kvhwta). 

6 HvBos here — catkin. 


Digitized by 


7T€pl Ta eXrj teal iv Seo-Trp&TiBi /cal iv aXXai? Xl/jl- 
vaw iXdrrcov Be fca$ y vBaTOS* 6 fiev ovv iXalayvo? 


3 C H Be aiBrj rrjv fiev fwp<f>r)V iariv ofioia rfj 
jjurj/ccovr teal yap to avm kvtiv&B€<$ tolovtov e%ei, 
irXrjv fiel^ov a>9 Kara Xoyov* fieyeffei Be o\o<? o 
oyicos rfkiKOV firjXov %gti B& ov yvfivov, aXXct vfiive? 
irepl avrrjv Xev/coi, /ecu iirl tovtois e^codev <j>vXXa 
7ro<bBr) irapairXriaia Tofc t&v poBcov orav iv 
/cdXvl;iv &<ri, TCTrapa tov dpiOfiov dvoiyQelva 
Be tovs koicicovs epvOpov? p,ev ex et T $ ^XV/ JbaTl 
Be ov% ofioiovs rals poai<$ aXXa Trepufrepel? fit/cpov? 
Be /cal ov TroXXq* /iei£ov<; /cey%pov tov Be yvXbv 
vBardaBrj Tivd, tcaOdirep 6 t&v irvp&v. aBpvverai 
Be tov 0epov$, plcrypv Be eyei fia/epov, to Be 
avQos ofioiov poBov koXvkl, fieV^ov Be /cal ayeBbv 
BiTrXdo-iov Ttp fieyeOei. tovto fiev ovv /cat to 
<j)vXXov €7rl tov vBcitos' p£Ta Bk Tavra, otclv 
a7rav07]O"r} /cal avaTrj to irepu/cdpiriov, icaTaicSive- 
G0aL <f>aaLV et<? to vBcop fiaXXov, T€\o9 Be avvdirTeiv 
tt) yfj /cal tov icapTrbv eKyeiv. 

4 JZap7ro<f>opeiv Be t&v iv tj) Xifivrj tovto koX to 
fiovTOfiov /cal tov <\>Xecbv. elvai Be tov ftovTOfiov 
fieXava, T<p Be fieyeOei Trapa*nXr)Giov T<p tt}? 
aiBrjs. tov Be </>\ea> ttjv /caXovfievrjv dvOijXrjv, 

1 ik&rrwv . . . tfSaros : sense doubtful. G. seems to render 
a different reading. 

2 i.e. the flower-head, which, as well as the plant, was 
called tribr}. 

3 p'fiKcopi can hardly be right : suspected by H. 

4 cf. Athen. 14. 64. 

5 i.e. petals. 


Digitized by 


of Egypt, in Thesprotia, and in other lakes). When 
it grows under water, it is smaller. 1 Such is the 
goat- willow. 

The water-lily 2 is in shape like the poppy. 3 For 
the top of it has this character, being shaped like 
the pomegranate flower, 4 but it is longer in propor- 
tion to the size of the plant. Its size in fact as a 
whole is that of an apple ; but it is not bare, having 
round it white membranes, 5 and attached to these 
on the outside are grass-green ' leaves,' 6 like those 
of roses when they are still in bud, and of these 
there are four ; when it is opened it shews its seeds, 
which are red ; in shape however they are not like 
pomegranate 7 seeds, but round small and not 
much longer than millet seeds ; the taste is insipid, 
like that of wheat-grains. It ripens in summer and 
has a long stalk. The flower is like a rose-bud, 
but larger, almost twice as large. Now this and the 
leaf float on the water ; but later, when the bloom is 
over and the fruit- case 8 has formed, they say that it 
sinks deeper into the water, and finally reaches the 
bottom and sheds its fruit. 

Of the plants of the lake they say that water-lily 
sedge and phleos bear fruit, and that that of the 
sedge is black, and in size like that of the water-lily. 
The fruit of phleos is what is called the 'plume/ 9 

8 i.e. sepals. 

7 f>6ais conj. Bod. from Nic. Ther. 887 and Schol. ; tfCais 

8 -KeptKapTTiou conj. W. ; KaraKapniov MSS. Kara- probably 
due to KaraKXCvecrdat. 

9 c/. Diosc. 3. 118. kvMik-qv, sc. icapicbv that. But Sch. 
suggests that further description of the fruit has dropped 
out, and that the clause $ . . . Kovias does not refer to the 


Digitized by 


^5 Xp&vrcu 7rpo? ra? /eovias. tovto o° iarlv olov 
irXa/covvT&Ses tl fiaXa/cbv eiriirvppov. cti Se 
/cal tov <f>\€6) /cal tov /3ovt6/j,ov to fiev OfjXv 
a/capirov, xprjaifiov Be 7rpb$ ra irXo/cava, to Be 
appev d^pelov. 

Hepl Be T779 ?Kfir)<; teal firjvdvOov? /cal tov ittvov 


5 'ISmotcitov Be tovtcov icTTiv r) Tv<f>rj /cal T<p 
a<j)vXXov elvai /cal T(p fir) iroXvppit^ov Tofc aKkois 
ofiolw iirel TaXXa ou% fjrrov a? tcl /carco tt)v 
opfirjv e^ei /cal tt\v Svva/uv fidkiara Be to 
/cvireipov, &a7rep /cal r) ayp&GTis, Si b /cal Svacb- 
XeOpa /cal ravra /cal 0X009 dirav to yevo? to toiov- 
tov. r) Be pi£a tov /cvireipov ttoXv tl t&v aXXmv 
irapaWaTTei ttj av(o/j,a7da, t$ to p,ev elvai irayy 
tl zeal o-ap/c&Be? avTr}? to Be XeirTov /cal gvX&Ser 
zeal Tjj fiXao-Trjaei /cal ttj yeveaer <f)V€Tcu yap 
airb tov Trpe/nvdoBov? eTepa XeirTr) /caTa irXdyiop, 
eiT ev TavTj) avvLaTaTai irdXiv to crap/c&Ses, ev ca 
/cal 6 /SXao-TO? a<p* ov 6 /cavXor d(/>irjai Be /cal 

669 )8a^09 TOV aVTOV TpblTOV pit/OA* Si O /Cal TTCLVTODV 

puakiaTa SvadtXed pov /cal epyov igeXeiv. 

6 (Z^eSbv Be irapaTrXrjalo)^ cf)V€Tai r) aypooo-Ti? i/c 
tS)v yovaTcov al yap pi%ai yovaTooSeis, if; e/cd- 
gtov S* d^irjaiv aveo fiXaaTOV koX /caTwOev 
pi£av. (hcavTa? Be /cal 7) a/cav0a fj d/cavcoSr)?, 
aXV oi /caXafi(bSr)<; ovSe yovaTcbSr)? r) pL^a Tav- 

1 Kovlas : ? Kovtdaus (plastering), a conjecture mentioned 
by Sch. 


Digitized by 


and it is used as a soap-powder. 1 It is something 
like a cake, soft and reddish. Moreover the ' female ' 
plant both of pkleos and sedge is barren, but useful 
for basket-work, 2 while the ( male ' is useless. 

Duckweed ' moon-flower ' and marestail require 
further investigation. 

Most peculiar of these plants is the bulrush, both 
in being leafless and in not having so many roots as 
the others ; for the others tend downwards quite as 
much as upwards, and shew their strength in that 
direction ; and especially is this true of galingale, and 
also of dog's-tooth grass ; wherefore these plants 
too and all others like them are hard to destroy. 
The root of galingale exceeds all the others in the 
diversity of characters which it shews, in that part 
of it is stout and fleshy, part slender and woody. 
So also is this plant peculiar in its way of shooting 
and originating; for from the trunk-like stock 3 
grows another slender root 4 sideways, and on this 
again forms the fleshy part which contains the shoot 
from which the stalk springs. 5 In like manner it 
also sends out roots downwards; wherefore of all 
plants it is hardest to kill, and troublesome to get 
rid of. 

(Dog's-tooth grass grows in almost the same way 
from the joints ; for the roots are jointed, and from 
each joint it sends a shoot upwards and a root down- 
wards. The growth of the spinous plant called 
corn-thistle 6 is similar, but it is not reedy and its 

2 cf. Hdt. 3. 98. 3 i.e. rhizome. 

4 i.e. stolon ; cf. 1. 6. 8. 

6 ol 6 Kav\6s transposed by W. ; in Aid. these words 
come before §. 

9 fj iLKCLv&hiis I conj. ; Kfdvuvos UMV; Kt&vuQos Aid.: 
Kedvwdos most edd. ; G omits the word. 


Digitized by 


t»7?. ravra fikv ovv iirl mXelov 8id ttjv ofiOLOTTjra 

&v€tcu 8 % iv dpxf>ocv teal iv rf) yf) Kal iv 
T(p vSaTi Irea KaXafios, irXrjv tov avXt)TiKOv, 
tcvireipov Tv<f>rj <f>Xeox; ftovro/jLor iv 8k rq> vhart, 
/jlovov <r£8r). irepl yap rrj? Tv<j)r)<; dfi<f>KT$rjrovac. 
teaWio) 8k /eat fxeL^co t&v iv ap^olv <f>vop,evcov 
aiel rd iv T<p vBarc yiveaOai <f>aai. (bveadac 8' 
evia tovtwv Kal iiri r&v nXodScov, olov to kv- 
ireipov /cat to /3ovto/j,ov /cal tov (fyXewv, (Scttc irdvTa 
Ta fiepr) TavTa xaTexciv. 
7 'EBdoSifia 8' eVri t&v iv tjj Xifivg raoV tf fikv 
aL8rj /cal avTtj zeal Ta <f>vXXa to£? TrpoftdTow, 6 
8k ffkaaTo*; to*? valv, 6 8k /eapTro? to*9 dvOpdyirow. 
tov 8k (f>\ea) /cal t»}? TV<j>r)$ real tov ftovTOfiov to 
7t/>o? ra?? p££ai$ diraXov, o fJudXiaTa iadUt Tct 
irat,8La. pi^a 8' i8d>8t,fio$ fj tov <£\ea> fiovrj to?9 
fioa/crjfiaaw. OTav 8' avy^jios $ /cal firj ykvryrai 
to KaTa K€(f>a\r)v v8cop t airavTa av^fxel Ta iv Tjj 
Xifivy, fjudXiGTa 8k 6 /ca\a/zo?, virkp o5 /cal Xoiirbv 
eiireiv* virkp yap t&v aXXcov c%€86v etprjTai. 

XL Tov 8tj KaXdfxov 8vo <f>aalv elvai yivrj, tov 
t€ avKrjTLKov /cal tov %T6pov ev yap elvat to 
yevos tov €T€pov, 8ia<j>ep€iv 8k dXXyXew icyvi 
</cal nayvTrfT^ Kal Xctttottjti /cal aaOeveLa' 
KaXovac 06 tov fikv la^ypov Kal irayyv xapa/ciav 
tov ihepov irXoKifiov Kal <f>v€c0ai tov fikv 

1 i.e. we have gone beyond the list of typical plants of 
Orchomenus given 4. 10. 1, because we have found others of 
which much the same may be said. 

2 cf. 4. 10. 2. 

8 avr^i : cf. 4. 10. 3 n. 


Digitized by 


root is not jointed. We have enlarged on these 
matters 1 because of the resemblance.) 

The willow and the reed (not however the reed 
used for pipes) gal in gale bulrush phleos sedge 
grow both on land and in the water, water-lily only 
in the water. (As to bulrush indeed there is a 
difference of opinion.) However they say that those 
plants which grow in the water are always finer and 
larger than those that grow in both positions ; also 
that some of these plants grow also on the floating 
islands, 2 for instance galingale sedge and phleos ; 
thus all parts of the lake contain these plants. 

Of the plants of the lake the parts good for food 
are as follows : of the water-lily both the flower 3 and 
the leaves are good for sheep, the young shoots for 
pigs, and the fruit for men. Of phleos galingale 
and sedge the part next the roots is tender, and is 
mostly eaten by children. The root of phleos is the 
only part which is edible by cattle. When there is 
a drought and there is no water from overhead, 4 all 
the plants of the lake are dried up, but especially 
the reed ; of this it remains to speak, since we have 
said almost enough about the rest. 

XI. 5 Of the reed there are said to be two kinds, 
the one used for making pipes and the other kind. 
For that of the latter there is only one kind, though 
individual plants differ in being strong and stout, 6 or 
on the other hand slender and weak. The strong 
stout one they call the ' stake-reed,' the other the 
i weaving reed.' The latter they say grows on the 

4 K€<f>aAV UMVAld.; for the case cf. Xen. Hell. 7. 2. 8 
and 11 ; K€<paXr)s conj. W. 
• Plin. 16. 168 and 169. 
6 koI iraxtrriTi add. Dalec. from G. 


Digitized by 


irXo/cipov iirl t&v ifKodhwv tov Be yapaiciav iirl 
Tot? kw fiver r /ccofivdas Be /caXovai ov av rj aw- 
i)0poicrpevos KaXapos zeal crvpuireirXeypevo*; Tafc 
pi^aw tovto Be yiveTai naff* ovs av tottovs 
ttjs XLpuvqs evyeiov r) yjnplow yivea0ai Be irore 
tov ^apaiciav /cat ov 6 avXrjTi/cos, pwucpoTepov 
pev tov aXXov xapatclov o-tcQ)Xr)/c6/3p(t)Tov Be. 
tovtov pev ovv Tamas Xeyovai Ta$ Bia<f>opd$. 

Uepl Be tov avXrjTitcov to puev <f>vea0at Bi iv- 
veaTrjpiBo*;, &crirep rives <j>aaL, teal ravrrfv eXvai 
ttjv rdf-iv ovk a\r)6e<;, dXXd to pev oXov avfjr]- 
Oeicrrjs yiveTai ttj? Xipuvrjs' on Be tovt eBo/eei 
avpjiiaLveiv ev tois irporepov yjpovois fidXicrra Bi 
evveaTrjpLBos, /cat ttjv yeveaiv rov /caXdpov rav- 
ttjv eiroLovv to avfifieftri/cos a>9 rdfjiv Xap,ftdvov- 
re?, yiveTai Be orav eirop^pias yevopuevTjs epupevrj 
to vBcop Bv cttj ToiXd^iaTOV, av Be irXeiea real 
/eaXXicov tovtov Be pdXiaTa pvTjpovevovai yeyov- 
oto9 t&v vcrTepov ^povcov ot€ crvvefirj tcl irepl 
ULaipwveiav irpb tovtcdv yap e<j>aaav ctyj rcXeia) 
/3a0vv0f)vai ttjv XipuvTjv puerd Be TavTa vaTepov, 
a>9 o Xoipbs eyeveTO a<f)oBp6<;, irXrjcT0rjvai pkv 
avTrjv, ov pueivavTos Be tov vBaTOS aXX* i/cXnrov- 
to? ^eiptavos oi yeveaOai tov /eaXap,ov <f>aal yap 
teal Botcel /3a0vvopevrj$ tt?? Xipvrjs avl~dv€cr0ai 
tov KaXapuov els prjtcos, pueivavTa Be tov eiriovTa 
eviavTov aBpvveadar /cal yivea0ai tov pJev dBpv- 
0evTa fevyLTrjv, e5 S' av pur) avpTrapapeivy to 

1 Ku>txv<rt : lit ' bundles.* 

2 «»' fat) conj. W.; dtcTrj UMVAld. 

3 B.C. 338. 


Digitized by 


floating islands, the stout form in the ' reed-beds ' 1 ; 
this name they give to the places where there is a 
thick mass of reed with its roots entangled together. 
This occurs in any part of the lake where there is 
rich soil. It is said that the ' stake-reed ' is also 
sometimes found in the same places as the reed used 
for pipes, in which places it is longer than the 6 stake- 
reed' found elsewhere, but gets worm-eaten. These 
then are the differences in reeds of which they tell. 

As to the reed used for pipes, it is not true, as some 
say, that it only grows once in nine years and that 
this is its regular rule of growth ; it grows in general 
whenever the lake is full : but, because in former 
days this was supposed to happen generally once in 
nine years, they made the growth of the reed to 
correspond, taking what was really an accident to be 
a regular principle. As a matter of fact it grows 
whenever after a rainy season the water remains in 
the lake for at least two years, 2 and it is finer if the 
Water remains longer ; this is specially remembered 
to have happened in recent times at the time of the 
battle of Chaeronea. 8 For before that period they 
told me that the lake was for several years deep 4 ; 
and, at a time later than that, when there was a 
severe visitation of the plague, it filled up ; but, as 
the water did not remain but failed in winter, the 
reed did not grow ; for they say, apparently with 
good reason, that, when the lake is deep, the reed 
increases in height, and, persisting for the next year, 
matures its growth ; and that the reed which thus 
matures is suitable for making a reed mouthpiece, 5 
while that for which the water has not remained is 

4 fry v\e(u> conj. Seal, from G ; fri ic\*lo> UMV; £n vKeioy 

* See n. on rh <rr6fjia rwv yXwrrwv, § 4. 


VOL. I. B B 

Digitized by 


vS(Op /30{l/3v/CLaV. TTJV fl€V O&V y€V€<TlV €lVai 


4 Aia<f>epeiv Se t&v aXKoov /caXdficov a>9 Ka$* o\ov 
Xafielv evTpofyLq tivI rr)<; (frvaew €V7r\rj0eaTepov 
yap elvai /cal evaaptcorepov teal oXcos Sk drjkvv rfj 
7rpo<r6yfr€i. teal yap to <j>v\\ov ifKarvrepov fyeiv 
teal \evKOTepov rrjv Se dvdrjXtjv iXdrrco t&v 
aWcov, rivets Se o\g>$ ovk ex eip > ov *> Ka ^ irpoa- 
ayopevovaiv evvov^ia^ i$ S)v apiara fiev <f>a<ri 
rive? yiveadai to, ^evyrj, /caropOovv 8k okLya 
irapa ttjv ipyacriav. 

Trjv Se TOfJLTjv tbpaiav elvai irpo 5 AvriyevcSov 
fiev, rjVL/c rjvXovv airXdcTcos, vit "Ap/erovpov Horj- 
Spo/ju&vos firjvos* tov yap ovtco TfirjOevra av^yols 
psv €T€<riv varepov yiveadai ^prjo-Lpbov /cal irpo- 
/caravKijaecos Seiaffai 7ro\\%, avp.pveiv Be to 
aro/xa tcov yXwrr&v, o irpbs rrjv Sia/cTrjpiav eXvai 

6 yjpr\GipLOV. iirel Se et? ttjv ir\d<nv fiere^aav, /cal 

7] TO/JL7J fl€T€KlV1]07} t T€fJLVOV<Tl yap Si) VVV TOV 

'Z/cippotyopi&vos Kal 'Ft/eaTOfjLfiai&vos &airep irpo 
Tpoir&v putcphv tj vtto Tpoira?. yivecrdai Se <f>a<ri 
Tpievov Te xptfaifiov real /caTavXtfaeax; $/?a%eta9 

1 pofipviciav. In one kind of pipe the performer blew, not 
directly on to the 'reed,' but into a cap in which it was 
enclosed ; this cap, from the resemblance in shape to a 
cocoon, was called jS<i/Aj8t/£. 

2 chat add. W. 

3 Plin. 16. 169-172. 4 September. 

5 i.e. between the free end of the vibrating 'tongue' and 


Digitized by 


suitable for making a ' cap.' 1 Such then, it is said, 
is 2 the reed's way of growth. 

3 Also it is said to differ from other reeds, to speak 
generally, in a certain luxuriance of growth, being of 
a fuller and more fleshy character, and, one may say, 

* female ' in appearance. For it is said that even the 
leaf is broader and whiter, though the plume is 
smaller than that of other reeds, and some have no 
plume at all ; these they call ' eunuch-reeds.' From 
these they say that the best mouthpieces are made r 
though many are spoiled in the making. 

Till the time of Antigenidas, before which men 
played the pipe in the simple style, they say that 
the proper season for cutting the reeds was the 
month Boedromion 4 about the rising of Arcturus ; 
for, although the reed so cut did not become fit for 
use for many years after and needed a great deal of 
preliminary playing upon, yet the opening 5 of the 
reed-tongues is well closed, which is a good thing for 
the purpose of accompaniment. 6 But when a change 
was made to the more elaborate style of playing, the 
time of cutting the reeds was also altered ; for in 
our own time they cut them in the months Skirro- 
phorion 7 or Hekatombaion 8 about the solstice or a 
little earlier. 9 And they say that the reed becomes 
fit for use in three years and needs but little 
preliminary playing upon, and that the reed-tongues 

the body or * lay ' of the reed mouthpiece : the instrument 
implied throughout is apparently one with a single vibrating 
' tongue ' (reed) like the modern clarinet. 

tt ttcucrriplav UMV; tiaKToplav Aid. ? wpbs rb iLKpocvr^piov, 

* for the concert-room ' ; quod erat illis theatrorum moribus 
utilius Plin. I.e. 

7 June. 8 July. 

9 &ffw€p conj. W. ; waittptt UH.; ws vepl MVAld. 


B B 2 

Digitized by 


BelaOai teal icai aair da/xaTa ra? y\a>TTa? taj^etv 
tovto Be dvaytcaiov rot? /nera irXdafiaTos av- 
\ovai. tov fJL€v ovv l^euyiTov ravTa? elvat, ra? 

&pa$ T% TO/JiffS. 

6 C H epyaaia yiverai tovtov tov Tpoirov orav 
avWe^coat, riOiacriv viraiOpiov tov ^eifi&vo^ iv 
r<p \4fifiarr tov 8* Trepi/caddpavre? teal 
i/CTpLyjravT€<; eh tov rfXiov edeaav. tov depovs Be 
fiera ravra avvrefiovre^ els ret fieaoyovdria irdXiv 
viraidpiov TiOeaai yjpovov Tivd. TrpoaXeiirovat, 
Be ro3 fieaoyovaTLtp to 7r/oo? tow /3\aaTOv$ yovv 
tcl he firjKTj tcl tovtcov ov yiveTai BnraXaiaTcov 
eXarxft). ^ekriaTa fiev ovv elvat t&v fieaoyova- 
t'kov 7T/0O9 ttjv ^evyoiroitav o\ou tov KakdfJLOv tcl 
fieaa* jiaXatccoTaTa Be Xa^eiv ^evyrj ra irpos tov9 

7 /3\ao-TOV$, crteXrjpoTaTa Be ra irpbs t# pityi* av/x- 
(jxoveiv Be ra? yXwrra? t<X9 etc tov avTov fieaoyo- 
vaTiov, ra? Be aXXas ov avpxfxovelv teal ttjv fiev 
7rpo9 TTj pity dpiGTepav elvat,, ttjv Be 717*09 tow 
fiXao-Tow Begidv. Tfirj0evTO<t Be Bi^a tov fieao- 
yovaTiov to aTOfia t?)9 yXcoTTTjs etcaTepas yive- 
aOai tcaTOL ttjv tov tcaXdfiov TOfirjv* eav Be aXXov 
Tpoirov epyaad&aiv ai yX&TTai, TavTa? ov irdvv 
o-vfic/xovelv 7) fiev oiv epyaaia TOiavTrj. 

1 Karaavdfffiara : lit. * convulsions ' ; i.e. the strong vibra- 
tions of a * tongue,' the free end of which is kept away from 
the body or * lay ' of the mouthpiece. Such a 4 reed ' would 
have the effect of giving to the pipes a fuller and louder tone. 

2 i.e. so as to make a closed end. 


Digitized by 


have ample vibration, 1 which is essential for those 
who play in the elaborate style. Such, they tell us, 
are the proper seasons for cutting the reed used for 
the reed mouthpiece. 

The manufacture is carried out in the following 
manner. Having collected the reed-stems they lay 
them in the open air during the winter, leaving on 
the rind ; in the spring they strip this off, and, 
having rubbed the reeds thoroughly, put them in 
the sun. Later on, in the summer, they cut the 
sections from knot to knot into lengths and again 
put them for some time in the open air. They 
leave the upper knot on this internodal section 2 ; 
and the lengths thus obtained are not less than two 
palmsbreadths long. Now they say that for making 
mouthpieces the best lengths are those of the middle 
of the reed, whereas the lengths towards the upper 
growths make very soft mouthpieces and those next 
to the root very hard ones. They say too that the 
reed-tongues made out of the same length are of the 
same quality, while those made from different lengths 
are not ; also that the one from the length next to 
the root forms a left-hand 8 reed-tongue, and that 
from the length towards the upper growths a right- 
hand 3 reed-tongue. Moreover, when the length is 
slit, the opening of the reed-tongues in either case 
is made towards the point at which the reed was 
cut 4 ; and, if the reed-tongues are made in any other 
manner, they are not quite of the same quality. Such 
then is the method of manufacture. 

3 i.e. the vibrating * tongues' (reeds) for the left-hand 
and the right-hand pipe of the Double Pipe respectively. 

4 i.e. not at the closed end, but at the end which was 
4 lower ' when the cane was growing : cf. § 6, wpoatelvovtrt 5e 



Digitized by 


8 <f>v€Tai Be 7r\€i<TT0<; fiev fieragv tov JSjq<f>i<rov 
teal tov MeXavov outo? Be 6 T07ro9 Tcpoaayo- 
peverai p,ev HeXeteavia* tovtov B' earvv arra 
Xut/?o* tcaXovfievoi ^aQvapxvra Trj? Xifivq^, ev 0I9 
tcaXXcaTov <f>a<ri yiveaffar <yiveadav> 8k teal /caff* 
o 7) TlpojSarla tcaXov/jLevr) tcara^eperar tovto 8* 
iarl 7rora/io? pecov etc AeftaBeLas. tcdXXio-To? Be 
Bo/cei irdvrwv yiveaOai irepl ttjv 'Ogeiav teaXov- 
pAvrjv 'Kafjmqv 6 Be T0V09 ovtos ianv efifioXr) 
tov Kr)<f>i(rov. yeiTVca 8' airy* ireBiov evyeiov, o 

9 irpoaayopevovai 'Yiririav. Trpoafioppo*; he two? 
aUo? t?;9 'O^eta? YLapurrj^ eariv, ov xaXovai 
JZorjBpiav <j>vea9ai Be <f>aai teal /caret Tavrrjv 
evyevrj tov tcdXap,ov. to. Be oXov, oh &v rj /3a0v- 
yeiov teal evyeiov ywplov teal tXv&Bes /cal 6 
JZrjcfrio'bs avapbiayerai teal irpos tovtois fidOvafia 
T179 Xifivrjs, fcdXXio-Tov yiveaOai tedXa/nov. irepl 
yap ttjv 'Ogeiav l^apmrjv teal ttjv ISorjBpiav irdvTa 
TavTa VTrap'xeiv, otl Be 6 K.rj<f)ia6^ psydXrjv e%e£ 
poTcrjv €49 to iroielv fcaXdv tov tedXapav arjfieiov 
exovar /caff' ov yap toitov 6 MeXa9 tcaXovfievos 
ifi^dXXei ftadeia? over)? ttj? Xlfjivrj? /cal tov 
eBd(j>ov^ evyeiov koX lXvwBov^, f) oXa? firj yiveaOai 
r) QavXov. rj psv ovv yeveais teal <j>vai<; tov 
avXrjTitcov teal rj tcaTepyaaia teal Tiva? e'xei 81a- 
<j>opa<i 7T/0O9 rou9 aXXov? itcav&s elprjadto. 

10 Vevrj Be ov Tavra fiovov dXXa irXe'uo tov teaXd- 
pbov Tvyydvei (pavepa? h'x 0VTa ttj aladrjaei 8ia~ 
<\>opd<f 6 puev yap Trvtcvo? teal ttj aap/cl teal to?9 

1 cf. Plut. Sulla, 20. 

2 i.e. the so-called * Lake * Copais. 
8 fcaUdd.W. 


Digitized by 


This reed grows in greatest abundance between 
the Kephisos and the Black River 1 ; this district is 
called Pelekania, and in it are certain ' pots/ as they 
are called, which are deep holes in the marsh, 2 and 
in these holes they say that it grows fairest ; it is also 3 
said to be found 4 where the river called the ' Sheep 
River ' comes down, which is a stream that flows from 
Lebadeia. But it appears to grow fairest of all near 
c the Sharp Bend ' ; this place is the mouth of the 
Kephisos ; near it is a rich plain called Hippias. 
There is another region north of the Sharp Bend 
called Boedrias ; and here too they say that the reed 
grows fine, and in general that it is fairest wherever 
there is a piece of land with deep rich alluvial soil, 
where also Kephisos mingles 5 his waters with the 
soil, and where there is further a deep hole in the 
marsh ; for that about the Sharp Bend and Boedrias 
all these conditions are found. As proof that the 
Kephisos has a great effect in producing the reed of 
good quality they have the fact that, where the river 
called the 6 Black River ' flows into the marsh, though 
the marsh is there deep and the bottom of good 
alluvial soil, it either does not grow at all or at best 
but of poor quality. Let this suffice for an account 
of the growth and character of the reed used for 
pipes, of the manufacture, and of its distinctive 
features as compared with other reeds. 

But these are not the only kinds of reed ; there are 
several others 6 with distinctive characters which are 
easily recognised ; there is one that is of compact 
growth in flesh and has its joints close together ; 

4 yivtffBai add. Sch.; $a<rt- ylvcadai 5e Ka& > % UMVP ; so 

5 kvanlaytrai : ? kpafi(<ryr)Tai ; cf. Plut. Sull. I.e. 

6 Plin. 16. 164-167 ; Diosc. 1. 85. 


Digitized by 


yovaaiv, 6 he flavor /ecu oXiyoyovarov Kal 6 jmev 
koZXos, ov KaXovaL rives a-vpiyyiav, ovhev yap c!>9 
elrrelv h'^ei fjvXov /ecu aapKor 6 he arepeos /cat 
avfjLTrXrjp^ fwepov. /cat 6 fiev ftpaxys, 6 he 
evavfjrjs /cal vyfrr)Xo$ /cal irayys. 6 he \e7rT09 zeal 
7roXv^>vXXo<;, 6 he 6Xiy6<f>vXXo<; /cal /uov6<f>vXXo$. 
o\ft>9 Be iToXKai rives elai hia<f>opal Kara ra$ 
Xpeia?' e*/ca<TTo$ yap irpo<; e/caara xprjaifio*;. 

n ^Ovofiaai he dXXoi aXXoi? irpoaayopevovcv 
Koivorarov he 7rct)9 6 hoval;, ov /cal Xoxfuoheo-rarov 
ye <j>a(riv elvat /cal fidXiara fyveaOai iraph tov9 
TTorapLovs /cal ra? Xip,va<;. hia<f>epeiv 8' ofio)? 
iravros KaXdfiov 7roXv rov re iv r<p fy)p& /cal rov 
iv to vhaai (f>v6/xevov. thio<; he /cal 6 rofji/e6<;, ov 
hi) KprjriKov rives KaXovaiv oXiyoyovaro? fiev 
crap/ccohearepos he irdvrwv teal fidXicrra /cdpAfriv 
heypiievos, /cal oXaos ayeaOai hvvdfievos o>9 av 
OeXrj n$ Oep/jLaivofievo?. 

12 "F%ovai he, wairep eXexOrj, /cal Kara ra <f>vXXa 
fieydXas ht,a<j>opa<; ov irXijOei Kal pueyWei fiovov 
dXXa Kal XP 01 *}* ttoiklXo? yap 6 AaKCDViKo? 
KaXovfjLevos. en he rfj Oeaei Kal Trpoa<f>vo-ef 
KarcoOev yap evioi irXelara <f>epovai r&v (frvXXcov, 
avros he &airep ck Odfivov irefyvKe. a^chov he 
rive<; <f>aai Kal r&v Xi/juvaicov ravrrjv elvai rrjv 
hia<j>opdv, to 7roXv<f)vXXov Kal irapofiovov eyeiv 
rpotrov rivd to (pvXXov r<p rov KvrteLpov koL 


Digitized by 


another that is of open growth, with few joints ; 
there is the hollow reed called by some the e tube- 
reed/ 1 inasmuch as it has hardly any wood or 
flesh ; there is another which is solid and almost 
entirely filled with substance ; there is another which 
is short, and another which is of strong growth tall 
and stout ; there is one which is slender and has 
many leaves, another which has few leaves or only 
one. And in general there are many differences in 
natural character and in usefulness, each kind being 
useful for some particular purpose. 

Some distinguish the various kinds by different 
names ; commonest perhaps is the pole-reed, which is 
said to be of very bushy habit, and to grow chiefly 
by rivers and lakes. And it is said that there is a 
wide difference in reeds in general between those 
that grow on dry land and those that grow in the 
water. Quite distinct again is the ' archer's' reed, 
which some call the ( Cretan ' : this has few joints 
and is fleshier than any of the others ; it can also be 
most freely bent, and in general, when warmed, may 
be turned about as one pleases. 

The various kinds have also, as was said, great 
differences in the leaves, not only in number and 
size, but also in colour. That called the 6 Laconian ' 
reed is parti-coloured. They also differ in the 
position and attachment of the leaves ; some have 
most of their leaves low down, and the reed itself 
grows out of a sort of a bush. Indeed some say that 
this may be taken as the distinctive character of 
those which grow in lakes, namely, that these 
have many leaves, and that their foliage in a manner 

avpiyylav conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e., syringiam; cf. Diosc. 
I.e., Gtop. 2. 6. 23. ffvptyl U; trtptyyi MV; avpiyya Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


<j>\€(0 /cal Opvov /cat fiovTopov a/ceyjracrOai 8k 
Bee tovto. 

13 FeposBe ti /caXdfiov <f>verai /cal iiriyeiop, b ov/c 
el$ opdov a\V €7rt 7779 a(f>irjai top kclvXov, &crirep 
fj aypQMTTi*;, /cal ovtco? iroieiTai ttjp avgrjaip. 
euTi Be 6 pep apprjp crTepeos, KaXeirat Be vtto 
tipcop elkerlas. . . . 

'O Bk 'IpBi/eb? ip fjLeyiaTrj Bt,a<f>opa /cal &cnrep 
eTepov o\g>9 to yepo<r €<tti Be 6 pep apprjp (TTepeos, 
6 Be 0f}\v$ /col\o<r Biaipovai yap /cal tovtop tg> 
appevi /cal OijXei. Qvoptcu S' if; epos irvOpApo^ 
iroWol ical ov \o%/i&>Se£9 # to Be <f>v\\op ov pa/c- 
pop a\V ofiotop rfj irea' t& Be peyeffei pueyaXot, 
/ecu evirayels, &are cucoptLois xprjcrOai* <f>voprcu 
Be ovtoi irepl top 'A/cecriprjp iroTapop. dira^ Be 
/cakapas evfaos /cal Teppop,epo$ /cal €7ri,/cai6p,€P0<; 
/caXkitop /3\aaTdper €tl Be ira-^vppi^o^ /cal tto- 
\vppi£o$, Sl o teal BvacoXedpos. r) Be* pL%a yopa- 
TdoBrj?, &cirep r) t?)9 aypeoaTiBo*;, ifKrjp ov 7rai/T09 
o/AOtft)9. aXka irepl puep /caXdpuwp l/eap&<; elpfjaffco. 

XII. KaTdXoiTrop Be elirelp tbcrap e/c tov yepovs 
tovtov irepl ct^oLpov teal yap teal tovto t&p 
epvBpayp Octcop. cctti Be avTOv Tpia eiBrj, /caOdirep 
Twe<; Biaipovcrip, o Te ofi>9 /cal d/capiros, op Br) 
/cdkovcTip appepa, /cal 6 /cdpirtpo^, hp peXay/cpaplp 

1 Bpvov, a kind of grass (see Index ; c/. Horn. 11. 21. 351), 
conj. Sch.; $pvov MSS. ; however Plut. Nat. Quaest. 2 gives 
Qpvov along with rv<pj] and <pkt<&s in a list of marsh plants. 

2 5* Bel rovra conj. W. ; $« toDto UMVAld. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xi. 12-xii. 1 

resembles that of galingale phleos thryon 1 and sedge ; 
but this needs 2 further enquiry. 

There is also a kind of reed (bush-grass) which 
grows on land, and which is not erect, but sends out 
its stem over the ground, like the dog's-tooth grass, 
and so makes its growth. The ' male ' reed is solid : 
some call it eiletias 3 

The Indian reed (bamboo) is very distinct, and 
as it were a totally different kind ; the c male ' is 
solid and the 6 female ' hollow (for in this kind too 
they distinguish a ' male ' and a c female ' form) ; a 
number of reeds of this kind grow from one base and 
they do not form a bush ; the leaf is not long, but 
resembles the willow leaf ; these reeds are of great 
size and of good substance, so that they are used for 
javelins. They grow by the river Akesines. 4 All 
reeds are tenacious of life, and, if cut or burnt down, 
grow up again more vigorously ; also their roots are 
stout and numerous, so that the plant is hard to 
destroy. The root is jointed, like that of the dog's- 
tooth grass, but this is not equally so in all kinds. 
However let this suffice for an account of reeds. 

Of rushes. 

XII. It remains to speak of the rush, 5 as though 
it belonged to this class of plants, inasmuch as we 
must reckon this also among water plants. Of this 
there are three kinds 6 as some distinguish, the 
f sharp' rush, which is barren and is called the 
'male'; the 'fruiting' kind which we call the ( black- 

3 Sch. marks a lacuna ; there is nothing to correspond to 
6 pep &ppr)v. 4 Chenab. 
6 cf. 1. 5. 3 ; 1. 8. 1 ; Plin. 21. 112-115 ; Diosc. 4. 52. 
6 See Index. 


Digitized by 


tcaXovfiev Bid to fieXava top tcapirov e%e«/, irayy- 
tc/oo? Be o5to9 /cat aaprctoBeaTepor fcal to/to? t^> 
fieyedei teal ttj 7ra%i5r^Tt /cal eicrap/cia otafyepcov 
6 KcCKovfievos okocTXpivo*;. 

2 C H yLt€^ ovv fieXaytepavU avTos rt? #a#' avrov 6 
8* o£v9 6\6<TX 0ll ' 0i > * K T °v avTov (pvovrar o 
/ecu aroirov (fxtwercu, teal davfiaarov y rjv IBeiv 
0X179 KOiLiaOeLar}? tt)9 o"Xpivia^ oi iroWol yap 
rj<rav a/capiroi TrefyvtcoTe? iic tov avTov, tcdpTrifAOi 
Be oXiyoi. tovto p,ep oiv iTriafceirTeov. eXar- 
TOf9 Be o\a)9 oi fcdp7rifioi' 717*09 yap tcl ifKeypLaTa 
XpriaifioDTepo*; 6 oXoaxoivo? 81a, to aaptcS>Be^ teal 
fiaXa/cov. Kopvva B 9 oXg>9 6 /edpTrifio? if; avTOV 
tov ypa/j,fi(b8ov<; i%oi8r)0'a<; i KaireiTa i/CTL/cT€c 
fcaOairep a>d. 7rpo9 p*ta yap dpxfi ypafi/xdoBei 
ex^i tou9 TrepiaTaxvdiBet,*; fiio-xovs, e<f>* &v diepcov 
irapairXayiov^; Ta$ t&v dyyeioov $xei GTpoyyvXo- 
TrjTa? viroxdvicovaav ev tovtois Be to cTTeppbd- 
tlov d/ciScoSe? eGTi yuekav €/cdaT<p irpoaefi^eph 

8 T(p tov daTepiaKov irXrjv d/MevrjpoTepop. pi^av Be 
^X €l l xaK P^ lv 7raxvT€pav 7ro\v tov axoivov 
avTrj o° aiaiveTai icaO* e/eaaTov iviavTov, eW 
eTepa irdXiv dirh tt)9 /te$aX?79 tov axoivov tcaOLe- 
Tar tovto Be fcal ip Ttj oyjrei <f>avepbv IBelv t#9 
puev avas ra9 Be %Xct)/>a9 tcaOiefievas' 17 Be tc€<j)a\r) 
ofjioia Tjj T&v Kpofivwv teal ttj tg>p yrjTeLcov, ovfi- 

1 6. 7' $v IZeiv conj. W. from G ; B. iv y etfetv U ; 6. iv 7c 
iduv MVP ; B. ivituv Aid. 

2 oi Kdpvifiot conj. R. Const. ; ol Kapirol Ald.H. 
8 y&p seems meaningless ; G has autem. 

4 Kopovq. ; cf. 3. 5. 1. 

5 ypapfidfai conj. R. Const.; ypapifu&fais Ald.H. 

Digitized by 


head ' because it has black fruit ; this is stouter and 
fleshier : and third the ' entire rush/ as it is called, 
which is distinguished by its size stoutness and 

Now the ' black-head* grows by itself, but the 
'sharp* rush and the ' entire' rush grow from the 
same stock, which seems extraordinary, and indeed 
it was strange to see it 1 when the whole clump of 
rushes was brought before me ; for from the same 
stock there were growing ' barren* rushes, which 
were the most numerous, and also a few ' fruiting * 
ones. This then is a matter for further enquiry. 
The € fruiting ' 2 ones are in general scarcer, for 3 the 
' entire rush * is more useful for wicker-work because 
of its fleshiness and pliancy. The ( fruiting ' rush in 
general produces a club-like 4 head which swells 
straight from the wiry stem, and then bears egg-like 
bodies ; for attached to a single wiry 5 base it has its 
very spike-like 6 branches all round it, and on the 
ends of these it has its round vessels borne laterally 
and gaping 7 ; in each of these is the small seed, 
which is pointed and black, and like that of the 
Michaelmas daisy, except that it is less solid. It 
has a long root, which is stouter than that of the 
ordinary rush ; this withers every year, and then 
another strikes down again from the ( head * 8 of the 
plant. And it is easy to observe that some of the 
roots as they are let down are withered, some green. 
The 'head' is like that of an onion or long onion, 

6 ir€pio-Toxw^5«*s seems an impossible word ; ? vcpl avrhv 
rovs araxv&fais. 

7 inroxa-otcovaas conj. Sch.; 4iri(rxci(ov<ras Ald.H. 

8 i.e. the part above ground ; cf. Plin. I.e. Sch. has dis- 
posed of the idea that Ke<paA^ is here a * bulbous ' root. 


Digitized by 


TT€(j>V/CVld 7TO>9 €K irXeiOVCOV 6t9 TdVTO teal irXaT€la 

tcaTcoffev eypvaa teeXvfyr} virepvdpa. avfifiaivei & 
ovv tBiov iirl t&v pi^&v el avaivovrai tear iviavrbv 
teal i/c rod dvcodev irdXiv 17 yeveais. t&v fiev 
ovv a'Xpivcov roiavrrj t*9 <f>v<ri$. 
4 Et Be teal )SaT09 teal 6 iraXiovpo^ evvBpd 7ra>9 
iaTiv rj irdpvBpa, teaddirep ivia%ov, <f>avepal o")(e- 
Bbv teal ai tovtcov Bia<f>opai' irepl dfi<f>olv yelp 
elprfrai irporepov. 

[T&v Be vrjaw t&v irXodBcov r&v iv 'Opxpfievfp 
tcl fiev fieyeffr) iravToBaird Tvy^dvei, rd Be fie- 
yiGTa avr&v eaTiv oxrov rpi&v araBltov rrjv irepi- 
fierpov. iv Klyvwrai Be /xaXiara peydXa <r<f>6Bpa 
(rvvLararai, &<jre teal V9 iv airraid iyyiveaOai 
ttoXXovs, 0&9 teal Kvvr]yeTov<ri,Bia/3aivovT€<i.] teal 
irepl fiev ivvBpwv ravr elpqaOco. 

XIII. Hepl Be fipaxvfiioTrjTO? <f>vr&v /ecu Bev- 
Bpcov r&v ivvBpcov eTrl Toaoiriov eypfiev C09 av fca0 y 
oXov Xeyovres, otl /3paxv8id>Tepa t&v i xep (Ta ' L( * )V 
iari, teaddirep teal rd fwa. tou9 Be /cad* eteaarov 
)9iof9 IcTTOprjaai Bel t&v yepaalwv. ra fiev ovv 
dypid (f>aaiv ovBefiLav e^eiv a>9 elirelv oi opeoTviroi 
Bta<f>opdv, dXXd irdvTa elvai fia/cpo/3ia teal ovOev 
ftpaxvfiiov avTO fiev tovto fora>9 dXrjd^ Xeyov- 
T69' airavra yap virepreivei iroXit tt}V t&v dXXcov 
^(orjv. ov firjv dXV opco? eorl ra fiev fiaXXov ra 
8' TjTTov fiatepoftta, teaOdirep iv rofc rffiepow irola 

1 3. 18. 3 and 4 ; 4. 8. 1. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xn. 3 -xiii. 1 

being, as it were, made up of several united together ; 
it is broad, and underneath it has reddish scales. 
Now it is a peculiar fact about the roots of this plant 
that they wither every year and that the fresh 
growth of roots comes from the part of the plant 
which is above ground. Such is the character of 

Bramble and Christ's thorn may be considered to 
some extent plants of the water or the waterside, 
as they are in some districts ; but the distinctive 
characters of these plants are fairly clear, for we have 
spoken of both already. 1 

The floating islands of Orchomenos 2 are of various 
sizes, the largest being about three furlongs in cir- 
cumference. But in Egypt very large ones form, so 
that even a number of boars are found in them, and 
men go across to the islands to hunt them. Let 
this account of water-plants suffice. 

Of the length or shortness of the life of plants, and the causes. 

XIII. As to the comparative shortness of life of 
plants and trees of the water we may say thus much 
as a general account, that, like the water-animals, 
they are shorter-lived than those of the dry land. 
But we must enquire into the lives of those of the 
dry land severally. Now the woodmen say that 
the wild kinds are almost * without exception long- 
lived, and none of them is short-lived : so far they 
may be speaking the truth ; all such plants do live 
far longer than others. However, just as in the case 
of cultivated plants, some are longer-lived than others, 

2 c/. 4. 10. 2, to which § this note perhaps belongs. 

3 its el-Ruv conj. Sch.; d>s ccirc? ws cfaoi MV; &s by ttnoicv 


Digitized by 


Be rama aKeiTTeov. tcl Be fjfiepa (pavepws Bui- 
<j>epeL r<p ra jxev elvai fiatcpoftia tcl Be /3paj(yl3ia' 
a>9 S' a7rX&)9 elirelv tcl aypta twv rjfiepcov fiatcpo- 
ftiooTepa koX o\g>5 T<p yevei zeal tcl dvTLBiyprj/neva 
/caff* e/ea&TOv, olov kotlvos i\da<; KaX a^pa? dirLov 
ipiveos avKr)^' laftvpoTepa yap /ecu irvKVOTepa 
KaX dyovd)T€pa to?9 TrepLKapirioL^. 
2 T^i; Be /jLafcpoftioTTjTa yuapTvpovtriv eiri ye tivcov 
ica\ rjfJL€po)v koX dypicov koX ai TrapaBeBojuevat 
(fyrjfjLai irapd t&v fMvdoXoycov eXdav fiev yap 
XeyovcL ttjv 'AdrfvycL, <f>oLviKa Bk tov ev AtfXtp, 
kotlvov Be tov ev ^OXvfjLirLa, d(f> y ov 6 CTe^avo^' 
(farjyov? Be t<Z9 ev *I\i(p t«9 eirX tov "I\ov juvijfia- 
to9* Tive? Be (f>a<TL tcai ttjv ev Ae\<£>ot9 wXdravov 
'Ayajiifivova <j>VT€vaat KaX ttjv ev Ka(f>vai$ T779 
'KpKaBLa?. Tama jnev ovv 6Va>9 e^ei Ta% civ 
ere/309 etrj \6yo$* otl Be eaTi fieydXrj SicKpopd 
T(ov BevBpaov <f>avepov fxaKpoftta fiev yap ra T€ 
7rpo€iprjjiieva KaX eTepa irXeiw fSpayyfiLa Be KaX 
tA TOiavTa ofioXoyovfievco?, olov poia cvKrj firfkea, 
KaX tovtcov {] 7]pLV7] fiaXXov fcal f] yXvKela T1J9 
6feia9, &airep tg>v po&v 17 aTrvprjvo?. ftpaxvfiia 
Be KaX dfiireK(ov evia yevt) KaX fidXtcTa tcl ttoXv- 
Kapira' BoKel Be KaX tcl irdpvBpa /3paxvfjia>T€pa 

1 icai rh avr. conj. W. ; Kara am. UMV; ra am. Ald.H. 

2 •KcptKapviots : cf. CP. 1. 17. 5. 

8 On the Acropolis : cf. Hdt. 8. 55 ; Soph. O.C 694 foil. 

Digitized by 


and we must consider which these are. Cultivated 
plants plainly differ as to the length of their lives, 
but, to speak generally, wild plants are longer-lived 
than cultivated ones, both taken as classes, and also 
when one compares 1 the wild and cultivated forms 
of particular plants : thus the wild olive pear and fig 
are longer-lived than the corresponding cultivated 
trees ; for the wild forms of these are stronger and of 
closer growth, and they do not produce such well- 
developed fruit-pulp. 2 

To the long-lived character of some plants, both 
cultivated and wild, witness is borne also by the tales 
handed down in mythology, as of the olive at Athens, 8 
the palm in Delos, 4 and the wild olive at Olympia, 
from which the wreaths for the games are made ; 
or again of the Valonia oaks at Ilium, planted on the 
tomb of Ilos. Again some say that Agamemnon 
planted the plane at Delphi, and the one at Kaphyai 5 
in Arcadia. Now how this is may perhaps be 
another story, but anyhow it is plain that there is a 
great difference between trees in this respect ; the 
kinds that have been mentioned, and many others 
besides, are long-lived, while the following are ad- 
mittedly short-lived — pomegranate fig apple : and 
among apples the e spring ' sort and the ' sweet ' 
apple are shorter-lived than the 'sour' apple, even 
as the ' stoneless ' pomegranate is shorter-lived than 
the other kinds. Also some kinds of vine are short- 
lived, especially those which bear much fruit ; and it 
appears that trees which grow by water are shorter- 

4 Under which Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo : c/. 
Paus. 8. 48. 3; Cic. de Leg. 1. 1.; Plin. 16. 238. 
6 Its planting is ascribed to Menelaus by Paus. 8. 23. 3. 


VOL. I. C C 

Digitized by 


t&v iv toa9 %r)poi<; elvai, olov foea \evtcrj dteTt) 

8 "Ewa Se yrjpdatcei fiev teal arjireTai Ta%€G>9, 
irapafiXaaTdvei he irdXiv etc t&v ain&v, &a7rep at 
8d<f>vai teal ai p,ifkeai re teal al pbai teal t&v 
<f>i\vBp(ov tcl iroXkd* irepl &v teal o-tceyftaiT av 
T19 TroTepa TavTa hei Xiyeiv rj eTepa* tcadairep el 
t*9 to aTeXexp^ diro/eo^a?, &airep ttoiovciv oi 
yenpyol, irakiv dvaOepairevoi tov? /SXaaTOvs, r) el 
teal o\ct)9 etetcoyfreiev dyjpi t&v pi£&v teal eiriteav- 
aeiev teal yap raOra iroiovaiv, ore 8e teal diro 
tov avTOfjuaTov <rvfi/3aiv€r iroTepa 8r) tovto TavTo 
Sei Xeyeiv f) erepov; fj fiev yap del tcl pAprj ra? 
avgrjaei*; teal <f>0iaei$ fyalverai irapaXXdrrovra 
teal en t^9 Siateaddpaei? 7^9 vtt air&v, ravTrj 
p,kv &v Sofjeie Tavrbv elvai' tL yap hv eitl tovtcjv 

4 r) itcelvcov Sia<f>epoi; rj 8' &airep over la teal <j>v<Ti$ 
tov SevSpov fidXiar hv <j>aivoiTo to areXexp^, otov 
fieraXXaTTrj tovto, tcctv to oXov erepov viroXdfioi 
t*9, el jxi) apa Sid to airo t&v air&v dpy&v elvai 
Tavro 0eirj' teavroi iroXXdtei? avfiftalvei teal rd<$ 
/5ifa9 erepas elvai teal fxera/SaXXeiv t&v fikv arj7ro- 
fievcov t&v 8' 9 pXaaTavovc&v. eireL, eav 

dXrjOes xi> g>9 ye Tives fyaai, ra9 dfiireXov^ patepo- 

1 cf. CP. 2. 11. 5. 

2 kvaBepavtloi conj. W. ; avadtpairefct Aid. 

3 fl €i koI tktos conj. W. ; & *l koI tcahus U ; &cl koI ku\&s 
MV; Kal €i Ka\S>s Ald.H. 

4 Sc. and then encourage new growth. 


Digitized by 


lived than those which live in dry places : this is true 
of willow abele elder and black poplar. 

Some trees, though they grow old and decay 
quickly, shoot up again from the same stock, 1 as 
bay apple pomegranate and most of the water- 
loving trees. About these one might enquire 
whether one should call the new growth the same 
tree or a new one ; to take a similar case, if, after 
cutting down the trunk, one should, as the husband- 
men do, encourage 2 the new shoots to grow again, 
or if 3 one should cut the tree right down to the 
roots and burn the stump, 4 (for these things are 
commonly done, and they also sometimes occur 
naturally); are we then here too, to call the new 
growth the same tree, or another one ? In so far as 
it is always the parts of the tree which appear to 
alternate their periods of growth and decay and also 
the prunings which they themselves thus make, so 
far the new and the old growth might seem to be the 
same tree ; for what difference can there be in the 
one as compared with the other ? 5 On the other 
hand, in so far as the trunk would seem to be above 
all the essential part of the tree, which gives it its 
special character, when this changes, one might 
suppose that the whole tree becomes something 
different — unless indeed one should lay down that to 
have the same starting-point constitutes identity; 
whereas it often 6 happens that the roots too are 
different and undergo a change, since some decay 
and others grow afresh. 7 For if it be true, as some 
assert, that the reason why the vine is the longest 

* i.e. how can the substitution of one set of * parts' for 
another destroy the identity of the tree as a whole ? 

6 wq\\<Lkis conj. Sch. from G ; »oAA& koI Ald.H. 

7 And so the * starting-point ' too is not constant. 


c c 2 

Digitized by 


PiaTaTa? elvai r<p fit} <f>veiv ere pas aXX* if* avrwv 
del <rvvav<nr\r)pov<r0ai, yeXocov av ?o~et>9 Bokoltj toi- 
avrr) avytepiais edv <p>rj> fievy to aTeXexov avrrj 
yap olov virodeais teal <f)V(ri$ BevBpaov. tovto fiev 

OVV OTTOripQ)? 7T0T€ XetCTCOV OV0€V &V Sc€V€J/CaL 

5 777309 ret vvv. Ta%a 8' hv etrj /j,a/cpoj3id>TaTov to 
irdvTeos Bvvdfievov dvrap/ceiv, &airep rj iXda teal 
rq> areXexei teal t$ irapa^XaaTrjcei teal r<o 
BvacoXeO pov$ e%eLv t<*9 ptfas. Bo/cei Be 6 $109 
T779 ye fiia? elvai, tcaO* bv to areike'Xps Bet rrjv 
apxyv nOevra fMerpov dvafieTpelv rov yjiovov, 
fidXtara ire pi cttj Biateoaia. el 8' oirep eirl r&v 
dp/ireXwv Xeyovai rives, a>? 7rapaipovp,evcov r&v 
pt,£a>v Kara fiepos Svvarac Biajieveiv to 0"reXe;£O9, 
icai r] oXrj (f>v(ri<; ofioLa teal 6p,oio<f>6po<; oiroaovovv 
Xpovov, ixatcpofiitoTarov av eir) vrdvTwv. <f>aal Be 
Beiv ovtco iroielv orav ijBrj So/cr} tcara(f)€p€o~0av 
KXrjpxtrd t€ eTriftdXXeiv teal tcapirovaffac t6v 
iviavrov fiera Be ravra tcaraa-tcdyfravTa iirl 
Odrepa rrfs dpureXov irepacadapai irdaas t<x9 
pifa9, eW €fJL7r\rjaai <f>pvydvcov teal iirafirjaaaOai 

6 rrjv yrjv tovto) fiev ovv T<p eret tcatc&s <f>ep€iv 
a<j>6Bpa, tc5 o° vaTeptp ffeXTtov, t$ Be TpiTcp teal 

1 4£ abrtiov Aid., sc. t$>v f>i(uv ; 4k twv avruv conj. W. 

2 i.e. such an argument practically assumes the permanence 
of the trunk, which in the case of the vine can hardly be 
considered apart from the root. BokoIij roiavrri alyKpiois I 
conj. from G ; HiKaiordrii otyicpuris MVAld. ; BiKaiordnji 
ffvytcpiffas U; SokoItj tlvai rj avynpuris conj. Sch.; so W. in 
his earlier edition : in his later editions he emends wildly. 


Digitized by 


lived of trees, is that, instead of producing new 
roots, it always renews itself from the existing ones, 1 
such an illustration must surely lead to an absurd con- 
clusion, 2 unless 3 we assume that the stock persists, 
as it must do, since it is, as it were, the fundamental 
and essential part of a tree. However it cannot 
matter much for our present purpose which account 
is the right one. Perhaps we may say that the 
longest-lived tree is that which in all ways is able to 
persist, 4 as does the olive by its trunk, by its power 
of developing sidegrowth, and by the fact that its 
roots are so hard to destroy. It appears that the 
life of the individual olive (in regard to which one 
should make the trunk the essential part and standard 5 
in estimating the time), lasts for about two hundred 
years. But if it is true of the vine, as some say, that, 
if the roots are partly removed, the trunk is able to 
survive, and the whole character of the tree remains 
the same and produces like fruits for any period, 
however long, then the vine will be the longest-lived 
of all trees. They say that, when the vine seems to 
be deteriorating, this is what one should do :— one 
should encourage the growth of branches and gather 
the fruit that year ; and after that one should dig on 
one side of the vine and prune away all the roots on 
that side, and then fill the hole with brushwood and 
heap up the soil. In that year, they say, the vine 
bears very badly, but better in the next, while in the 

8 I have inserted yu^, which G seems to have read. 

4 avrapKiiv U, cf. Ar. Eq. 540 ; abrapKuv Aid. 

5 icaO 1 t>v rh (tt4\€X 0S T V *pxhv ri64vra I conj. ; so G ; 
Ka6' %p <ttc\€X°s T V &PXV TiBivra fi4rpov Ald.H. ; €t 
8c? for jjSrj U ; icaB' % rod <rr€\4xovs 5«t rhv ojkov ri04vra fi4rpov 
conj. W. ; ko.0* t>v rh <rr. ^Srf opxV *«i ^4rpov xph conj. Sch. 
cf. end of §4. 6 Plin. 16. 241. 


• Digitized t 


rerdpTfp Kaffiaraadai teal <f>epeiv ttoXXovs teal 
tcaXovs, &<rre firjSev Sia<f>ep€tv fj ore YjKfmfyv* 
€7T€iSap Sk irdTuv aTroirXriyf), Odrepov fikpos irapa- 
a/cdTTTeiv teal Oepcnrevew 6/jlolco?, zeal ovtgk; alel 
Scafievetv Troielv Se tovto judXtara Si irwv Sitea- 
Si b /cat K07rT€iv ovheirore t<w tovto ttoiovvtcls, 
dXX iirl yevea? TroXXaf; TavTa tcl aTeXexv 
fiiv€tv f &<tt€ firjSk /M€/jLvr)<r0ai tou9 <f>VT€v<ravTa<f 

TOVTO fl^V OVV ?<70)9 T(OV 7T€7r€lpafl€VQ)P CUCOVOVTCL 

Set 7naT€v€iv. to, Se pLaiepofiia teal fipayyfiia 
Sid t&v eiprjfxevwv deaprjTeov. 

XIV. Nocr?y/iaTa Se to?9 fi&v dypioi? ov (pacri 
%vn/3aL>eiv v<f>' &v dvaipovvrai, cf>avXa)s Se Sia- 
TiOeaOai teal fidXiaTa €7riSi]Xa)<: otov yakatpico- 
irr}0f) rj j3XaGTaveiv peXXovra fj dp^pfieva fj 
dpffovvTa, teal otov fj irvevpa yjrvxpov fj Oepfxbv 
iTriyevrjTat, Kara tovtov? tov$ tcaipov?. virb Sk 
Ttov &pamv %€*/-mow»z/ ovS\ av virep/SaXXovTes 
&aiv ovSev irdaxetv, dXXd /cal fjvpxfrepeiv iraai 
X€ip,a<r0fjvar p,rj ^e£/<ia<r0ei>Ta 1^9 /ca/cofiXao'TO- 
2 Tepa yivea 0ai. rofc Sk fffiepoi^ iaTl irXeieo voarj- 
fiaTa, koX Ta p,ev &a7T€p tcowa Trdaiv fj ro?9 
7r\€t<7T<M9 tcl S* iSia KaTa yevrj. tcoiva Srj to T€ 
ateayXrj/covo'dai /cal do-TpofioXeiaOai ical 6 a<f>a- 
tceXiafio?. airavra yap a>9 elireiv teal atcdoXrjtcas 

1 airoir\riyrj : airoK4\yn conj. Sch. 

2 Plin. 17. 216. » cf. CP. 5. 8. 3. 

4 kotA ytvri conj. W.; Kai t& yim) UMV; kolL kcltcl y4rq Aid. 

Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xm. 6-xiv. 2 

third and fourth it becomes normal again and bears 
many fair clusters, so that it is quite as good as when 
it was in its prime. And when it goes off again, 1 
they say one should dig on the other side and apply 
the same treatment; and that so treated the tree 
lasts for ever ; and this should be done at intervals of 
about ten years. And this is why those who adopt 
this treatment never cut down the vine, but the same 
stems remain for many generations, so that even 
those who planted the trees cannot remember doing 
so. However perhaps one should enquire of those 
who have had experience before accepting this state- 
ment. These examples may serve for considering 
which trees are long-lived and which short-lived. 

Of diseases and injuries done by weather conditions. 

XIV. 2 As to diseases — they say that wild trees 
are not liable to diseases which destroy them, but 
that they get into poor condition, and that most 
obviously when they are smitten with hail when 
either they are about to bud or are just budding 
or are in bloom ; also when either a cold or a hot 
wind comes at such seasons : but that from season- 
able storms, even if they be violent, they take no 
hurt, 3 but rather that it is good for them all to be 
exposed to weather : for, unless they are, they do 
not grow so well. Cultivated kinds however, they 
say, are subject to various diseases, some of which 
are, one may say, common to all or to most, while 
others are special to particular kinds. 4 General 
diseases are those 5 of being worm-eaten, of being 
sun-scorched, and rot. 6 All trees, it may be said, 

* Koivh, 8^ r6 t€ conj. W. ; noivh koI t6t* UMV; Koivi' otov 
r6r* Ald.H. • cf. 8. 10. 1. 


Digitized by 


tax 61 1T ^'h v ™ H* v iXaTTOv? tcl he irXeiovs, icada- 
Trep avKtj pwjXea /ecu amos. (£>9 he airKw elirelv 
fj/ciara o-KwXrjKovvraL ret, hpifiea Kal 07rcohrf^ teal 
aaTpofioXeirai ojaavrw fiaXXov he toI\ veois fj 
rofc ev dfCfifj tovto <rv/jb/3aLvei 9 TtdvTmv he fMaXicrra 
rfj re avfcf) Kal rrj dpsireXto. 

3 f H 8' iXda 7r/oo9 rep tov? aKooXrjKas taxeiv, oc 
hrj teal 77jv avKrjv hia<f>0€Lpovaiv €vtiktovt€<;, <f)V€i 
Kal fjXov oi he pLVfcrjra /caXovaiv, evioi he Xoirdha* 
tovto h* eaTiv olov fjklov Kavo~i<;. hta<f>deipovTat 
h* evLOTe Kal ai veav eXaai hia ttjp V7rep/3oXr)v ttj? 
TToXvtcapTrlas. i] he yfrdopa zeal oi irpoa<f>v6fi€VOi 
KO'xXiai av/cr)? elaiv* oi iravraxov he tovto 
avp,/3aivei rafc o-v/cals, dXX* eouce Kal to, 
voaripuaTa yiveadai tcaTa tov$ T07rof9, fiyairep rofc 
f(W049* eirel nap iviois oi yjrcopi&ai, KaOamep oihe 
irepl ttjv Alveiav. 

4 ^XiatceTai he av/cf} pudXiaTa /cal o-<f>a/c€Xiap,(p 
Kal Kpdhcp. KaXeiTai he a-^aKeXcapuo^ fiev otov ai 
pi^at neXavO&ai, Kpdho? 8* otov ol KXdhor Kal 
yap KaXovGi Tives Kpdhovs, offev Kal Tovvop,a Tjj 
v6a<p* 6 h y epiveb? ovtc Kpaha ovtc o-<f>aK€Xi^ei 
ovre yfraypia ovtc o~K(oXrjK0VTaL rafc pi^ai? 6p,oio)<;' 
oihe hrj tcl epwd TLve? dirofSaXkovGiv oih* eav 
ifufrvTevdcbo-iv et9 gvkt\v. 

1 birAhti UMVAld.; evt^ H., evidently from Plin. 17. 221. 
cf. CP. 5. 9. 4 and 5. 

2 \oirdtia : Plin. 17. 223, patella. The §\os is an abortive 
bud, called in Italian novolo. 

9 7]\lov Kctvvts conj. Seal, from Plin. I.e. veluti solis exustio : 
so also G ; 7\\oiavTov U ; %\oi avrhv V; %\oi avrav M ; %\oi 
avra>v Aid. which W. prints provisionally. 

39 2 

Digitized by 


have worms, but some less, as fig and apple, some 
more, as pear. Speaking generally, those least liable 
to be worm-eaten are those which have a bitter 
acrid 1 juice, and these are also less liable to sun- 
scorch. Moreover this occurs more commonly in 
young trees than in those which have come to their 
strength, and most of all it occurs in the fig and the 

The olive, in addition to having worms (which 
destroy the fig too by breeding in it), produces also 
a ' knot ' (which some call a fungus, others a bark- 
blister 2 ), and it resembles the effect of sun-scorch. 3 
Also sometimes young olives are destroyed by exces- 
sive fruitfulness. The fig is also liable to scab, and 
to snails which cling to it. However this does not 
happen to figs everywhere, but it appears that, as 
with animals, diseases are dependent on local con- 
ditions ; for in some parts, as about Aineia, 4 the figs 
do not get scab. 

The fig is also often a victim to rot and to 
krados. It is called rot when the roots turn black, 
it is called krados when the branches do so ; for 
some call the branches kradoi b (instead of kladoi), 
whence the name is transferred to the disease. The 
wild fig does not suffer from krados rot or scab, nor 
does it get so worm-eaten in its roots 6 as the culti- 
vated tree ; indeed some wild figs do not even shed 
their early fruit — not even if they are grafted 7 into 
a cultivated tree. 

4 cf. 5. 2. 1. 5 Evidently a dialectic form. 

• f>l(ais PAld. ; avnais W. after conj. of Sch. 

7 4p<pvT€v6a>(riv conj. Sch.; tvi <f>vr. UMV; tin* <pur. Aid. 
Apparently the object of such grafting was the * caprification ' 
of the cultivated tree {cf. 2. 8. 3) ; but grafting for this 
purpose does not seem to be mentioned elsewhere. 


Digitized by 


5 f H 8k yfrdopa fiakiara yivercu orav v8eop iirl 
HXecdSi yiprjrat jit) tto\v* idv 8k ttoXv, diro- 
fc\v£eTai' avfx/3aLV€L 8k Tore teal to, ipeva dirop- 
pelv zeal tov$ 6\vv0ov$. tg>v 8k GtccoXrjtccov t5>v 
iv Tafc <tv teal? oi jukv if; airy)? yivovrai oi Se 
imv/cTovTai virb rov fcdkovfievov /cepdcrTOV iravres 
8k €t9 KepdaTtjv dTroKaOLaramaL* <f>0eyyovTai 8k 
olov Tpiyfiov. voael 8k a vie?} teal idv iirofi&pia 
yivrjrar rd re yap 717)09 rtjv pi^av Kal avTtj 17 
pi^a &<rirep fm8a* tovto 8k tcaXovai Xoirav. 

6 7] 8* afiirekos rpaya* tovto 8k judXtCTa avTrj? 
io~Ti 777009 t& daTpoftoXeiaOat,, tj OTav virb 
TrvevfidTcov /3\ao~TOKO7rr)0j} rj OTav ttj ipyaaia 
avfiirdOrj tj Tpvrov viTTia TfirjOf). 

'Pva? 8k yiveTai, KaXovaL Tives yjriveerOai, 
OTav i7rtvt(f)dr) Kara, ttjv aTrdvOrjaiv fj otov 
/cpeiTTwOjj* to 8k irdOos ccttIv &o~t€ diroppelv t«9 
payas koX tcl? eirLfievova-as elvai fiucpd?. evta 8k 
Kal piywo-avTa voael, tcaOdirep 17 afiirekor dfi- 
ffXovvTai ydp oi 6<f>0a\fiol t% irpeoTOTOfwv* Kal 
irdXiv vTrepOepfiavOevra* ftyret yap teal Tovrtav Ttjv 
o-VfifieTpiav &airep Kal rrfc Tpo<f>r^. o\a>9 8k irav 
to irapa <j>vaw €7nfdv8vvov. 

1 cf. CP. 5. 9. 10; Col. 5. 9. 15. 

2 cf. 5. 4. 5 ; CP. 5. 10. 5; Plin. 17. 221. 

s avrfy y frl(a 1 conj. ; abr^v r^v f>((av U ; om. Aid. 
* cf. CP. 5. 9. 12 ; Plin. 17. 225. 

5 i.e. shedding of the 'bark' of the roots, \o-nav conj. 
Sch., cf. CP. 5.9. 9 ; Ald.H., cf. 4. 14. 3 ; but the 

word here points to a different disease. 

8 vwrta rofiii seems to be a technical term for pruning in 
such a way that the growth of the new wood is encouraged 


Digitized by 


Scab 1 chiefly occurs when there is not much rain 
after the rising of the Pleiad ; if rain is abundant, 
the scab is washed off, and at such times it comes 
to pass that both the spring and the winter figs drop 
off. Of the worms found in fig-trees some have their 
origin in the tree, some are produced in it by the 
creature called the ' horned worm ' ; but they all turn 
into the ' horned worm ' ; 2 and they make a shrill 
noise. The fig also becomes diseased if there is 
heavy rain ; for then the parts towards the root and 
the root itself 3 become, as it were, sodden, 4 and this 
they call 6 bark-shedding/ 5 The vine suffers from 
over-luxuriance ; this, as well as sun-scorch, specially 
happens to it either when the young shoots are cut 
by winds, or when it has suffered from bad cultivation, 
or, thirdly, when it has been pruned upwards. 6 

The vine becomes a ' shedder,' 7 a condition which 
some call ' casting of the fruit,' if the tree is snowed 
upon at the time when the blossom falls, or else 
when it becomes over lusty ; 8 what happens is that the 
unripe grapes drop off, and those that remain on the 
tree are small. Some trees also contract disease 
from frost, for instance the vine ; for then the eyes of 
the vine that was pruned early become abortive ; and 
this also happens from excessive heat, for the vine 
seeks regularity in these conditions too, as in its 
nourishment. And in general anything is dangerous 
which is contrary to the normal course of things. 

and so there is less fruit : exact sense obscure ; ? * from 
below' (i.e. with the blade of the knife pointing upwards). 
cj. CP. I.e.; Col. 4. 24. 15 ; Plin. I.e., in supinum excisis. 

7 cf. CP, 5. 9. 13. 

8 KptiTTwOy : i.e. the growth is over-luxuriant. The word 
occurs elsewhere only in the parallel passage CP. I.e., where 
occurs also the subst. Kpclrrwffis, evidently a technical term. 


Digitized by 


7 Mey dXa Se gvfifidXXerat /cal rd rpavfiara teal 
ai irXriyal twv TrepiG/cairTovTtov eh to fir) <f>epeii/ 
ra? fieraftoXas r) /cavfidrayv r) yeifitovw daOeve? 
yap bv hid rrjv eXrcaxnv /cal top ttovov ebyeipco- 
totcltov i<rri rah virepfioXah. a^eSbv 8e, w? ti j/€9 
oiovrai, rd TrXelara ra>v vocrrffidrcov airb 7rXr)yr}<? 
ytverar /cal yap ra aarpo^Xrjra /caXovfieva /cal 
rd afyaiceXi^ovTa hid to dirb ravTrjs eivai t£>v 
pi^&v rbv 7T0V0V. otovrai 8e KaX 8vo Tavras elvcu 
fibvas vogovs' ov firjv dXXd touto y ov/c dyav 
bfioXoyovfievov ian. 

[Hdvrcov S* da-devearaTOV r) firjXea r) rjpivr) /cal 
tovtcov r) yXv/ceia.] 

8 "Eviai 8e Trr}pcb<r€i<; ov/c eh <f>8opdv yivovrai 
oXcov a\V eh d/capTrLav blov idv rxs t?)? ttitvo? 
d<j>eXr) to d/cpov r) rov <j>oivi/co<;, d/capira yiveaffat 
d/jL<f)co 8o/cel /cal oix o\o)9 dvaipelaOai. 

TLvovrai 8e vbaoi KaX t&v /capircbv dvr&v, idv 
fir) Kara /caipbv rd irvevfiara real ra ovpdvia 
yevrfrar avfifiaivei yap ore fiev dirofUdXXeiv 
yevofievcov r) fir) yevofievwv vSdrcov, olov Ta? o~v/ca$, 
ore 8e %et/}0U9 yuveaOai arjirofievov^ /cal /carairviyo- 
fievov? r) irdXw dvagrjpaivofievov? irapd to 8eov. 
yeipivrov 8e idv diravdovai tigiv iipvar), /caOdirep 
iXda /cal dfi7reXa>' avvairoppel yap 6 /cap7rb<; oV 

1 Plin. 17. 227. 

2 ivx^ip<*ir6raTov conj. W. after Lobeck ; evxciptrarov Aid. 

3 ttSuov conj. H. from G ; t6ttov MVAld. 

4 This sentence is clearly out of place : the plural rovruv 
has nothing to refer to. cf. 4. 13. 2. It is represented how- 
ever by Plin. I.e. 


Digitized by 


1 Moreover the wounds and blows inflicted by men 
who dig about the vines render them less able to bear 
the alternations of heat and cold ; for then the tree is 
weak owing to the wounding and to the strain put 
upon it, and falls an easy prey 2 to excess of heat 
and cold. Indeed, as some think, most diseases 
may be said to be due to a blow; for that even 
the diseases known as ' sun-scorch ' and ' rot ' occur 
because the roots have suffered in this way. 3 In 
fact they think that there are only these two 
diseases ; but there is not general agreement on this 

The ' spring apple ' and especially the sweet 
form of it, has the weakest constitution. 4 

6 Some mutilations however do not cause destruc- 
tion of the whole 6 tree, but only produce barrenness ; 
for instance, if one takes away the top of the Aleppo 
pine or the date-palm, the tree in both cases appears 
to become barren, but not to be altogether destroyed. 

There are also diseases of the fruits themselves, 
which occur if the winds and rains do not come 
in due season. For it comes to pass 7 that sometimes 
trees, figs, for example, shed their fruit when rain 
does or does not come, and 8 sometimes the fruit is 
spoilt by being rotted and so choked off, 9 or again 
by being unduly dried up. It is worst of all for 
some trees, as olive and vine, if rain falls on them as 
they are dropping their blossom ; 10 for then the fruit, 
having no strength, drops also. 

6 Plin. 17. 228 and 229. 

6 t\wv conj. W.; timv P 2 Ald.H. cf. CP. 5. 17. 3 and 6. 

7 cf. CP. 5. 10. 5. 

8 5* add. Sch. •cf.C.P.Lc. 

10 toavdovat conj. Sch. from G and Plin. I.e. ; ivavBovfft Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


*Ev MtXrjrq) Bk Ta$ iXdas, orav coat, trepl to 
dv0elv, tcapmai teaTeaOiovaw, ai ph> ra <f>vXXa ai 
Be Tct avdrj, erepat t$ yevei, teal yfriXovcu Tti 
BivBpa* yivovTai Be iav y voria teal evBieivd* ictv 
Be iiriXdfiri Kavpara ptfyvvvrai. 

He pi 8k Tdpavra irpo^alvovai pkv del iroXvv 
tcapTTov, xnro he ttjv diravOrjaiv Ta ttoXX' airoX- 
Xvrai. ret pJev ovv roiavra tcov tottcov "Bia. 

TlveTCU Bk teal aXXo voarjpa irepl ras &da? 
dpdyyiov tcaXovpbevov <j>v€Tai yap tovto real Bia- 
<f>0€ip€i tov /eapnov. hrucaei Be /col Kavpard 
nva koX eXdav teal ftorpvv teal aXXof 9 tcapTrov<s. 
oi Be fcapnol a/cayXrj/covvrai tivcov, otov ekdas 
dirlov prjXeas pLeairtXr)? poa?. teal o ye t?}? iXdas 
<ncdikr)% iav puev biro to oeppa yivrjrai Biaxf>0elpei 
top teapirov, iav Be tov irvprfva BiaQdyy axpeXel. 
xcoXverai Be* virb T<p Sep pari elvai vBaTo? err 
*ApKTovp<p yevofiivov. yivovTai Bk koX iv Tai$ 
Bpvireireai 0/cd>Xr)tce<;, aiirep teal ^eipovs eU tt)v 
pvatv oA.a>9 Bk ica\ Boteovaw elvai aairpai* Bi b 
teal yivovTai rofc vot'iois teal puaXXov iv T019 
i<f>vBpoi<;. iyyivovTai Be teal Kviires ev tigi t&v 
BevBpwv, &o-7T€p iv Tfj Bpvi teal Trj avtefr teal 
Botcovaiv i/c Tf)$ vypoTrjTO? avvlaTaaOai Trj? virb 
tov <j)Xoibv avviGTapLevw a\)Tr\ Bi iaTi yXvieela 
yevopbevots. yivovTai Be teal iv Xa*)(avoi$ Tiaiv, 

1 c/. CP. 5. 10. 3. 

2 Tarentum : c/. G.P. Ix. 

s i,irdv$fi<rtv conj. W.; &v0ti<riv Aid. 
4 Plin. 17. 229-231. 

• hp&xnov conj. Sch. after Meurs. ; hplxvtov UP a ; hpxix vtov 
MVP ; kpxiviov Aid. cf. CP. 5. 10. 2. 


Digitized by 


1 In Miletus the vines at the time of flowering are 
eaten by caterpillars, some of which devour the 
flowers, others, a different kind, the leaves ; and they 
strip the tree ; these appear if there is a south wind 
and sunny weather ; if the heat overtakes them, the 
trees split. 

About Taras 2 the olives always shew much fruit, 
but most of it perishes at the time when the blossom 
falls. 8 Such are the drawbacks special to par- 
ticular regions. 

4 There is also another disease incident to the 
olive, which is called cobweb; 6 for this forms 6 
on the tree and destroys the fruit. Certain hot 7 
winds also scorch both olive vine-cluster and other 
fruits. And the fruits of some get worm-eaten, 8 as 
olive pear apple medlar pomegranate. Now the 
worm which infests the olive, if it appears below the 
skin, destroys the fruit ; but if it devours the stone it 
is beneficial. And it is prevented from appearing 
under the skin if there is rain after 9 the rising of 
Arcturus. Worms also occur in the fruit which 
ripens on the tree, and these are more harmful as 
affecting the yield of oil. Indeed these worms seem 
to be altogether rotten ; wherefore they appear when 
there is a south wind and particularly in damp 
places. The knips 10 also occurs in certain trees, as 
the oak and fig, and it appears that it forms from the 
moisture which collects under the bark, which is 
sweet to the taste. Worms also occur 11 in some 

8 <pv€rai Aid.; ifitpvcrai conj. Sch. from CP. I.e., but the 
text is perhaps defective. 

7 cf CP. 5. 10. 5. 8 cf. CP. 5. 10. 1. 

9 4*> conj. Sch., cf. CP. 5. 10. 1 ; fcr» U; &*' Ald.H. 

10 cf. 2. 8. 3. 

11 The subject of ylvovrai is probably <nc<*A);/c€j, not wives. 


Digitized by 

evOa Be /edfi7rat Sia<j>epovcrrj^ SrjXop otl T779 

11 Kal ra pep voarjiMara <7%eSoi/ ravra teal ip 
tovtoi? £<ttLv. evia Be Trdffrj tcop Kara Ta9 &pa<; 
Kal rcov Kara tou9 tottovs yipofiepcop avcupeiv 

7T€<f>VK€P f a OVK &P Tt9 €L7TOl POCOVS, oloV XeyCJ TT)P 

€k7T7}^lp Kal b KaXovaL ripe? /cavOfiop. aXXa 8& 
irap 9 efedaToi? ire<f>vK€ TTpeufiara diroXXvpai Kal 
diroKaeiP' olop ip XaTuciSi rr]$ YLvftoia? 'OXvjMrrias 
orap 7TP€var) fxiKpop irpo Tpoir&p rj /juera rpoira^ 
%€ifi€pipa<; yjrvxp6<r diroKaei yap tcl BepSpa xal 
ovtcds ava iroiel Kal %r)pa ax? ovS' ap v<f>* fjXiov 
Kal xpopov ttoXXov yepoir ap, Si h Kal KaXovai 
KavOfiop* iyepero Be ir pore pop ttoXK&ki*; tfSrj Kal 

€7T ApXlTTTrOV Si €T&P T €TTap&KOPTa <T(f>oBp6<;. 

12 Tlopovai Be fidXiara ra>p tottwp oi koTXoi Kal 
ol avXcopes Kal oaoi irepl rov<; iroTafiov? Kal 
dirX&s ol airpevGTOTaror ra>p SepSpcop Be fidXiara 
arvKT], Sevrepov Be eXda* eXda? Be fidXXov 6 
kotipo? €7r6pr)aep la^vporepo^ &p t o Kal davfiaarbp 
f\p % at Be dfjbvyBaXal to irdymap airaOeW diradei^ 
Be Kal ai firjXeai Kal ai airioi Kal ai poat iyepopTO* 
Si b xal rovro rjv ffavfiaarop. diroKderai Sk 
evOix; ck tov areXexov^, Kal oXco? Be fiaXXop Kal 
irporepop e!>9 eliretp dmerai <ra apco> t&p Kara). 
<f>ap€pa Be yiperai ra fiep a/na irepl ttjp pXaarrjaiP, 

1 Plin. 17. 232. 

2 rutv Karb. rovs t6ttovs conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e. ; tu>v naff 
out A Aid. 

8 iKirqliv conj. Sch.; &cir\ritiv UMP 2 Ald. cf. CP. 5. 12. 2, 

4 cf. CP. 5. 12. 4. 


Digitized by Google 


pot-herbs, as also do caterpillars, though the origin 
of these is of course different. 

Such are in general the diseases, and the plants 
in which they occur. Moreover 1 there are certain 
affections due to season or situation 2 which are likely 
to destroy the plant, but which one would not call 
diseases : I mean such affections as freezing 3 and 
what some call ( scorching.' Also 4 there are winds 
which blow in particular districts that are likely to 
destroy or scorch ; for instance the ( Olympian ' 
wind of Chalcis in Euboea, when it blows cold a 
little before or after the winter solstice ; for this 
wind scorches up the trees and makes them more 
dry and withered than they would become from the 
sun's heat even in a long period ; wherefore its effect 
is called ' scorching.' In old times it occurred very 
frequently, and it recurred with great violence in 
the time of Archippus, after an interval of forty 

5 The places which suffer most in this way are 
hollow places, valleys, the ground near rivers, and, in 
general, places which are least open to wind ; the 
tree which suffers most is the fig, and next to that 
the olive. The wild olive, being stronger, suffered 
more than the cultivated tree, which was surprising. 
But the almonds were altogether unscathed, as also 
were the apples pears and pomegranates ; wherefore 
this too was a surprising fact. The tree gets scorched 
by this wind right down to the trunk, and in general 
the upper are caught more and earlier than the lower 
parts. 6 The effects are seen partly at the actual 

6 c/. CP. 5. 12. 7 ; Plin. 17. 232 and 233. 

6 k&tw UMVP ; &va W. after Sch.'s conj. : text probably 
defective ; I have added t4 & v<a. cf. C. P. 5. 12. 5. 


vol. 1. D D 

Digitized by 


7) h\ ekda hia to defyvWov fiarepow 8aai p,kv otrv 
av <f>vXkofHo\r)G(0o-iv dva/3id><r/covrai irdXiv, ocrai 
8' &v fJbTj re\e(o<s arroWv vtcu. irap ivioi? he rive? 
diro/cavOeiaai /cal r&v (j>vWa>v avavOevrav dve- 
fi\darrj(Tav irdXiv avev rod dirofiaXeiv /cal ra 
<f>vXXa dveftLcoo-ev. ivia%ov he /cal iroXXcucis 
tovto crvfiftdLvei, /caddrrep /cal iv <f>iXimroi<i* 

Ta S* i/c7rayevra f orav pur) reXew? diroX , qrat 9 
rdyiara dvafSXaardvei, &are evOv? rr)v ajwreXop 
KapirofyopeZv, &<nrep iv SerraXiq. iv he t$> 
Tl6vr<p rrepl Havri/cdiraiov ai p&v i/cwrj^ei^ 
yivovrai St%ft>v, ore fiev virb yftv^ov^ iav ^eipipiov 
rj to €T09, ork he vrrb rrdycov idv ye iroXirv 'xpovov 
Siafievaxri. dfjuf>6repa he* fidXiara yiyvovrai 
fiera rpoiras irepl t<W T€TTapd/covra. yivovrai 
he oi fiev irdyoi rai<; afflpiai<s, ra Be ^vXV fidXicrra 
v<f> &v rj eKirrjIfis orav aWpia? ovarjs ai Xewihes 
icara^epoavrai. ravra iarlv wenrep ra ^va/mra 
rrXrjv irXarvrepa, /cal <f>ep6fi€va <f>avepa rreaovra 
he ov hia/iever rrepl he rrjv Qpatcrjv i/cirrjyvvvrai. 

'AXXa yap ai fiev voaoi iroaat re /cal irolai /cat 
rive? yivovrai /cal 7rdXiv ai hi virepjSoXrjp 
*)(eipL&vo<i rj Kavfidroav <f>0opal /cal ai hia irvev- 
fidrcov yfrvxpoTrjTa rj Oepfiorrjra hia rovrwp 
0€(op€L<j0a)o-av &v ivias ovOev av kcoXvol /cal rot? 
aypiois elvai /coivcts /cal /cara rrjv oXrjv r&v 
hivhpcov <f>0opav /cal eri fidXXov /caret rrjv r&v 
/capw&v ft /cal <rvfi/3aivov op&fJLev ov/c evKapiret 

1 Plin. 17. 233. 

2 iK-nayhra conj. Sch.; licwKayivra U ; 4K*\Tjy4ma Aid. 
8 idv yc conj. Sch.; &v 5« U; ebv ir. x- 8. 7« Aid. 


Digitized by 


time of budding, but in the olive, because it is 
evergreen, they do not appear till later ; those trees 
therefore which have shed their leaves come to life 
again, but those that have not done so are completely 
destroyed. In some places trees have been known, 
after being thus scorched and after their leaves have 
withered, to shoot again without shedding their 
leaves, and the leaves have come to life again. 
Indeed in some places, as at Philippi, this happens 
several times. 

1 Trees which have been frost-bitten, 2 when they 
are not completely destroyed, soon shoot again, so 
that the vine immediately bears fruit, for instance 
in Thessaly. In Pontus near Panticapaeum the 
frost-bite occurs in two ways, either just from cold, 
if the season is wintry, or from long 8 spells of 
frost ; in either case this generally occurs in the 4 
forty days after the winter solstice. The frosts 
occur in fine weather, but the cold spells, which 
cause the frost-bite, chiefly when in fine weather the 
' flakes ' 5 fall ; these are like filings, but broader, 
and can be seen as they fall, but when they have 
fallen, they disappear — though in Thrace they freeze 

Let this suffice for consideration of the diseases, 
their number and nature, including the fatal effects 
of excessive cold and heat or of cold or hot winds. 
And it may well be that certain of these also affect 
wild trees, producing entire destruction of the tree 
and still more that of the fruit. Indeed we see this 
actually happen; for wild trees also often fail to 

4 *epl conj. Sch., c/. CP. 5. 12. 4 ; /xeri UMVAld. 
6 Aevtot * conj. Seal, from G {equammtdae) ; teicfocs Aid. c/. 
Hdt. 4. 31. 


D D 2 

Digitized by 


yap oiB' ixeiva 7roWd/ci$, dXX' ov% Ofioioas olfuu 
ir a pareTrjprjTai . 

XV. Xolttov B* elirelv oaa Trapaipovfievcov 
tiv&v pjopLwv airoWvTai. kolvtj fiev Bi) Tract 
<j)0opa tov <f>\oiov TrepiaipeOevro^ kvk\w irav 
yap (»9 elirelv ovtg>$ diroXkvaOat, So/eet irXrjv 
avhpd'xkri' teal avrrj Be idv ti$ ttjv crdp/ca a<f>6Bpa 
inkcrj zeal tov fieXXovTa fiXaaTov Sia/eoyfry irXr)v 
el apa faXXov' tovtov yap <f>a<ri Kal evaOevelv 
fiaXXov Trepiacpovfiivov BijXov oti tov e^to Kal 
tov KaTco 7r/)09 Ttj aapKi, tcaOdirep teal t?}9 dvBpd- 

X^V?* €7T€k Kal TOV K€pdcTOV 7T€piaip€tTai KOt 

t??9 dpnreXov koX Tr)<$ faXvpas, i£ ov to, Gypiv'ia, 
Kal fiaXdxv^ T <*> v iXaTTOvcov, dXX' 6 Kvpio? 
oiB' 6 7T/0WTO9, a\\' o iirnroXr)^, 09 Kal avTOfUiTO^ 
ivioTe diroirLirTei Bia ttjv virofyvaiv OaTepov. 
2 Kal yap (frXoioppayr) evia tg>v BivBpcov iaTiv, 
&airep Kal 7) dvBpd'xXrj Kal r) irXaTavo?. ft>9 Be 
Tives olovTai, irdXiv virofyveTai veo<s, 6 Bk HgcoOev 
a7ro£r)paiv€Tai Kal prjyvvTat Kal avTop/iTOs 
dTtoirvTTTei iroXX&v, dXX* ov% o/iot&>9 €7r/&;\o9. 
(pOeipovTai fiev oiv, a>9 otovTai, ndvTa Trepwupov- 
fievovy Bva^ipei Bk t$ OcLttov Kal ftpaBvTepov Kal 

1 Plin. 17. 234; c/. CP. 5. 15. 1. 

2 c/. 1. 5. 2. 

3 PXaorbv conj. Sch. from G ; Kapvhv UAld.H. 

4 Plin. 17. 234-236. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xiv. 14-xv. 2 

produce a good crop of fruit ; but, I imagine, they 
have not been so well observed. 

Of the effects on trees of removing bark, head, heart-wood, 
roots, etc.; of various causes of death. 

XV. 1 Next we must mention what trees perish 
when certain parts are removed. All perish alike, if 
the bark is stripped off all round ; one may say that 
every tree, except the andrachne, 2 perishes under 
these circumstances; and this tree does so also, if 
one does violence to the flesh, and so breaks off the 
new growth 8 which is forming. However one 
should perhaps except the cork-oak; for this, they 
say, is all the stronger if its bark is stripped off, that 
is, the outer bark and also that which lies below it 
next the flesh — as with the andrachne. For the 
bark is also stripped from the bird-cherry the vine 
and the lime (and from this the ropes are made), 
and, among smaller plants, from the mallow ; but in 
these cases it is not the real nor the first bark which 
is taken, but that which grows above that, which 
even of its own accord sometimes falls off because 
fresh bark is forming underneath. 

4 In fact some trees, as andrachne and plane, have 
a bark which cracks. 5 As some think, in many cases 
a new bark forms 6 underneath, while the outer bark 
withers and cracks and in many cases falls off of its 
own accord ; but the process is not so obvious as it is 
in the above mentioned cases. Wherefore, as they 
think, all trees are destroyed by stripping the bark, 
though the destruction is not in all cases equally 

• cf. CP. 3. 18. 3. Qkoioppayrj tvia conj. Mold.; <f>\oiop- 
payta /ila UMV; <pvXXopoyla fila Aid. 
9 viro<pv€Tat conj. W.; inro<pv€i Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


fxaXkov /cal fjTTOV. evta yap irteito yjpovov Bia- 
fievei, /caOdirep <rvtcr} /cal (f)l\vpa teal Bpvv ol Be 
/cal £fjy (j>a<rt ravra, ty) v & KaL irrekiav /ecu 
<f)OLVLtca' T779 Be <f>i\vpa<; /cal avp,(f>ve<rOai rbv 
<f>\oibv irXyv /iiKpov* t&p Be dXXcav olov ir&pov- 
adai teal IBiav nva <f>v<rtp c^ew. ftorjOeiv Be 
ireip&vrat 8icv7r\aTTOVT6<; irrfkQ /cal irepiBovvTe^ 
tfikoioi? /cal /caXapLOis /cal Tofc toiovtois, Siro*? jxrj 
tyvyryrai px\8 aTrofjrjpaLvrjrai. /cal rjBrj <fiaai irov 
dvaxfcvvai, /caOdirep /cal ev 'Hpa/eXeLarj) T/oa%/i>ta, 

3 t<z<? av/ca?. Bel Be afxa ttj 7-779 %a>/oa9 apery /cal 
tt} rov aepo? Kpaaei /cal rc\ eTriyvyvo/neva roiavra 
elvar yei,p,<avtov yap fj /eavjxdroov eiriyivop.evw 
<r<f>oBp&v evOvs airoXXwrar Bia<f>epovai Be /cal 
al co par irepl yap rrjv /3Xd<rT7)<riv €\aT*/9 tf 
Trev/cf)?, ore /cat XoTr&ai, rov ®apyr)\ifi>vo$ rj 
^mppofyopi&vos av W TrepieXrj, Trapaxpfj/m air- 
oKkvTai. rov Be %ety«wi/09 irXeLco xpovov avr- 
eyei /cal en /mXKov rh l<rx v P° Tara > /caddirep irpl- 
j/09 /cal S/0V9* XP 0VLa) Tepa yap tovtcov <f>0opd. 

4 Set Be /cal ttjv irepiaipevw eyeiv n irXdros, 
TrdvTtov fiev fidXiara Be rcov laxvpordrw eirel 
civ t*9 jjLi/cpav iravreXw? Troitfcp, ovdev aroirov to 
fi)f cvwoKKvcrOar /c air 01 <f>a<ri ye t«/€9, icbv 07r- 
ocrovovv, avfi(j>0€Lp€(Tdat irdvTW dXX* eirl r&v 
daOeveareprnv tovt €t«09. evia yap /c&v fit) 
icv/ck(p ireptaipeOrj $QeLpecrQaL <f)acriv, a /cal 

1 ku\ add. W. (text defective in MSS. except U). 


Digitized by 


rapid or complete. Some in fact, as fig lime and oak, 
survive for some time ; indeed some say that these 
recover, and also the elm and date-palm, and 
that the bark even of the lime almost entirely 
closes up again, while in other trees it forms as it 
were a callus and 1 acquires a peculiar new character. 
Men try to help the tree by plastering it with mud 
and tying pieces of bark reeds or something of the 
kind about it, so that it may not take cold nor 
become dried up. And they say that the bark has 
been known to grow again ; 2 for instance that that 
of the fig-trees at the Trachinian Heraclea did so. 
However this does not only depend on the quality of 
the soil and on the climate ; the other circumstances 
which ensue must also be favourable ; for, if great 
cold or heat ensues, the tree perishes at once. The 
season also makes a difference. For if one strips the 
bark of a silver-fir or fir at the time when the buds 
are shooting during Thargelion or Skirrophorion, 3 at 
which season it is separable, the tree dies at once. 
If it is done however in winter, the tree holds out 
longer; and this is especially true of the strongest 
trees, such as kermes-oak and oak ; these it takes 
longer to kill. However the piece stripped off must 
be of a certain breadth to cause the death of the 
tree, especially in the case of the strongest trees ; for, 
if one does it only a little, it is not surprising that 
the tree should not be killed ; though some indeed 
say that, if it is done at all, 4 the tree certainly dies ; 
this however is probably true only of the weaker 
kinds. For some, they say, if they are in bad barren 

2 avaQvvai conj. Seal, from G ; <pvvat Ald.H. 

3 May- June. 

4 biroffovovv conj. Sch. from G ; Sxccvovv Aid. 


Digitized by 


Xvirpdv e^ec %(bpav /cal arpo<f>ov. avrrj fiev 8ij, 
/caOdirep eiprjrai, /coivrj <f)0opa it&vtcov. 

XVI. A Hi> Be /caXouaiv eiriKOTrr]v ra>v BevBpcov, 
pbvov 7T€Vfcr)^ iXdrrjs tt'ltvos fyoLvi/cos, ol Be teal 
/ceBpov /cal KvirapLTTOV <J>aaL ravia yap, iav 
wepiaipeOy ttjv /copurjv avcoOev /cal eiriKoirri to 
ate pov, <f)0€Lp€TaL irdvra /cal ov /SXaardvei, /caffd- 
irep ovB' eirucavQevTa rj irdvra rj evia. tcl S' 
aXXa irdvra /cal irepiKOirevTa fiXacrrdvei, /cal 
evid ye /caXXiay yLverai, /caOdirep r) iXda, Bia- 
(f)0€Lp€rat Be tcl iroXXa, /cap o-yiaOri to areXexo^' 
ovBev yao virofievetv Bo/cei irXrjV d/nreXov /cal 
av/cr)? tcai poa? /cal p,rjXea<;' evia Be kolv eX/cmOr) 
/cal fiec^ov /cal fHaOvrepov diroXXvTai. tcl 8' 
ovBev irda^ei, /caffdirep r) irev/crj BaBovpyovp,evr), 
/cal it; &v Br) ra? pr)Tiva<; avXXeyovaiv, olov eXd- 
TTjs TepfiuvOov /cal yap Brj tovtcov eh fidOos r) 
Tpw(W /cal eX/caxris. /cal yap e£ d<f>6pcov (fropdBes 
yuvovrai /cal i£ 6Xiyo(f>6po)v iroXvfyopoi. 
2 Ta Be /cal ireXeK^civ viropuevet /cal bp0d /cal 
ireaovTa virb irveifiaTO^, &are irdXiv dviaraaOai 
/cal £r)v /cal /SXaaTaveLV, olov Wea /cal irXdravo?. 
oirep avveftr) /cal ev 'AvTavBpcp /cal ev QiXiTrirov? 
e/crreaovarj^ yap <*><; aire/co'tyav tovs d/cpepiovas 
/cal eireXe/crjaav, dvecfrvrj vv/crcop i) irXdravo^ 
/covfaadelaa rov ftdpov? /cal avefJc'co /cal 6 <£\o*o? 
7repte<f>v irdXiv. Trapa7r€7reXe/crjpb€vr) 8' eWvyyavev 
i/c Tcbv Bvo fiep&v r)v Be to BevBpov pAya p,fj/co<; 

1 Plin. 17. 236 ; c/. 3. 7. 2; CP. 5. 17. 3. 

2 cf. 3. 9. 5. 

3 &v<aOev koI conj. W. : koI &va>6ev Aid. 

4 cf. 1.3. 3; 1. 14. 2. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xv. 4 -xvi. 2 

soil, die even if the bark is not stripped all round. 
This then, as has been said, is a universal cause of 

XVI. 1 The process which is called topping of 
trees is fatal only to fir silver-fir Aleppo pine 2 and date- 
palm, though some add prickly cedar and cypress. 
These, if they are stripped of their foliage at the 
top 8 and the crown is cut off, perish wholly and do 
not shoot again, as is the case with some, if not with 
all, if they are burnt. But all other trees shoot 
again after being lopped, and some, such as the 
olive, 4 become all the fairer. However most trees 
perish if the stem is split ; 6 for no tree seems able to 
stand this, except vine fig pomegranate and apple ; 
and some perish even if they are wounded severely 
and deeply. Some however take no harm 6 from 
this, as the fir when it is cut for tar, and those trees 
from which the resins are collected, as silver-fir and 
terebinth ; though these trees are in fact then deeply 
wounded and mangled. Indeed they actually become 
fruitful 7 instead of barren, or are made to bear 
plentifully instead of scantily. 

Some trees again submit to being hewn both 
when they are standing and when they have been 
blown down, so that they rise up again and live and 
shoot, for instance the willow and the plane. 8 This 
was known to happen in Antandros and at Philippi ; 
a plane in Antandros having fallen and had its boughs 
lopped off and the axe applied to its trunk, grew 
again in the night when thus relieved of the weight, 
and the bark grew about it again. It happened that 
it had been hewn two thirds of the way round ; it 

6 c/. G. P. 5. 16. 4 ; Plin. 17. 238. • cf. CP. 5. 16. 2. 

7 (pop&tes conj. Sch.; <poplB*s Aid. 8 Plin. 16. 133. 


Digitized by 


/jl€V fJLel^ov rj Se/caTrrj'XV, Ttdyps 8' &<tt€ fir) pa8L(o<$ 
av TrepiXafHeiv rerrapa^ av8pas. i) 8k iv ^iXltt- 
7TOfc<? iTea irepieKoirt) fikv tou? atcpefiovas, ov firjv 
TrapeTreXe/crjdr]. fidvTis 8e t*9 eweiaev avTOvs 
OvaLav re TroielvQai /cal rrjpetv to 8ev8pov a>9 
arjfieiov dyaObv yeyovo?. avearrj 8k teal iv 
%ray€ipot<; iv to> fiov<r€i<p Xev/crj ™$ i/cireaovaa. 

Trj$ 8k iirfTpa? if;aipovfjLevri<; ovOkv e!>? eliretv 
(j>0€Lp€Tat 8ev8pov. arjfieiov 8k otl iroXXci /coiXa 
T(ov iieyeOos i^ovTwv 8ev8f)G)v ivr'iv. oi 8k irepX 
*Kptca8Lav <\>ao~i ^X? 1 Tlv °s T0 8£v8pov M 

reXeo)? 8k i£ enravro^ igaipedeiar)? /cal 7rev/cr)v 
<f>0€ip€o-0ai teal iXdrrjv /cal aXXo irav. 

Koivr) 8k <f>0opa Trdvroiv tcav ai pL^cu irepi- 
KOTT&atv rj iraacu rj ai irXelarat /cal fieyiarai 
teal KvpitoTarai tov £rjv. afirai fikv abv ig 

f H 8' biro tov eXaiov rcpoaOeaei rivl fidXXov r) 
d<f>aipea€r TToXifMiov yap 8r) /cal tovto iraar /cal 
eXaiov iiriyeovai toi$ viroXeLiMfiaaL t&v pi^&v. 
laxuet, 8k /naXXov to eXaiov iv rofc veois /cal apTi 
<j)VOfi€voi<;' dadevicTepa yap, 8t b /cal airTeaOat, 

QOopal 8k /cal vif aXXtfXcov eial t$ irapai- 
pelaOat tcl<; Tpo$a<; /cal iv to?? aXXoi? ifnro8i%€iv. 
yaXeirb^ 8k /cal 6 /utt6$ Trapa$v6fjuevo$, x^Xeirb^ 
8k /cal 6 /cvTiao^ atToXXvai yap irdv6 > a>9 sinew* 

1 rivbs fi^v (rjv rb 8. conj. W. ; rivos ^iv (corrected) tov hevdpov 
U ; rivos ctypedrj rod 5. MVAld. 

2 cf. Plin. 17. 234 ; G.P. 5. 15. 6. 

3 irofff koI %\aiov brtxeovffi couj. Sch.j iraxriv tKcuov tvix*t- 
ovffiv UMP a Ald. 


Digitized by 


was a large tree, more than ten cubits high, and of 
such girth that four men could not easily have 
encircled it. The willow at Philippi which grew 
again had had its branches lopped off, but the trunk 
had not been hewn. A certain seer persuaded the 
people to offer sacrifice and take care of the tree, 
since what had occurred was a good omen. Also at 
Stageira an abele in the school gardens which had 
fallen got up again. 

Hardly any tree is destroyed by taking out the 
core ; a proof of which is the fact that many large 
trees are hollow. The people of Arcadia say that 
the tree under these circumstances lives for a time, 1 
but that, if the tree is entirely deprived of its core, 
fir or silver-fir or any other tree perishes. 

All trees alike are destroyed when the roots are cut 
off, whether all or most of them, if those removed are 
the largest and the most essential to life. Such 
then are the causes of death which come from the 
removal of a part of the tree. 

On the other hand the destruction which oil 2 
causes is due rather to a kind of addition than to 
removal ; for oil is hostile to all trees, and 3 so men 
pour it 4 over what remains of the roots. However 
oil is more potent with young trees which are just 
growing ; for then they are weaker ; wherefore men 
do not allow them to be touched at that time. 

5 Again trees may destroy one another, by robbing 
them of nourishment and hindering them in other 
ways. Again an overgrowth of ivy 6 is dangerous, 7 
and so is tree-medick, for this destroys almost any- 

4 i.e. to complete the destruction of a tree. cf. Plut. 
Qitaest. Conv. 2. 6. 2. 

5 Plin. 17. 239 and 240. • cf. CP. 5. 15. 4. 
7 x<*^ c *^f 8e Kai Aid.; x a * €ir &* 8* ^<rr\v conj. W. 


Digitized by 


la^vporepov Be tovtov to aXifiov diroWvai yap 


6 "Evia Be ov <j)0€Lpei fiev %€t/^o) Be iroiel rat? 
Bvvdfieai t&v ^vKoiv teal rcop oafi&v, olop tj 
pdfyavos teal r) Bd<f>vr] ttjv apbireXov, ocrcppatveaOai 
yap (fiacre zeal ektcetv. Si o teal orav 6 ffXaaro^ 
irkrjaiov yevqrai irdXiv dvaarpifeiv teal a<f>opav 
a>9 7ro\€fua$ ovarj<; tt/9 00-/4779. 'AvSpo/cvSt]? Be 
teal irapaheiyfiaTi TovTtp KaTeyjpr\<jaTO irpos ttjv 
ftorjdeiav ttjv airb ttj<; pa<j)dvov yivophrrjv 717)09 
top oJvov, a>9 i%e\avvovaav ttjv fiWrjv (frevyeiv 
yap Br) teal ^axrav ttjv ajMireXov ttjv ba-fiTjv, ai 
fjuev ovv <j>0opal 7TW9 T€ ylvovTai teal iroaai /cal 
7ro<ra%W9 <f)av€pbv etc t&v irpoeiprjfievtov. 

1 f\K€i : lit. ' draws it in ' ; cf. €\kciv depo, fi*$v, etc. 

2 cf. CP. 2. 18. 4. 6 &\a(rrhs irXrjfflov conj. Dalec. from G ; 
6 ir\Tjaiov f$\a<Tr6s Ald.H. 


Digitized by 


thing. But halimon is more potent even than this, 
for it destroys tree-medick. 

Again some things, though they do not cause 
death, enfeeble the tree as to the production of 
flavours and scents ; thus cabbage and sweet bay have 
this effect on the vine. For they say that the vine 
scents the cabbage and is infected 1 by it. Wherefore 
the vine-shoot, 2 whenever it comes near this plant, 
turns back and looks away, 3 as though the smell 
were hostile to it. Indeed Androkydes 4 used this 
fact as an example to demonstrate the use of cabbage 
against wine, to expel the fumes of drunkenness; 
for, 6 said he, even when it is alive, the vine avoids the 
smell. It is now clear from what has been said 
how the death of a tree may be caused, how many 
are the causes of death, and in what several ways they 

8 k<popav conj. Sch. ; €v<f>op€iv U ; a<popuv Aid. ; averti G ; 
recedere Plin. I.e.; iicx<op*iv conj. W. 

4 A medical man who preached temperance to Alexander ; 
cf. Plin. 14. 58 ; 17. 240. 

6 yhp 8^ tea) conj. Dalec. from G ; ykp 5*7 koI Aid. 


Digitized by 

Digitized by Google 


Digitized by Google 


I. Tlepl Se t?)9 vXrjs, iroia re eaTiv efcdarrj, 
zeal Trod* mpaia Te/jLveaOai, zeal 7r/3o? iroia t&v 
epycov XP r 1 <T ^f l 'n> Kai iroia hv&epyos rj evepyo?, real 
el ri aXKo tt}? roiavrr)? l&TopLa<$ eyerah ireipa- 
T€ov 6fWL<0<: eiirelv. 

*£lpala Srj refiveadat t&v %vk(ov tcl p£v oZp 
aTpoyyvXa real oaa 777)09 <j)\oia-fibv orav /3\a- 
ardvy Tore yap evirepiaipeTO? 6 <fr\oio<;, b Sif 
/caXovai Xoirav, Bia rrjv vyporrjra ttjv vTroyivo- 
fievrjv avrq>. fjiera Be ravra hvairepiaiperos teal 
to fjvkov fiikav yiverai icai SvaeiBe?. tcl Se 
rerpdycova fiera, tov \oirr)Tov afyaipelrai yap 
r) TreXe/crjo-is ttjv Bvcreihetav, oXo)? irav 717009 
layjbv (hpavorarov ov fiovov Trewavfievov T779 
/3\acrri]o-e(0<; a\V en pJLXkov ifCTreiravav tov 
tcapirov. aXka 81a, tov <j)Xoia-fibv awpow oZcriv 
oapaioi^ crv/MfSaLvei ylveaOai T019 aTpoyyvXois, 
&are evavriai ai &pai /caret GrvfJL/3e/3i]tc6<>* ev- 

1 Plin. 16. 188. 2 c/. 3. 5. 1. 

8 liv<ritcptaip€T6s conj. Sch. ; dv<nrcpiicd$apTos Aid. 


Digitized by 


Of the Timber of various Trees and its Uses. 

I. In like manner we must endeavour to speak of 
timber, saying of what nature is that of each tree, 
what is the right season for cutting it, which kinds 
are hard or easy to work, and anything else that 
belongs to such an enquiry. 

Of the seasons of cutting. 

1 Now these are the right seasons for cutting 
timber : — for € round ' timber and that whose bark is 
to be stripped the time is when the tree is coming 
into leaf. For then the bark is easily stripped 
(which process they call ' peeling ' 2 ) because of the 
moisture which forms beneath it. At a later time it 
is hard to strip, 3 and the timber obtained is black 
and uncomely. However square logs can be cut 
after the time of peeling, since trimming with the 
axe removes the uncomeliness. In general any wood 
is at the best season as to strength when it has not 
merely ceased coming into leaf, but has even ripened 
its fruit ; however on account of the bark-stripping 
it comes to pass that ' round ' timber is in season 4 
when it is cut before it is ripe, so that, as it happens, 
the seasons are here reversed. Moreover the wood 

4 i.e. in practice the timber is cut before the ideally 
proper time. 



Digitized by 


Xpovarepa Be Tet iXdnva yiveTai tcara rbv 


2 lE7rei Be flakier rj fiovov irepiaipovcri rbv 
<j)\oibv iXdrrj^ irev/crj^ ttltvo^, ravra fiev rifiverac 
rod Tjpos' rore yap 17 /SXaarrjai^' rd Be aXka ore 
fiev fierd irvpoTOfilav, otc Be fierd rpvyrjTov koX 
'Aptcrovpop, olov dpia irreXea a<j)€vBafivo$ fxeXia 
%vyia o%va <f)ikvpa $77709 re teal 0X0)9 oca 
KaropVTrerar Bpvs Be oyfriaiTara /card 'xeifi&va. 
fierd to fierdiraypov edv Be V7rb tov XoirrjTOP 
Tfirjffj}, (TTjirerai idyiaia C09 eliretv, edv re eyu- 
<j>\oio$ edv T€ a<f)\oio$' /cal fidXiara fiev rd iv 
tG> 7r/)0)TO) \oTrr)T<p, Bevrepa Bk ra iv t£ Bevrepq*, 
rpira Be teal YfKiara rd iv rep t/mtot rd Be 
fierd rrjv ireiravaiv ra>v /capir&v aftpcora Btafievei, 
tcav d\bmara rj' ifSJqv vrrb rbv <j>\oibv viroBvo- 
fievoL cr/c<b\r]K€<; eTrnroXfj? iyypdxf>ov<ri to arekexos, 
oh /cal a<f>paylai yjp&vrai rivev a>palov Be rfirj- 
6ev to Bpvivov daarrh re /cal dQ pvmfBeararov 
ylverai teal a/c\r)pbv teal irvtevbv &<nrep tcepas* 
irdv yap ofioiov iarw iy/capBico* ifkrjv ro ye rfj? 
dXufikoLov /cal rore <j>av\ov. 

3 ^vfifiaivei Be teal rovro vrrevavriov, orav re 
Kara rrjv ftXdarrjaiv refivcovrai teal orav per a 
roir? icapirov*;. Tore fiev yap dvagrjpaiverai rd 
areXe^q /cat ov flXaardvei rd BevBpa* fierd Be 
tov? /caprrovs irapapXaardveL, Bvarofuorepa Be 

1 c/. 3. 5. 1. t 2 1) add. Sch. 

8 (priySs re conj. Seal.; irtjySs re V ; <f>tjy6(riv te V; irr\y6oiv 
re MAld. 

4 Karop6rr€rai conj. Sch. from Gr ; bpirrerai Aid. cf. 5. 4. 3; 
5. 7. 5. 6 Plin. 16. 189. 


Digitized by 


of the silver-fir is of a better colour at the time 1 of 
the first peeling. 

But since they strip the bark of 2 hardly any trees 
except silver-fir fir and pine, these trees are cut in 
the spring ; for then is the time of coming into leaf. 
Other trees are cut sometimes after wheat-harvest, 
sometimes after the vintage and the rising of 
Arcturus, as aria (holm-oak) elm maple manna-ash 
sygia beech lime Valonia oak, 3 and in general 
all those whose timber is for underground use. 4 
The oak is cut latest of all, in early winter at the end 
of autumn. 5 If it is cut at the time of peeling, it 
rots almost more quickly than at any other time, 
whether it has the bark on or not. This is especially 
so if it is cut during the first peeling, less so during 
the second, and least during the third. What is cut 
after the ripening of the fruit remains untouched by 
worms, even if it has not peeled : however worms get 
in under the bark and mark the surface of the stem, 
and such marked pieces of wood some use as seals. 6 
Oak-wood if cut in the right season does not rot and 
is remarkably free from worms, and its texture is 
hard and close like horn ; for it is like the heart of a 
tree throughout, except that that of the kind called 
sea-bark oak is even at that time of poor quality. 7 

Again, if the trees are cut at the time of coming 
into leaf, the result is the opposite of that which 
follows when they are cut after fruiting : for in the 
former case the trunks dry up and the trees do not 
sprout into leaf, 8 whereas after the time of fruiting 
they sprout at the sides. At this season however 

6 of. Ay. Thesm. 427 : Qpiirhteara <r<ppayldia. 

7 c f- 3 ' 8 - 5 - 

8 f3\aaTdv€i M ; -KapapXaoTavet W. with Aid. 


E E 2 

Digitized by 


Bid ttjv (TKXrjpoTrfra Kara ravTrjv ttjv copav. 
KeXevovcri Be Kal SeSvKvia? Trjs treXrjvrfs Tefiveiv 
a>9 a/cXrjpoT&pcov Kal curairecTTipcov yivopAvcov. 
eirel Be ai Tretyeis tcov /eapir&v 7rapaXXaTTOvai 9 
BrjXov on Kal ai aKfial wpbs ttjv tojitjv irapaX- 
XdrTOvaiv del yap oyfriaiTepai ai tcov oyfriKap- 

4 TTorep&v. BC o Kal ireipcovTai rives opi^eiv icad* 
e/cda ttjv olov irevKrjv fiev Kal eXdrrfp orav vtto- 
Xottcoctiv en Be ogvav Kal <j>iXvpav Kal o-<f)ev- 
Bafivov Kal Zpyiav tt\% oircopas* Spvv Be, coairep 
eiprjrai, fierd to cf>0ivo7rcopov. <f>acrl Be rive? 
irevKrfv copaiav elvai tov r)po$, orav ye eyrf ri)v 
KaXovfievrjv Ka^pvv, Kal ttjv ttitvv orav 6 fioTpv? 
avTTjs avdfj. iroia fiev ovv cbpaia Ka0* eKaarop 
yjpovov ovtco SiaipovvTai. irdvTcov Be BrjXov on 
fieXTico rd tcov aKfia^ovTcov BevBpcov r) r&v vecov 
KOfiiBrj Kal yeyrjpaKOTcov rd fiev yap vBaTcoBrj, tcL 
Be yecoSrj* 

5 HXelcrras Be %peia<i Kal fieyi<jTa<% fj eXaTrf Kal 
r) irevKt) irape^ovTai, Kal TavTa KaXXicrTa Kal 
fieyicrTa tcov IjvXcov ecrn. Biacj>epovcri Be dXkrjXcov 
ev ttoXXoiv r) fiev yap irevKrj crapKcoSecrTepa re 
Kal oXiyoivov r) 6° i\drr) Kal iroXvivos Kal 
aaapKos, cocttc ivavnco? cKaTepov e^eiv tcov 
fiepcov, Ta? fiev has Icr'xypds ttjv Be crapxa 

1 ai add. Sch. 

2 vwo\oir6bffiv conj. Sob. ; d w4\€iv «<n U ; v*€\ety€ taiv MV ; 
victXivaxriv Aid. 

3 ravrriv conj. St. ; na\ r V Aid. H. 


Digitized by 


they are harder to cut because the wood is tougher. 
It is also recommended to do the cutting when the 
moon has set, since then the wood is harder and 
less likely to rot. But, since the times when the 
fruit ripens are different for different trees, it is 
clear that the right moment for cutting also differs, 
being later for those 1 trees which fruit later. 
Wherefore some try to define the time for the 
cutting of each tree ; for instance for fir and silver- 
fir the time is, they say, when they begin to peel 2 : 
for beech lime maple and zygia in autumn ; for oak, 3 
as has been said, when autumn is past. Some how- 
ever say that the fir is ripe for cutting in spring, 
when it has on it the thing called € catkin/ 4 and the 
pine when its € cluster ' 5 is in bloom. Thus they 
distinguish which trees are ripe for cutting at various 
times ; however it is clear that in all cases the wood 
is better when the tree is in its prime than when it 
is quite young or has grown old, the wood of quite 
young trees being too succulent, and that of old ones 
too full of mineral matter. 

Silver-fir and fir are the most useful trees and in 
the greatest variety of ways, and their 6 timber is 
the fairest and largest. Yet they differ from one 
another in many respects ; the fir is fleshier and has 
few fibres, while the silver-fir has many fibres and is 
not fleshy, so that in respect of each component it is 
the reverse of the other, having stout fibres 7 but soft 

Of the wood of silver-fir and fir. 

6 i.e. the male inflorescence. 

* ravra conj. Sch. from G; aura Ald.H. 

7 cf. 3. 9.1; Plin. 16. 184. 



fjLaXafcrjv teal fAavtfv oY o to fiev ftdpv to Se 
kov</>op' to fj>ev yap ephahop to he ahqhop, $ real 

6 XeuKorepop. €%et he real o£bf? TrXeuov^ fiev tj 
TrevKrj, cr/eXrjpoT&povs he rj eXdrrj iroXXw, fiaXKov 
he Kal a/cXrjpoTdTOv? ttclvtw a/jLcjxo he ttvkvov? 
teal reeparcoheis Kal rtp xpeofjuart, gavOov? teal 
hqhebhew. orav he TfjurjOaxri, pel Kal ifc t&v t?;9 
ekaTrjs Kal ck to>p t^9 TrevKrj? eirl ttoXvp xpovov 
vyporrj^ Kal puaXXop ck t&p rrj<; eXdrrj?. eari he 
Kal ttoXvXottop r\ iXdrrj, KaOdirep Kal to Kpofivov 
del yap fyd tlpcl viroKardi tov (frawofiipov, Kal 

7 €K TOIOVTCOP f) oXt). he O Kal Ttt? KtoTTa? l*VOVT€$ 

d<f>aip€Lv ireip&vrai KaS* eva Kal bpuaXco^' cap yap 
oi/Tft)? d(f>aipa><rip, Iwxypb? 6 Kcoiredop, edp he 
TrapaWdjjciHTi Kal pJr) KaTacriroxTLP o/Wa)?, dade- 
ptjs* TrXrjyr) yap ovtcos, iKeipax; 8' d<j>aip€<Ti$. €<ttl 
he Kal fiaKporarop r) iXaTrj Kal 6pdo<\)ve<naTOv. 
hi b Kal Ta? KepaLas Kal tou? io-rov? etc ravrrj^ 
iroiovaip. eyev he Kal rd<; <£\e$a9 Kal Ta? \pa% 

8 ifJL(f>ape<TTdTa^ irdpr&p. avgdperai he Trpcorov 
eh firfKoSy dypi ov hrj €<f>LKrjrai rod rjXiov* Kal 
oijre ofo? ovoel? ovre Trapa^Xdo-rrjat^ ovre irdyp^ 
yiperar fjuerd he ravra ei? /3d0os Kal irdyo^* 
o#tg)9 ai t&p o£o)p €K<j)V(r€i<; Kal Trapa^Xaarrjaeis, 

1 rb p\v yap ivh. conj. St. from G ; 4v$. yap Aid. 

2 cf. 3. 9. 7. 

8 cf. 3. 9. 7, p6vov ov 8ia<f>avus, whence it appears that the 
epithet refers to colour. 

4 Plin. 16. 195. 5 i.e. the annual rings, cf A. 5.2; 5. 5. 3. 

6 cf. Horn. Od. 12. 172. 

7 Karaa-Kuxriv conj. W. ; Kara iraffiv UM V; Kara irdvra Aid. 

8 cf. Plin. I.e. 8 cf. 1. 2. 1. 

no iix<pavi<rraras conj. W.; evyeveffrdras Aid. 
11 5* conj. Sch.; koI UAld.H. 

Digitized by 


flesh of open texture. Wherefore the timber of the 
one is heavy, of the other light, the one 1 being 
resinous, the other without resin ; wherefore also it 
is whiter. Moreover the fir has more branches, but 
those of the silver-fir are much tougher, or rather 
they are tougher than those of any other tree ; 2 the 
branches of both however are of close texture, 
horny, 3 and in colour brown and like resin-glutted 
wood. 4 When the branches of either tree are cut, 
sap streams from them for a considerable time, but 
especially from those of the silver-fir. Moreover the 
wood of the silver-fir has many layers, like an onion : 5 
there is always another beneath that which is visible, 
and the wood is composed of such layers throughout. 
Wherefore, when men are shaving this wood to make 
oars, 6 they endeavour to take off the several coats one 
by one evenly : for, if they do this, they get a strong 
spar, while if they do the work irregularly and do 
not strip 7 off the coats evenly, they get a weak one ; 
for the process in this case is hacking instead of 
stripping. The silver-fir also gives timber of the 
greatest lengths and of the straightest growth ; 
wherefore yard-arms 8 and masts are made from it. 
Also the vessels 9 and fibre are more clearly 10 seen in 
it than in any other tree. At first 11 it grows in 
height only, until it has reached 12 the sunshine ; and 
so far there is no branch nor sidegrowth nor density 
of habit ; but after that the tree proceeds to increase 
in bulk 18 and density of habit, as 14 the outgrowing 
branches and sidegrowths develop. 

19 &xpi • • . i<plK7iTai conj. Sch.; &xpi o5 fttyfci?rai U; 
&Xpu ovk a<plK7jrat MV; &xp l * oft Ax^ TOt Ald.H. 
" c/. 4. 1. 4. 

14 Lit. * this being the effect of the outgrowth/ wdx°*' 
o0ro>5 Aid.; irdxosy tirav conj. W. 


Digitized by 


9 Tavra piv oiv Ihia rr)<; iXdrrj^, tcl Se tcoiva teal 
tt€Vktj$ teal iXaTrjs fcal r&v aXk&v. eari yap rj 
fM€V rerpdgoos tj Se 8^005. tcakovai Se T€T/oaf 001/9 
fiev Strain i<f>* eicarepa rf}$ ivTepmvrj*; 8vo /cttj- 
S6Ve9 elalv ivavrLav expv<rat ttjv <f>v(Tiv eirena 
/caff' i/caripav ttjv KTrjhova iroiovwai ttjv 7re\4- 
K7f<TLV ivavTia? tcl? TrXrjya? Kara XTTjSova <j>ipov- 
T€5, orav i<j)' ifcdrcpa rfj? ivTepi<l>VTj<; fj ireXifCTjais 
avacrrpefyr). tovto yap e£ dvdy/cTjs <rvfA/3aiv€i 
Slcl ttjv <f>vcriv t&v kttjBovcov. Ta? Se TOiavra? 
eXara? /cal irevica*; rerpa^oov^ tcaXovai. elal Se 
/cal 717909 ra9 ipyaaia? avrai /edWiarar irv/cvo- 
raTa yap e^owi tcl gv\a zeal Ta9 alylSa? avrai 

10 <\)vovglv. ai Bigooi Se /CTtjSova /iev €)(ov<ti piav 
ifi i/cdrepa TT79 ivrepKovrj^, ravTa? Se evavria? 
dXkrjXais, &<rre /cal ttjv TreXe/crjaiv etvai 8i7r\fjv, 
/uav /cad* k/carkpav /CTrjBova Tafc TfkTjyal*; ivav- 
tmm?* cuTraXfjbTaTa fiev ovv Tavra (fraaiv e%en> 
tcl l*v\a, ^eipiara 8k 777)09 7^9 ipyaaLas' Sia- 
<TTpi<j>€Tai yap fidkiara. fiovofjoov? Se /caXovai 
77x9 ixovo-a? piav fiovov /CTTjBova* ttjv Se 7re\e- 
KTjaiv avT<bv yiveaOai ttjv avTTjv e<£' e/cdrepa 
7-779 ivTCpidovT}?' (j>aal Se fiavorara fiev rfj 
<j)V(T€i ra fuXa Tavra 77-009 Se Ta9 Zvaarpofyas 

11 Aia<f)opa<; Se e%ov<Ti rofc <f)\oioi<;, /caff* a<s 
yvtopitpvaiv l&ovre? ev0v<; to hivhpov 7r€<j>v/cb$ 

1 Plin. I.e. 

2 The meaning of * four-cleft ' etc. seems to be this : 

Jb()4rCleFt'. (b )2 Cleff. ( « )l-CleFt. 


Digitized by Google 


These are the characteristics peculiar to the silver- 
fir. Others it shares with the fir and the other trees 
of this class. 1 For instance, sometimes a tree is 
€ four-cleft/ sometimes € two-cleft ' ; it is called ' four- 
cleft ' when on either side of the heart-wood there 
are two distinct and diverse lines of fissure : in that 
case the blows of the axe follow these lines in cases 
where the hewing is stopped short on either side of 
the heart-wood. 2 For the nature of the lines of fissure 
compels the hewing to take this course. Silver-firs 
or firs thus formed are said to be € four-cleft.' And 
these are also the fairest trees for carpentry, their 
wood being the closest and possessing the aigis. z 
Those which are f two-cleft ' have one single line of 
fissure on either side of the heart-wood, and the lines 
of fissure do not correspond to each other, so that 
the hewing also is performed by cuts which follow 
the two lines of fissure, so as to reach the two sides 
of the heart-wood at different angles. Now such 
wood, they say, is the softest, but the worst for 
carpentry, as it warps most easily. Those trees which 
have only a single 4 continuous line of fissure are 
said to be € one-cleft,' though here too the cutting 
is done from either side of the heart-wood : and such 
wood has, they say, an open 5 texture, and yet 6 it is 
not at all apt to warp. 

7 There are also differences in the bark, by obser- 
vation of which they can tell at once what the 

3 cf. 3. 9. 3. 4 filav conj. W.; filav 8e P 2 Ald. 

6 ixav6rara conj. W.; fiw6ri\ra Aid. 

6 rh. £uAa . . . Tcks conj. Sch. ; ra |uA.a* ravra 5c irphs rhs 
Ald.H. 7 Plin. 16. 195 and 196. 


Digitized by 


irolov rv €<ttv tcov fiev ydp evKrrfBovcov KCU 
acTpaft&v kcu 6 <f>Xoib<; Xeio? Kal opOos, ra>v 
ivavr'uDV Tpa%v^ re kcu Biearpafifievo^' opoLoo? 

Bk KCU 677*1 T&V XoiTT&V. a\V €<TTl TCTpd^Oa 

fiev oXiya fiovo^oa Bk ifKeito t&v aXX&v. diraara 
Be 7] vXt] fieifav kcu bpdoTkpa teal dtTTpa/Searepa 
teal (TTLf^porepa kcu o\g>9 koXX'uov kcu irXeitov 
7) iv T0Z9 frpoo-fto peloid, &<rrr€p kcu irporepov 
iXe'xdrj' kcu avTov tov BevBpov Bk tcl irpo<% 
ftoppav irvKvorepa kcu veaviK&Tepa. ocra Se 
v7ro7rapdj3oppa kcu iv irepLirvfp, raiira arpefyei 
kcu irapaXkaTrei irapa fiixpbv 6 ftopeas, (Sore 
elvai 7rap€<TTpa/AfjL€vr)v avT&v rrjv /jurjrpav Kal 
i2ov kclt bpOov. ear i Bk oXa fiev rcb roiavra 
IvXypd Tfi7]0€vra Bk daffevrj Bid to TroXXd? e^eiv 
irapaXXayds. KaXovai Be oi t4ktov€<; iirlrofia 
ravra Bid to 7r/)o? rr)v yjpeiav ovtod Te/iveiv. 
6\a><; Be yeLpio rd ck t&v i<f>vypa)v Kal ev- 
Bieiv&v Kou iraXiaKicov Kal avvr)pe<f>&v Kal 777)69 


TLKTjv. ai fiev ovv Toiavrai Bia<f>opal 777)69 T069 
tottovs elalv avT&v t&v bpoyev&v a>9 76 dirX&s 

II. Aiaipovai yap rive? Kard ra9 %a>/)a9, KaL 
<j>aaiv dpiarrjv fiev elvai t% vXrj<; 777)69 ttjv 
tcktoviktjv ypeiav 7*779 eh rrjv 'EXXdBa irapa- 
yivopAvr]^ Tfjv MaKeBoviKqv Xeia re yap eari 
Kal daTpaf}r)s Kal eypvaa dviov. Bevrepav Be 
Tfjv TlovriKijv, rplrrjv Be* rrjv dirb tov 'PvvBaKov, 

1 irc<pvKhs : cf. Xen. Cyr. 4. 3. 5. 

2 vTcoicapdl&oppa conj. St.; vtrb vapdfioppa Aid.; vw 6 (Bop pa ^ 
wapdpoppa conj. Sch. 


Digitized by 


timber of the tree is like as it stands. 1 For if the 
timber has straight and not crooked lines of fissure, 
the bark also is smooth and regular, while if the 
timber has the opposite character, the bark is rough 
and twisted ; and so too is it with other points. 
However few trees are ' four-cleft/ and most of 
those which are not are ' one-cleft.' All wood, as 
was said before, which grows in a position facing 
north, is bigger, more erect, of straighter grain, 
tougher, and in general fairer and more abundant. 
Moreover of an individual tree the wood on the 
northward side is closer and more vigorous. But if 
a tree stands sideways to the north 2 with a draught 
round it, the north wind by degrees twists and con- 
torts 3 it, so that its core becomes twisted instead of 
running straight. The timber of such a tree while 
still in one piece is strong, but, when cut, it is weak, 
because the grain slants across the several pieces. 
Carpenters call such wood ' short lengths,' because 
they thus cut it up for use. Again in general wood 
which comes from a moist, sheltered, shady or con- 
fined position is inferior both for carpentry and for 
fuel. Such are the differences, generally 4 speaking, 
between trees of the same kind as they are affected 
by situation. 

Of the effects on timber of climate. 

II. 5 Some indeed make a distinction between regions 
and say that the best of the timber which comes into 
Hellas for the carpenter's purposes is the Macedonian, 
for it is smooth and of straight grain, and it contains 
resin : second best is that from Pontus, third that 

8 trapdWdrrci conj. Dalec. ; -xapaWdyti U ; irapa\i\yu Aid. ; 
icapa\vyi(ci conj. H. Steph. 

4 7€ conj. Sch.; «4 Aid. 6 Plin. 16. 197. 


Digitized by 


rerdpTrjv Be ttjv AlviaviKtjv X €L P^ (Tr V p tijv tc 
Uapvaaiatcrjv Kal ttjv JLvfto'iKijv Kal yap o£o>&€£? 
zeal rpaxeict,? Kal ra^u crpreaOai. irepl Be ttj^ 
'ApKaBiKrj? <TK€7TTeov. 

2 y \a")(yp6TaTa Be t&v gvXwv iarl ra ao^a /cal 
\eia* teal rfj oyfret Be ravra /cdXkio-Ta. d£(o8rj 
Be ylverai to, KaKOTpo$r\QevTa Kal yjtol ^eifi&vc 
TneaQkvra rj teal a\\<p Tivl roiovrtp' to yap 
oXov rrjv iroXvoQav elvai evBeiav evTpoiplas. 
orav Be tca/cor po<f>rj<ravTa dvaXdfir} irdXiv teal ev- 
<r0€vrj<rr) f av/ju/Salvet Karairiveadai tou9 ofoi^ 
vtto rrjs Trepufyvaew evTpo<f)ovv yap Kal av- 
gavofievov dvaXafifidvei, Kal iroXKaKis ejjwOep 
fjuev Xelov to %v\ov Biaipovjievov Be ofwSe? 
e<f>dvrj, Bi b Kal (TKoirovvrai t&v <jyi<JT&v Ta? 
firjTpar eav yap avrai eywcriv ofou?, d^coBri Kal 

TCL €tfToV Kal OVTOl %a\€7rd)T€pOt, T&V €KTO<i Kal 


3 YivovTai Be Kal ai air el pat Bia ^eLfi&va^ tc 
Kal KaKOTpo<j)Lav. tnceipas B\ koXovgiv OTav y 
<rvGTpo$r\ t*9 ev avTj) fieifav Kal kvkXois irepi- 
eyppAvv) irXeioGiv ov&* &<nrep 6 6'fo9 a7r\a>9 ov(P 
a)9 i) ovXoTt]^ r] ev avT& t& £vX<p' Bi oXov yap 
7tg>9 avTtf Kal ofiaXv^ova-a* ^aXeirdyTepov Be 
tovto 7ro\v Kal BvaepyoTepov t&v o£cov. coikc 
Be 7rapa7rXrf<TLO)<; Kal r«>9 ev Tofc XiBow eyyvveaOat 

1 A river which flows into the Propontis on the Asiatic 

a Near Mount Oeta. KiviaviKi\v conj. Palm, from Plin. 
I.e. ; alaviK^v P 2 Ald. H. 

3 ravra KdWiara' 6(<a$ri 5e conj. Seal.; ravra Kal fid\i<rra 
o£c65t} ylv. Aid. H. ; tovto fid\i<rra' 6£u)8r) &€ yiv. U. 


Digitized by 


from the Rhyndakos, 1 fourth that of the country 
of the Ainianes, 2 worst is that of Parnassus and that 
of Euboea, for it is full of knots and rough and 
quickly rots. As to Arcadian timber the case is 

Of knots and ' coiling 1 in timber. 

The strongest wood is that which is without knots 
and smooth, and it is also the fairest in appearance. 8 
Wood becomes knotty when it has been ill nourished 
and has suffered severely whether from winter or 
some such cause ; for in general a knotty habit is 
supposed to indicate lack of nourishment. When 
however, after being ill nourished, the tree recovers 
and becomes vigorous, the result is that the knots 
are absorbed 4 by the growth which now covers them ; 
for the tree, being now well fed and growing 
vigorously, recovers, and often the wood is smooth 
outside, though when split it is seen to have knots. 
And this is why they examine the core of wood that 
has been split; for, if this contains knots, the out- 
ward 5 parts will also be knotty, and these knots are 
harder to deal with than the outer ones, and are 
easily recognised. 

6 ( Coiling ' of the wood is also due to winter or ill 
nourishment. Wood is said to ' coil ' when there is 
in it closer twisting 7 than usual, made up of an 
unusual number of rings : this is not quite like a knot, 
nor is it like the ordinary curling of the wood, which 
runs right through it and is uniform. ' Coiling ' is 
much more troublesome and difficult to deal with than 
knots ; it seems to correspond to the so-called 

4 Karairtvc<r6at : ? KaraXafx^dvetrdai. cf. below, § 3. 

* i.e. outward in regard to the core. • Plin. 16. 198. 

7 f avffT po<pi) conj. Seal.; J tvffrpo<p4i U; J cvrpafrj Aid. etc. 


Digitized by 


Terdprrjv Be ttjv Pdviavucr\v yeipL<JTv\v Be rrfv re 
Uapvao-ia/erjv /cal ttjv TLv/3oi/C7jv /cal yap d^wBeis 
teal rpayeia^ teal rayy ayireadai, irepl Be rrfc 

'Ap/CaBl/cf)? <r/C€7TT€OV. 

'lo-xvporara Be r&v {jvXcw i<rrl ret ao£a teal 
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orav Be KaKorpo<f>i]<ravra dvaXdfty irdXiv /cal ev- 
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vtto ty}<> Trepupvaew evrpo<f)ovv ydp ical av- 
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puev Xelov to ^vXov Biaipovpevov Be* o£&8es 
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p.ryrpav iav yap avrai eyj&criv o§bt/9, 6£d>8rj /cal 
ra 6/ctoV /cal oiroi xaXeircorepoi r&v i/crb? /cal 

Yivovrai Be ical ai arrelpai Bia yeip,&va^ re 
/cal /ca/corpo<f)vav. aireipa^ 8k /caXovaiv orav y 
Gvarpofyr) tj? ev avrrj peifav /cal kvkXois rrepi- 
eyopAvq irXevoaiv ovfi* &<T7T€p 6 ofo9 a7r\a>9 ov9 J 
a>9 i) ovXoTq? r) ev avrip ra> gvXtp' oi oXov yap 
7TOJ9 avrrj /cal bpaXi^ovaa* yaXerrdiyrepov Be 
rovro ttoXv /cal Bvaepyorepov r&v o§W. eot/ce 
Be iraparrXTjaia)^ /cal o>9 ev row XiOois eyyLve<rOat> 

1 A river which flows into the Propontis on the Asiat 

a Near Mount Oeta. blviavwhv conj. Palm, from Pli 
I.e. ; ai'cwiKV P 3 Ald.H. 

3 ravra K&h\i(TT<r o^ojSt) 5e conj. Seal.; ravra koI p.( 
o^tuSr? ylv. Ald.H.; ravra fidKurra* d£w$T} &€ yiv. U. 


Digitized by 


ra KaKovfieva icevrpa. otl 8' f) Trepitpvo-i? tcara- 
Xafiftdvei tov$ ofot/9 <f>avepa>Tarov e£ avrrj^ rrfi 
alaBrjaeax;, ov firjv dWd Kal etc t&v aWcov 
4 t&v ofioiw TroXkaKi? yap avrov tov BevSpov 
p,epo$ ti <Twe\ri<f)0r) vtto Qaikpov avfi(f>vov^ yevo- 
/xevov Kal edv t*? itcyXvyfra? 0fj \L0ov et? to 
BevBpov fj Kal a\\o ti toiovtov, /eaTatcpvTrreTcu 
irepCKrj^)6ev vtto tt}9 irepHfrvaew oirep Kal irepl 
tov kotwov avveftr) top ev Meydpoi? top ev rfj 
dyopa* ov koI €KK07T€vto<; Xoyiov fjv dX&vai Kal 
BiapiraaQr)vai tt)v ttoXw oirep eyeveTo .... 
ArjfiqTpio?. iv rovrtp yap Btao-xi%OfjL€V<p Kvrj- 
fiiBe? evpi0rjaav Kal a\\' arra 7-779 'Attikt)? 
epyavias Kpepaard, tov kotivov ov dveridrj to 
irp&TOV eyKoikavOevTO^. tovtov S* ctl puKpbv 
to Xotirov. TroWaxov Be Kal aXXoffi ylvvrai 
irXelova ToiavTa. Kal TavTa fiev, &G7rep eipryrai, 

KOIVCL Tt\€l6vG>V. 

III. KaTa Be t^9 IBta? eKaaTOV (frvaeis ai 
ToiavTaL elai Bia<j)opai, olov irvKVOT^ fiavoTrj? 
ftapvT7)<; kov^ott}? o-k\t)p6tt)<; pLaXaKOTr)?, oaaav- 
tg)9 Be Kal el ti$ dXXrj TOiavTiy Kowal Be 6p,o'ico$ 
avTai Kal t&v rjfiepoav Kal t&v dypi&v, g>ot€ ire pi 
irdvTtov XCKTCOV. 

1 tn 5' ri conj. W.; tin UMV; Bti Aid. 

2 cf. KOLTcrniveaecu, above, § 2. 
8 Plin. 16. 198 and 199. 

* iicy\Has 0$ con j- W.; iic\tyas Byi U ; iKhiOaffdy Ald.H. 
6 Text defective. 

• i.e. the bark had grown over these, cf. Plin. I.e. 

Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. n. 3-111. 1 

' centres ' which occur in marbles. That 1 vigorous 
growth covers 2 up the knots is plain from simple 
observation of the fact and also from other similar 
instances. 3 For often some part of the tree itself is 
absorbed by the rest of the tree which has grown 
into it ; and again, if one makes a hole in a tree and 
puts 4 a stone into it or some other such thing, it 
becomes buried, being completely enveloped by the 
wood which grows all round it : this happened with 
the wild olive in the market-place at Megara ; there 
was an oracle that, if this were cut open, the city 
would be taken and plundered, which came to pass 
when Demetrius took it. 6 For, when this tree was 
split open, there were found greaves and certain 
other things 6 of Attic workmanship hanging there, 
the hole 7 in the tree having been made at the place 
where the things were originally hung on it as offer- 
ings. Of this tree a small part still exists, and in 
many other places further instances have occurred. 
Moreover, as has been said, such occurrences happen 
also with various other trees. 

Of differences in the texture of different ivoods. 

III. 8 Corresponding to the individual characters of 
the several trees we have the following kinds of 
differences in the wood : — it differs in closeness, 
heaviness, hardness or their opposites, and in other 
similar ways ; and these differences are common to 
cultivated and wild trees. So that we may speak of 
all trees without distinction. 

7 ipyatrtus Kpefiaark too kotIvov oZ I conj. from G and 
Plin. I.e. (certain restoration perhaps impossible) ; Kfpfiriari Z 
itrriv iv Korlvy oh U ; Aid. has Ktpfinorl, M Kpt^iaarl, V k( p- 
futarup ; St. suggested Kptfia<rr&v faKwv as words of the 
original text. 8 Plin. 16. 204-207. 


Digitized by 


HvKvorara p>ev ovv Bokel teal /3apvrara ttv!;o$ 
elvai zeal e/Sez/os* oiBe yap oiB' eVl rod vBaTo? 

TttfT €7TlV€l. Kai 7) fJL€P 7TVfo? oX*?, T^9 o€ CpeVOV 

tf firjTpa, ev y Kai rj tov xpeofxaros iari pueXavLa. 
r&v B aXXcov 6 Xft)T09. irvKvbv Be /ecu f) Trj$ Bpvb? 
firiTpa, fjv KaXovai pieXdvBpvov Kai en pbcLXXov »; 
tov Kvriaov irapopola yap avrrj Bote el rfj eftevtp 

2 MeXav he <r<f)68pa teal ttvkvov to tt)9 rep- 
pivdow irepl yovv Xvplav fieXdvrepov <^aaiv 
elvai tt}9 eftevov koX etc rovrov yap icai ra? 
Xa$a9 t&v iyxeipiSiwv iroielaOai, Topvevecrdai 
Be i£ avrcov real KvXiKas SrjpitcXeiovs, &<rr€ 
fxrjheva &v Biayva>vai irpb? ra9 Kepapbear Xap,- 
fiaveiv Be to ey/cdpBiov* Beiv Be dXeifyeiv to 
gvXov ovto) yap yiveaOai teal koXXiov fcal 

TLlvai Be teal aXXo ti BevBpov, b a pa ttj pbeXavia 
Kai iroiKiXlav Tiva e*x ei virepvffpov, &aTe elvai 
ttjv oyfriv waav e/3evov ttouclXw iroieiadai 8* eg 
avTOV zeal tcXivas teal Btypovs teal T(i aXXa tcl 
airovBa^opAva. to <Be> BevBpov peya a $68 pa 
Kai KaXo(f>vXXov elvai opuoiov Tats dirioi^. 

3 TavTa fiev ovv apu Tjj pLeXavia /cal ttv/cvo- 
TrjTa e%e*. Trvfcvbv Be xal 17 a<f>€vBap,vo<; /cal 
7) fryia /cal oXo>9 irdvTa tcl oxiXa* /cal 17 iXda 
Be /cal 6 kotivos, dXXct /epavpa. puva Be t&v 
puev dypL(ov Kai epeyjripuov ra eXdrtva pudXiiTTa, 

1 cf. Arist. Meteor. 4. 7 ad Jin. 
* cf. 1. 6. 1. ' cf. 3. 15. 3. 

4 Probably so called from their resemblance in shape and 
43 2 

Digitized by 


fiox and ebony seem to have the closest and 
heaviest wood ; for their wood does not even float on 
water. This applies to the box-tree as a whole, and 
to the core of the ebony, which contains the black 
pigment. 1 The nettle-tree also is very close and heavy, 
and so is the core of the oak, which is called ' heart 
of oak/ and to a still greater degree this is true 
of the core of laburnum 2 ; for this seems to resemble 
the ebony. 

The wood of the terebinth is also very black and 
close-grained ; at least in Syria 3 they say that it is 
blacker than ebony, that in fact they use it for making 
their dagger handles; and by means of the lathe- 
chisel they also make of it ' Theriklean ' cups, 4 so 
that no one could 5 distinguish these from cups made 
of pottery ; for this purpose they use, it is said, the 
heart-wood, but the wood has to be oiled, for then 
it becomes comelier and blacker. 

There is also, they say, another tree 6 which, as 
well as the black colour, has a sort of reddish 
variegation, so that it looks like variegated ebony, 
and of it are made beds and couches and other things 
of superior quality. This tree is very large and has 
handsome leaves and is like the pear. 

These trees then, as well as the black colour, have 
close wood ; so also have maple zygia and in general 
all those that are of compact growth ; so also have 
the olive and the wild olive, but their wood is 
brittle. 7 Of wild trees which are used for roof- 
timbers the wood of the silver-fir is the least com- 

colour to the cups made by Therikles, a famous Corinthian 
potter ; see reff. to comedy in LS. 8.v. 

6 ju^SeVo hv conj. W.; fiy? hv %va Aid. 
• Sissoo wood. See Index App. (21). 

7 a\\k Kpavpa conj. Sen.; aWa teal atipa MVAld. 


VOL. I. F F 

Digitized by 


t&v 8' aXXoov rd aKTiva teal ret gvkivcl teal 
rd Ti}9 firfXea? teal rd t?)? hd<f>vrf<;. ck\t}- 
porara he rd hpviva Kal rd £vyiva Kal ra 
t% dp'w teal ydp v7ro/3pexovai ravra irpo*; 
rrjv TpvTTTjaiv paXdgeax; ydpiv. p,a\a/cct he 
icaff oXov fiev rd fiava teal ^avva* r&p he 
aapKcoh&v fjidXiara (f)lXvpa. hoxei he real 0ep- 
fiorarov elvai tovto' a-rjfieiov he on fidXiara 
afjLpXvvei rd aihrjpia* ttjp yap ftatprjp avirjci hid 
ttjv OepfjLorrjra. 

4 ®€pfJLOP he KCU KITTO? Kal hd<f)V7) Kal oXct>9 

il; &v rd irvpela yiverar M^evearoyp he <f>rja-i 
Kal av/cd/juvov. yfrvxporara he rd evvhpa /ecu 
vharwhrj. Kal yXLay^pa he rd ireiva /ecu dfi- 
ireXiva, hi o /cal t«9 datriha^ e/c tovtwv Troiovar 
(TVfifjLvec yap TrXrjyevra 9 /covfyorepov he to rrj<; 
Ireas, p,avoT€pov yap, he b zeal rovrcp fiaXXov 
'XP&vrai. to he T779 trXardvov yXiaxporrjTa piev 
(frvo-ei hk vyporepov tovto Kal to t% tttc- 
Xea9. arjfxeiov he eariv, fiera rrjv to/jltjv opdbv 
orav aTadf}, 7roXv vha>p a$ir\Gi. to he rf)<; <rv/ea- 
fxlvov ttvkvov dp. a Kal yXvaxpov, 
6 v Eo*t^ he Kal darpa^ea-rarov to t?}9 TrreXea?, 
hi O Kal TOU9 (TTpofyeis t&v Ovp&v iroiovai 
Trreketvovv eav yap ofaoi /jievaxri, Kal al Ovpai 
jievovaip daTpafieis, el he prj, hiaarpe<f>ovrai. 
iroiovai o° avrov? epmaXiv TiOevTes rd gvXa to 
T€ dirb t% ptfo? Ka l T0 air T °v <f>vXXov 

1 vvo^ptxovfft conj. Harduiu from Plin. 16. 207 ; 3Lico&pi$ou<ri 
Ald.H. ; &iro$p4xov<ri mBas. 

' 2 cf. 5. 5. 1, which, referring to this passage, hardly agrees 
with it as now read. 


Digitized by 


pact, and among others that of the elder fig apple 
and bay. The hardest woods are those of the oak 
zygia and aria (holm-oak) ; in fact men wet 1 these 
to soften them for boring holes. In general, woods 
which are of open porous texture are soft, and of 
those of fleshy texture the softest is the lime. The 
last-named seems also to be the hottest ; the proof 
of which is that it blunts iron tools more than any 
other; for they lose their edge 2 by reason of its 

Ivy and bay are also hot woods, and so in general 
are those used for making fire-sticks ; and Menestor s 
adds the wood of the mulberry. 4 The coldest woods 
are those which grow in water and are of succulent 
character. The wood again of willow and vine is 
tough ; wherefore men make their shields of these 
woods ; for they close up again after a blow ; but 
that of the willow is lighter, since it is of less com- 
pact texture ; wherefore they use this for choice. 
The wood of the plane is fairly tough, but it is 
moister in character, as also is that of the elm. A 
proof of this is that, if it is set upright 5 after being 
cut, it discharges much water. 6 The wood of the 
mulberry is at once of close grain and tough. 

7 The wood of the elm is the least likely to warp ; 
wherefore they make the ' hinges ' 8 of doors out of 
elm wood ; for, if these hold, the doors also keep in 
place ; otherwise they get wrenched out of place. 
They make the ( hinges ' by putting wood from the 
root above 9 and wood ' from the foliage ' below, 9 thus 

3 cf. 1. 2. 3 n. 4 Plin. 16. 209. 

* bpBhv Brav conj. W. : so G ; 6p6bs irav MV; trav bpOh. Aid. 
6 cf. 5. 1. 6. 7 Plin. 16. 210. 

8 Sc. an arrangement of cylindrical pivot and socket. 

9 i.e. as socket and pivot respectively ; cf. 5. 5. 4. 


F f 2 

Digitized by 


teaXovai Be oi retcTOves to airb tov (frvXXov to 
av(o' ivapiwo-OevTCL yap dXXrjXoi? etcaTepov kco- 
Xvei 7r/)09 ttjp opjirjv ivavTia)? eypp. el Be etceiTO 
teaTa <f)vaiv, ovirep r) poirr) ivTavda irdpTcov av 
fjv f\ <f>opd. 

Ta9 Be Ovpa$ ovtc evOvs avpreXovo-ip, dXXcL 
TrrfeavTes i^LCTaai, tcaireiTa vo-Tcpa* oi Be ra> 
TpuT(p €T€t cweTeXeaap iap /jl&XXop airovBd^coar 
tov fiev yap 0epov<; dva^patvo/xevcov Buo-ravTai, 
tov Be xet,fi&i>o$ avfifivovaiv. atTiov B' oti tt)$ 
eKaTf)^ ra fiavd /cal aaptecoBrj eXteet tov depa 
eviKfxov ovTa. 

6 r O Be (froivil; tcov<f)o<; teal evepyo<; teal fiaXatcos, 
&airep 6 <f>eXX6<; f fteXTioyp Be tov <f>eXXov oti yXi- 
GXPW eteeipo Be OpavaTOP, Bia tovto tcl elBoiXa 
pvp etc tov t&p <f>oiPitc(OP Troiovai, top Be <j>eXX6p 
iraprjicaat,. ra9 Ziw Be oi Bi oXov e%€t ovB' iirl 
iroXv teal fiatcpas ovB* vaaavT(o<; Tjj Oeaei eytcei- 
fiepa<; irao-a? dXXa iraPToBairw. dpagrjpaipeTcu 
Be teal Xeavpopuepop teal irpiopuepop to jjvXou, 

7 To Be Ouop, oi Be 0vap tcaXovai, Trap* "Afi/Acovt 
tc yipeTai teal ep ttj Kvprjpaia, ttjp pep fioptyrjp 
ofioiop tevirapLTTtp teal tch? tcXdBoi? teal tois <f>vX- 
Xoi? teal Tq> crTeXe^et teal t$ tcapTrrp, jjloXXop B' 
&airep tcvirdpiTTO? dypia* iroXv fiep teal ottov 

1 K(a\6fi : Sch. adds ddrfpov from G. 

2 £*€tTo conj. W.; 4kc7vo Aid. 

8 i.e. the * upper' wood in the upper position. 
4 irdvrwv MSS. (?) ; TrdvTtas conj. W. 

6 i.e. there would be no resistance. ?iv after add. Sch. 

Digitized by 


reversing the natural position : (by wood c from the 
foliage ' joiners mean' the upper wood). For, when 
these are fitted the one into the other, each counter- 
acts 1 the other, as they naturally tend in opposite 
directions : whereas, if the wood were set 2 as it 
grows, 3 all the parts 4 would give where the strain 
came. 5 

(They do not finish off the doors at once ; but, when 
they have put them together, stand them up, and 
then finish them off the next year, or sometimes the 
next year but one, 6 if they are doing specially good 
work. For in summer, as the wood dries, the work 
comes apart, but it closes in winter. The reason is 
that the open fleshy texture of the wood of 
the silver-fir 7 drinks in the air, which is full of 

8 Palm-wood is light easily worked and soft like 
cork-oak, but is superior to that wood, as it is tough, 
while the other is brittle. Wherefore men now make 
their images of palm-wood and have given up the 
wood of cork-oak. However the fibres do not run 
throughout the wood, nor do they run to a good 
length, nor are they all set symmetrically, but run 
in every direction. The wood dries while it is being 
planed and sawn. 

9 Thy on (thyine wood), which some call thy a, grows 
near the temple of Zeus Ammon and in the district 
of Cyrene. In appearance the tree is like the 
cypress alike in its branches, its leaves, its stem, and 
its fruit ; or rather it is like a wild cypress. 10 There 

6 cf. Plin. 16. 215. 

7 Of which the door itself is made. 

8 Plin. 16. 211. 9 Plin. 13. 100-102. 

10 KwrdpnTos iypla conj. Sch.; Kvnipurvov kypiav MAld. 


Digitized by 


VVV ff TToXl? €<TTL, KaX €TL BtaflVf)fJL0V€V0VO-lV 

6po<f>d<; rivas t&v dp^aCcov ovaas. daaire^; yap 
o\ft)9 to f;vXov ovXorarov Be rrjv pi^av earl* /cal 
etc ravrrjs tcl (nrovhaiorara Troielrai t&v epycov. 
ra Be ayaX/JLara yXv<f)ovo-iv e/c T&vBe, /cehpwv 
KVTrapLrTOV Xodtov irvgov tcl S* iXdrrco /cal etc 
t&v eXatvow pt^&v dppayets yap avrai teal 
ofwXw 7T&)9 (raptcdoSet,?. ravra fjuev ovv IBio- 
TijTa riva TQiroav /cal </>wr€G>? /cal xpeia? 

IV. Bapea Be koX /cov<j>a BrjXov d>9 rfj irv/cvo- 
Ttfri /cal fjiavoTTjTi /cal vyporrjTL /cal grjporrjTi /cal 
rq> yXoLcoBet /cal a/cXrjpoTrjTi /cal fiaXa/eoTrjTi 
Xtjittcov. evia /xev ovv a pa aKXrjpa /cal /3a pea, 
Kaddirep 7ru£o9 /cal Bpvr oca Be Kpavpa /cal rj) 
grjporrjTi (TKX^porara, ravr ov/c eyei ftdpo?. 
diravra Be tcl dypLa t&v r/fiepoyv /cal rd appeva 
t&v OrjXeL&v irvKvorepd re teal (T/cXrjporepa KaX 
fiapvrepa /ca\ to oXov laxvporepa, /caQdirep /cal 
irporepov eiirofiev. 0&9 B' eirl to ttov /cal Tci 
a/capiroTepa t&v /capirvficov /cal tA %€t/9G> toov 
/caXXitcapTroTepcov el /jutf ttov /capTrcfuoTepov to 
appev, &a f irep aXXa tc (paac /cal ttjv /cvirdpiTTov 
/cal ttjv /cpdveiav. aXXi t&v ye dfnreXwv <f>a- 
vep&<; al oXLyo/capiroTepat /cal TrvKvo^BaXfioTepat 
/cal aTepeddTepai* /cal firfXe&v Be /cal t&v aXXcop 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. m. 7 -iv. i 

is abundance of it where now the city stands, and 
men can still recall that some of the roofs in ancient 
times were made of it. For the wood is absolutely 
proof against decay, and the root is of very compact 
texture, and they make of it the most valuable 
articles. Images are carved from these woods, 
prickly cedar cypress nettle-tree box, and the small 
ones also from the roots of the olive, which are 
unbreakable and of a more or less uniformly fleshy 
character. The above facts illustrate certain 
special features of position, natural character and 

Of differences in timber as to hardness and heaviness. 

IV. Difference in weight is clearly to be determined 
by closeness or openness of texture, dampness or 
dryness, degree of glutinousness, hardness or softness. 
Now some woods are both hard and heavy, as box 
and oak, while those that are brittle and hardest 
owing to their dryness, are not heavy. 1 All wood of 
wild trees, as we have said before, is closer harder 
heavier, and in general stronger than that of the 
cultivated forms, and there is the same difference 
between the wood of e male ' and of ' female ' trees, 
and in general between trees which bear no fruit and 
those which have fruit, and between those which 
bear inferior fruit and those whose fruit is better ; on 
the other hand occasionally the * male ' tree is the 
more fruitful, for instance, it is said, the cypress the 
cornelian cherry and others. However of vines it is 
clear that those which bear less fruit have also more 
frequent knots and are more solid, 2 and so too with 
apples and other cultivated trees. 

1 Plin. 16. 211. 2 cf. C.P. 3. 11. 1. 


Digitized by 


^Aaairrj 8e <f>v<T€i KVirdpLTTO? /eeSpo? eftevo? 
\&)T09 7ri5£o9 iXda kotlvos ttcvkt] ev8q8o<; apLa 
S/0O9 fcapva J&vftoiicq. tovtcov 8k ^povidorara 
8ok€l tcl KvirapiTTLva elvaL* tcl yovv iv 'E<£eo-G>, 
e£ &v ai dvpai tov vcqxttI vedo, TeOrjaavpia/Aeva 
T€TTapa<; ckclto yeveds. puova 8k Kal aTiXl3r)86va 
Several, 81 b Kal tcl <nrov8a£6/j,€va t&v epycov ix 
tovtcov Troiovai. tcov 8k aXXcov da-airea-TaTOP 
fi€Ta Ta KvirapLTTLva teal tcl 0vco8tj ttjv o~v/ea- 
fiivov elvaL <j>a<Ti, teal la"xypbv apua teal evepyov to 
%vXov ylverai 8k to IjvXov [/cat] iraXaiovfievov 
pueXav, &cnrep \a>T09. 

v Et* 8k aWo 7T/oo? aXXo teal iv aXXoo aaaire^y 
olov TTTeXia fiev iv t& depi, S/0O9 8k /caTopvr- 
TopAvr] teal iv too v&aTi KaTafipexpfievrj' 8ok€i 
yap 0A.G) 9 daairk*; elvai* 81 b teal et9 tovs ttoto,- 
p,ov$ Kal eU ra9 Xifiva? e/c tovtcov vavirrjyova-iv 
iv 8k ttj BaXcLTTrj arjireTai. tcL 8k aXXa 8iapAvei 
fiaXXov, oirep Kal evXoyov, Tapiyevbpieva tt} 

Ao/cei 8k Kal fj dgvrj irpb<; to v8cop daairr)^ 
elvaL Kal fieXTioov yiveaOai fipexppLevr}. Kal r) 
Kapva 8k f) Rv/3o'iKr) do-airij^. <\>aal 8k Kal ttjv 
7T€VKrjv eXaTT}*; puaXXov biro TepijSovo? iaOUcOai 9 
Ttjv fiev yap elvaL %r)pdv, ttjv 8k 7T€vkt]v eyeiv 
yXvKVTrjTa, Kal oaoo iv8q8coTepa, fiaXXov irdvTa 

1 Plin. 16. 21.3. 

2 T€0r}(ravpi<riuL€va . . . ^cerro conj. Bentley; re6rj<ravpi<rfx€vai 
. . . Zkcivto Ald.H. ; P has fccfiro. 


Digitized by 


Of difference* in the keeping quality of timber. 

1 Naturally proof against decay are cypress prickly 
cedar ebony nettle-tree box olive wild olive resinous 
fir aria (holm-oak) oak sweet chestnut. Of these the 
wood of the cypress seems to last longest ; at least 
the cypress-wood at Ephesus, of which the doors 
of the modern temple were made, lay stored up 2 
for four generations. And this is the only wood 
which takes a fine polish, wherefore they make of it 
valuable articles. Of the others the least liable to 
decay after the wood of the cypress and thyine-wood 
is, they say, that of the mulberry, which is also 
strong and easily worked : when it becomes old, this 
wood turns black like that of the nettle-tree. 

•Again whether a given wood is not liable to 
decay may depend on the purpose to which it is put 
and the conditions to which it is subjected : thus the 
elm does not decay if exposed to the air, nor the oak 
if it is buried or soaked in water ; for it appears to be 
entirely proof against decay : wherefore they build 
vessels of it for use on rivers and on lakes, but in sea- 
water it rots, though other woods last all the 
better ; which is natural, as they become seasoned with 
the brine. 

4 The beech also seems to be proof against decay in 
water and to be improved by being soaked. The 
sweet chestnut under like treatment is also proof 
against decay. They say that the wood of the fir 
is more liable to be eaten by the teredon than that 
of the silver-fir ; for that the latter is dry, while the 
fir has a sweet taste, and that this is more so, the 
more the wood is soaked with resin 5 ; they go on to 

» Plin. 16. 218. 4 Plin. 16. 218 and 219. 
5 c/. 3. 9. 4. 


Digitized by 


S' iaOieadai reprjhovi irXrjv kotlvov /cal i\da? 9 
rd he ov, hid ttjv iriKpoT^ra. iaOLerai he rd fiev 
iv ttj daXaTTrf ar/irofieva virb reprjhovos, rd 8* iv 
rfj yfj virb <TK(okrjK(ov teal virb Opiir&w ov yap 
yiverai reprfhayv a\\' r) iv rfj 0a\aTTrj. €<tti he 

17 T€pr)8(OV T^ fJL€V fieyWei fll/CpOV, /ce(j>a\rjv 8' 6%€£ 

5 pueyaXr\v /cal ohovras* oi he 6piire<; ofioioi to?9 
a/cdoikrjgiv, ifi 5)v TirpaLverai Kara /M/cpbv rd 
l;v\a. /cal €<tti ravra evtara' iriTTOKOirqBevra 
yap orav €69 tt)v OaXanav eX/cvaOr) areyer rd 
he virb tS>v Teprjhovcov dviara. t&v he a-/ceo\jjK(ov 
t&v iv tow %vKoi<; oi pAv elaiv etc t?}9 oltceia? 
crrfyfrecos, oi S' ivTi/crovrcov erepcov ivri/CTei yap, 
&airep zeal to?9 hevhpois, 6 /cepdarr/<; /ca\ovfievo$ 9 
orav TLTpavrj koX /coikdvy irepiarpacfrel? wire pel 
fivoS&Xpv. <f>evyei he rd re oapxohrj icaX iri/cpd /cal 
a/ckrjpd hid to /jltj hvvaaOai rirpavai, icaddirep 

6 t)]V irv^ov. <f>aal he /cat rrjv iXdrrfv ^Xolo'deiaav 
virb ttjv fikdarrjo-iv daairrj hiapueveiv iv r<p vharr 
(j>avepbv he yeveaOai iv <$>eve(p TT79 'Ap/eahias, ore 
avToi? iXifivcoOt) to irehiov (ppaxOevro*; tov fiepe- 
Opov Tore yap Ta9 ye<j>vpa<; iroiovvre? ekariva<; 
/cat, orav iirava^aivrj to vhcop, aXXrjv koX aWrjv 
ifaaravTes, a>9 ippdyrj zeal dirrjXOe, irdvra evpe- 
dfjvai rd fjv\a daairrj. tovto fiev oZv i/c avfi- 


1 Plin. 16. 220 and 221. 

2 TiTpalvcrai conj. Seal. fromG ; rirpherai UVo.; varalvirai 
MVAld. 8 cf 4. 14. 5. 

4 oxnrepel jivoh6xoy conj. W.; &<rv€p oi fiv6xo$oi MSS. ; G 
omits. The word pvoti6xos does not occur elsewhere as a 


Digitized by 


say that all woods are eaten by the teredon except 
the olive, wild or cultivated, and that these woods 
escape because of their bitter taste. 1 Now woods 
which decay in sea-water are eaten by the teredon, 
those which decay on land by the skolex and Ihrips ; 
for the teredon does not occur except in the sea. 
It is a creature small in size, but has a large head 
and teeth ; the thrips resembles the skolex, and these 
creatures gradually bore through 2 timber. The harm 
that these do is easy to remedy ; for, if the wood is 
smeared with pitch, it does not let in water when it 
is dragged down into the sea ; but the harm done by 
the teredon cannot be undone. Of the sknlekes which 
occur in wood some come from the decay of the wood 
itself, some from other skolekes which engender therein. 
For these produce their young in timber, as the worm 
called the ' horned worm ' 3 does in trees, having bored 
and scooped out a sort of mouse-hole 4 by turning 
round and round. But it avoids wood which has a 
strong smell or is bitter or hard, such as boxwood, 
since it is unable to bore through it. They say too 
that the wood of the silver-fir, if barked just before 
the time of budding, remains in water without de- 
caying, and that this was clearly seen at Pheneos 
in Arcadia, when their plain was turned into a lake 
since the outlet was blocked up. 5 For at that 
time they made 6 their bridges of this wood, and, 
as the water rose, they placed more and more atop 
of them, and, when the water burst its way through 
and disappeared, all the wood was found to be 
undecayed. This fact then became known by means 
of an accident. 

5 c/. .3. 1. 2. <ppaxB*vro$ conj. Sch.; $pax^vros Ald.H. 
8 iroiovvrts, 4<Pi<tt&vt€s nom. pendens. 


Digitized by 


7 'Ei/ Tv\a> he rfj vrjatp rfj irepl ttjv Wpafiiav 
elval tl <f>aav %v\ov e£ ov ra ifKola vavirrjyovvTar 
tovto hk iv fjuev tj} OaXarTrj a^ehov aarjiriov 
elvar hiapuevei yap errj irXelco rj hia/eoaia /cara- 

/3v0l£6fl€VOV idv hk y^pOVLOV fJbkv QcLTTOV he 

arjireraL. (OavjiaaTov he tcai erepov Xeyovai, 
ovhev he 7r/oo? ttjv arjyjriv. eivai yap tl hevhpov 
eg ot; t«9 ftatCTrjpia? TepjveaOai, teal ylveadai 
KaXas <r(j>6Spa iroiicCkLav riva erotica? Sfioiav t£ 
tov Tiypios Sepfjuarr fiapv he a<j>6hpa to gvkov 
tovto* OTav he Tt? ptyr) irpos aTepeoaTepov tottov, 
teaTayvvo'Oai teaOdirep Ta fcepdjua.) 

8 Kai to Tr}? fivpUrj^ he £v\ov ov% &o"Jrep 
ivTavda aadeves, a\\' layvpov &airep irpLvivov rj 
zeal aWo to t&v ivyyp&v. tovto fiev oZv afia 
firfvvei %ft)/oa? T€ teal depos hia<j>opd<; ical hvvdp£L<$. 
t&v he ofioyev&v %v\(ov, olov hpvtvcov Trev/civcov, 
OTav TapixevoovTai — Tapt,%evovo-i yap oi/c iv Xa<p 
ffdffei irdvTa hvovTe? TT79 OaXaTTr)?, dWd Ta fiev 
777)09 avTr) ttj yrj, Ta he fjutcpov dvooTepco, Ta S' iv 
ifXeiovi fidder irdvTa>v he Ta 7T/0O9 Trjv pL^av 
Qclttov hverai icad* vhaTO?, kov iirivfi puaXKov 
peirei /caTco. 

V. v Eo"Tt he Ta fxev evepya t&v %v\cov f Ta he 
hvaepya 9 evepya fiev Ta fia\a/cd, /cal irdvTcov 

1 Plin. 16. 221 ; c/. 4. 7. 7. 

2 Teak. See Index App. (22). 

3 Calamander-wood. See Index App. (23). 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. iv. 7 -v. i 

1 In the island of Tylos off the Arabian coast 
they say that there is a kind of wood 2 of which 
they build their ships, and that in sea-water this 
is almost proof against decay ; for it lasts more 
than 200 years if it is kept under water, while, if 
it is kept out of water, it decays sooner, though 
not for some time. They also tell of another 
strange thing, though it has nothing to do with 
the question of decay : they say that there is a 
certain tree, 8 of which they cut their staves, and 
that these are very handsome, having a variegated 
appearance like the tiger's skin ; and that this 
wood is exceedingly heavy, yet when one throws 
it down on hard ground 4 it breaks in pieces like 

Moreover, the wood of the tamarisk 6 is not 
weak there, as it is in our country, but is as strong 
as kermes-oak or any other strong wood. Now 
this illustrates also the difference in properties 
caused by country and climate. Moreover when wood, 
such as that of oak or fir, is soaked in brine — not 
all being soaked at the same depth in the sea, 
but some of it close to shore, some rather further 
out, and some at a still greater depth — 6 in all cases 
the parts of the tree nearest the root (whichever 
tree it is) sink quicker under water, and even if they 
. float, have a greater tendency to sink. 

Which kinds of wood are easy and which hard to work. Of 
the core and its effects. 

V. Some wood is easy to work, some difficult. 
Those woods which are soft are easy, and especially 

4 *pbs (rr€p. t6kov can hardly be sound : ? * on something 
harder than itself. ' 

8 See Index, /ivplmi (2). 8 Plin. 16. 186. 


Digitized by 


fiaXiara fyiXvpa* hvaepya he /ecu rd <r/e\rjpd /cat 
to, 6%(b8r) Kal ov\a$ eypvra avarpocfyd^' hvaepyo- 
rara he dpia /cal 8/0O?, o>? he /card p£po<; 6 t?t? 
7T€v/cr]<; o£b? /cat tt;? iXdrr}?. del he t&v 6fioyev&v 
to fia\a/c<DT€pov tov a/ckrjpoTepov KpeiTTov 
aapKcohearepov yap' /cal evOv GKOirovvrai Ta? 
aavihas oi t4/ctov€<; ot/Ta>?. rd he p.o'ydn^pa 
aihijpia hvvarai rifiveiv rd a/eXrjpd fidXXov t&v 
fiaXa/ccov dvirjai yap iv to£? fiaXatcols, &airep 
iXexOr) irepl tt;? <f>iXvpa<;, irapa/cova he fidXiGTa 
rd <r/c\r)pd* hi o /cal oi (T/cvtoto/jlol ttoiovvtui 
tou? Triva/cas d^pdho^, 

2 M.tfrpav he iravra fiev e^eiv $a<rlv oi ri/CTOve? 
<f>avepdv 8* elvai fidXio-ra iv rfj iXdry ^aLveaOau 
yap olov (j>\oiwhr) rivd ttjv avvOeaiv avrrjs t<ov 
kvkXcov. ev iXda he Kal irv^tp Kal toZ? toiovtoi? 
ov% 6p,oiw hi Kal ov <f>aai rives e^eiv rfj 
hvvdfiei ttv^ov Kal iXdav ijKiara yap i\K€o~0ai 
ravra rcov f-vXcov. eari he to eXKeaOai to avft- 
Trepitaraadai Kivovfievqs tt;? /^Tjpa?. yap 

eoiKev iirl %pbvov ttoXvv hi rravra^pdev 
fjuev dfia fidXiara S* 4k r&v 0vpcofidrcov igaipov- 
aiv, 07Tft)? darpafif) Kal hid rovro o"Xi£ovaiv. 

3 "Atottov h* dv hofjeiev on iv fiev to*? £ vXoi? 
toi$ arpoyyvXoi*; aXvTro? r} yjfrpa Kal aKivrjros, 
iv he to?? irapaKivrjOeiaiv, iav fit) o\a>? i%aipe9fj 9 

1 5. 3. 3. 

2 rk anXripa conj. Sch. from G (?) ; ravra P 2 Ald.H. 
8 tx* iv conj. Sch.; %x tl J Ald.H. 

4 4\dav conj. Seal, from G ; 4\irriv Ald.H. 

5 i.e. and this happens less in woods which have little 
core. 6 fya (? =dj*oi<os) MSS. ; avr^v conj. W. 


Digitized by 


that of the lime ; those are difficult which are 
hard and have many knots and a compact and 
twisted grain. The most difficult woods are those 
of aria (holm-oak) and oak, and the knotty parts 
of the fir and silver-fir. The softer part of any 
given tree is always better than the harder, since 
it is fleshier : and carpenters can thus at once mark 
the parts suitable for planks. Inferior iron tools can 
cut hard wood better than soft: for on soft wood 
tools lose their edge, as was said 1 in speaking of the 
lime, while hard woods 2 actually sharpen it : where- 
fore cobblers make their strops of wild pear. 

Carpenters say that all woods have 8 a core, 
but that it is most plainly seen in the silver-fir, 
in which one can detect a sort of bark -like charac- 
ter in the rings. In olive box and such woods 
this is not so obvious ; wherefore they say that box 
and olive 4 lack this tendency ; for that these woods 
are less apt to ' draw ' than any others. ' Drawing ' 
is the closing in of the wood as the core is dis- 
turbed. 5 For since the core remains alive, it appears, 
for a long time, it is always removed from any 
article whatever made of this wood, 6 but especially 
from doors, 7 so that they may not warp 8 : and that 
is why the wood is split. 9 

It might seem strange that in ' round ' 10 timber 
the core does no harm and so is left undisturbed, 
while in wood whose texture has been interfered 
with, 11 unless it is taken out altogether, it causes 

7 Bvpwpdruv conj. Sch.; yvpco/xircov Aid. cf. 4. 1. 2; Plin. 
16. 225, abietem valvarum paginis aptissimam. 

8 affrpa&rj $ conj. Dalec; currpa&r) UMVAld. 

9 i.e. to extract the core. 10 See below, §5. 

11 xapaictvri6u<ri, i.e. by splitting or sawing. Tr€\cicr)6u<ri 


Digitized by 


Kivei Kal Trapa<TTpi<f>€i' fwXKov yap cIkos yvfiv<o- 
deiaav airoOvrfa/eeiv. opcos he 01 ye IcttoI /cal 
ai Kepalai igcupeOeLarjs d%peioi. tovto he Kara 
avfifteftrj/eos, oti xiT&va? e^ei TrXeiovs, iayypb- 
rarov he Kal Xeirrorarov he top eoyarov, grjpoTa- 
tov ydp y Kal tov$ aWovs dva \6yov. orav oiv 

4 o"xi<T0j), irepiaipeirai tcl ^qporara. el h y f) firjrpa 
hid to £r)pbv aKeirTeov. hiaarpe^et he eXKOfievrj 
tcl %v\a Kal ev toi? o"%*o-to£9 Kal irpi<TTol<; t orav 
fit) a>9 hel Trpiotxrv hei yap 6p0rjv rrjv irpLaiv elvai 
Kal fir) irXaylav. olov ovarj? Trj? pLrjTpas i<j> y fjv 
to a, fir} irapa tv\v fiy rifiveiv, aWd irapd rrjv 
fth. fyQeipecrOai yap ovtoo <f>aaiv, eKetvco*; he £r}v. 
oti he irav %v\ov exec pLrjTpav ck tovtcov olovTaC 
<j>avepbv yap eaTi Kal rd pur) hoKovvra iravr ey^eiv, 
olov irvfjov Xcotov irplvov. cqpeiov he* to£»? yap 
crTpofayya*; tcov Ovpcov tcov iroXvreXtav iroiovai 
fiev ck tovtcov, crvyypdcpovrai he oi dpyiTeKTOve^ 
ovtco? <fiy> €K firjTpas. TavTO he tovto o-rjfieiov 
Kal oti irdcra firfTpa ekKCTai, Kal ai tcov aKkrjpo- 

5 TaTcov, a? hij Tives Kaphias kqXovcti. iravTO^ hk 

1 And so cause no trouble. 

2 cf. 5. 1. 6. w\c(ous conj. Sch. from G ; &\\ovs Ald.H. 
* Text probably defective ; ? insert ityptdr) after £riphv. 

4 The figure would seem to be 

D C 

* \/ A 



Digitized by 


disturbance and warping: it were rather to be 
expected that it would die 1 when exposed. Yet 
it is a fact that masts and yard-arms are useless, 
if it has been removed from the wood of which 
they are made. This is however an accidental ex- 
ception, because the wood in question lias several 
coats, 2 of which the strongest and also thinnest is 
the outermost, since this is the driest, while 
the other coats are strong and thin in projx>rtion 
to their nearness to the outermost. If therefore 
the wood be split, the driest parts are necessarily 
stripped off. Whether however in the other case 
the object of removing the core is to secure dryness 
is matter for enquiry. 3 However, when the core 
' draws,' it twists the wood, whether it has been 
split or sawn, if the sawing is improperly performed : 
the saw-cut should be made straight and not slant- 
wise. 4 Thus, if the core be represented by the 
line A, the cut must be made along the line BD y 
and not along the line BC : for in that case, they 
say, the core will be destroyed, while, if cnt in 
the other way, it will live. For this reason men 
think that every wood has a core : for it is clear 
that those which do not seem to possess one never- 
theless have it, as box nettle-tree kermes-oak : a proof 
of this is the fact that men make of these woods the 
pivots 5 of expensive doors, and accordingly rt the 
headcraftsmen specify that wood with a core shall 
not 7 be used. This is also a proof that any core 
' draws,' even those of the hardest woods, which 
some call the heart. In almost every wood, even 

5 cf, 5. 3. 5. 0Tp6<piyZ here at least probably means 1 pivot 
and socket.' 

6 out ens Ald.H.; avrobs conj. W. 7 fify add. W. 


^OL. I. O O 

Digitized by 


a>9 elirelv gvXov aKXrjpOTaTrj teal fjuavoTarrj r) 
firjTpa, Kal avrf}<; rf}$ eXdTrjr \iavoTarr) yiev ovv, 
oti Ta? iva$ e^ei Kal Bid iroXXov Kal to aapK&Be? 
to dvcL fieaov ttoXv* aKkrjpOTaT>) Be, on Kal 
ai Ives a-KXrjpoTaraL teal to aapK&Bes' Bi b Kal 
oi ap")(iT€KTOve<; cvyypd(f>ovTai trapaipelv ra irpo? 

Tt}V flfjTpaV, 07TG)9 Xd/SoDGl TOV %vXoV TO TTVKVOTa- 

tov Kal fia\aK<oTaTov. 
6 T&v Be %v\(0V to. fjiev a^iaTa, ra Be ireXeKrjTa 
to. Be GTpoyyvXa* vyiGTa flip, oaa BiaipovvTes 
KaTct to fxeaov irpi^ovar TreXeKrjTa Be, oacov 
airoTrekeK&o'i tcl egoo' aTpoyyvXa Bk BrjXov on 
ra o\g>9 ayfravaTa. tovtcov Be ra a^iGTa fiev 
oXcos dppayrj Bid to yvfivcoBeio-av ttjv firjTpav 
^rjpaiveaOai Kal aTToOvrjaKeiv Ta Be ireKeKrjTa 
Kal Ta GTpoyyvXa prjyvvTai* jiaXXov Be iroXv 
Ta aTpoyyvXa Bid to evaTreiXr)<f>6ai ttjv firjTpav 9 
ovBev yap oti t&v dirdvTayv ov prjyvvTai. toi$ 
Be Xwtlvoi*; Kal tois aXXois oh eh tol>9 0"t/oo- 
<j>iyya$ xp&VTai 777709 to fir) prjyvvo-Oai ftoXfiiTOv 
irepnrXaTTOvaiv, 07Tft>9 dvagrjpavOrj Kal Biairvevadfj 
Kara fiiKpbv r) eK t?/9 firjTpas vypoTrj*;. r) /lev oZv 
fiffTpa TOiavTT/v ex €l Bvvafuv. 

VI. Ba/009 Bk eveyKeiv icyypd Kal r) eXaTT) 
Kal r) irevKY) irXdyiai TiOejievar ovBev yap iv- 

1 £v\ov <tk\t\potA.ti\ conj. Sch. from G ; £v\ov <rK\i)p6rarov 
UMV: so Aid. omitting ku\. 

* &iroir€\€Ku<ri conj. Sell.; tnroirXtKwai UM ; ktroirK^Kovat 
Aid.; broirtXtKovGL mBas. 3 cf. CP. 5. 17. 2. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. v. 5 -vi. i 

in that of the silver-fir, the core is the hardest 
part, 1 and the part which has the least fibrous 
texture : — it is least fibrous because the fibres are far 
apart and there is a good deal of fleshy matter 
between them, while it is the hardest part because 
the fibres and the fleshy substance are the hardest 
parts. Wherefore the headcraftsmen specify that 
the core and the parts next it are to be removed, 
that they may secure the closest and softest part 
of the wood. 

Timber is either ' cleft/ ' hewn/ or ' round ' : it is 
called ' cleft/ when in making division they saw it 
down the middle, ' hewn ' when they hew off 2 the 
outer parts, while s round ' clearly signifies wood which 
has not been touched at all. Of these, ' cleft ' wood 8 
is not at all liable to split, because the core when 
exposed dries and dies : but ' hewn ' and ' round ' 
wood are apt to split, and especially ' round ' wood, 
because the core is included in it : no kind of timber 
indeed is altogether incapable of splitting. The 
wood of the nettle-tree and other kinds which are 
used for making pivots for doors are smeared 4 
with cow-dung to prevent their splitting : the object 
l>eing that the moisture due to the core may be 
gradually dried up 6 and evaporated. Such are the 
natural properties of the core. 

Which woods can best support weight. 
VI. 6 For bearing weight silver-fir and fir are strong 
woods, when set slantwise 7 : for they do not give like 

4 rrepnrKdrrovfft conj. Sch. from G ; wcpiniTrovatv Ald.H. 
Plin. 16. 222. 6 ava$r\pavBy conj. Sch.; ava^paUv Ald.H. 

6 Plin. 16. 222-224. 

7 e.g. as a strut. ir\dyiai conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e.; aira\a\ 


G G 2 

Digitized by 


hihoaaiv, &a f rrep rj S0O9 /cal rd yewhrj, aXX dvrco- 
Oovar arifieiov he otl ouheiroTe prjyvvvTai, icaddirep 
i\da /cal hpv$, aWd irporepov aijirovrai teal 
a\\o)9 diravh&Giv. la'yyobv he /cal 6 <f>oiPilj' 
dvdiraXip ya/o f) /cdfiTjris rj to ft? aXXois yiverai* 
tcl fi€V yap et? ra kotod KafiirreTai, 6 he <j>oivif; 
eh ra ava. <f>aal he real rtjv irev/crjv teal ttjv 
iKdrrjv dvrwdelv. to he T779 EuySoi'/erfc /capvas, 
yiverai yap fxeya nal yjp&wrai 777009 ttjv epeyfriv, 
orav fiiXXfj prjyvvadai yjrocjyelv &are TrpoaiaOdv- 
eadai irporepov oirep /cal ev 'Avrdvopq) avve- 
ireaev iv Ttp fiaXaveia) teal Trdvre? i^eirrfhrjaav. 
ia'xypbv he /cal to T779 av/crj$ ttXyjv eh opOov. 

2 f H he iXdrrj fidXiara a>9 elireiv ivyypbv. irpo^ 
he t«9 rcov TeicTovMv ^/oeta9 e^e/coXXov fxev fxa- 
Xiara rj irevKrj hid re rrjv fiavoTrjra /cal ttjv 
evOviroplav ovhe yap o\o>9 ovhe prjyvvaOai <f>a<riv 
edv /coXXr)0r}. evropvorarov he <j>iXv/cr], ical rj 
Xev/corrj*; wo-irep rj rod /crjXdarpov. r&v he aXXcov 
f] (f>i\vpa' to yap oXov evepyov, coairep eXexdrj, 
hid /xaXa/coTrjTa. ev/capnna he a>9 fiev dirX&s 
elirelv oaa yXia%pa. hia<j>epeiv he ho/cei av/cd- 
fjiivos /cal epiveos, hi b /cal ra i/cpia /cal ra? 
o-T€<f>di/a<; /cal o\g>9 oaa irepl top Koafiov i/c 
rovrcov iroiovai. 

3 HLvTrpiaTa he ical evayiaja ra ivi/cjiorepa t&v 

1 i.e. the strut becomes concave or convex respectively. 
cf. Xen. Gyr. 7. 5. 11. 

2 i.e. it cannot be used as a strut, or it would 'buckle,' 
though it will stand a vertical strain. 

8 Plin. 16. 225. 

4 cf. CP. 5. 17. 3. € v$tm opdrara : ehBvvoplav, 

Digitized by 


oak and other woods which contain mineral matter, 
but make good resistance. A proof of this is that they 
never split like olive and oak, but decay first or fail 
in some other way. Palm-wood is also strong, for it 
bends the opposite way to other woods : they bend 
downwards, palm-wood upwards. 1 It is said that fir 
and silver-fir also have an upward thrust. As to the # 
sweet chestnut, which grows tall and is used for 
roofing, it is said that when it is about to split, it 
makes a noise, so that men are forewarned : this 
occurred once at Antandros at the baths, and all those 
present rushed out. Fig-wood is also strong, but only 
when set upright. 2 

Of the woods best suited for the carpenter's various purposes. 

8 The wood of the silver-fir may be called the 
strongest of all. But for the carpenter's purposes 
fir best takes glue because of its open texture and 
the straightness of its pores 4 ; for they say that 
it never by any chance comes apart when it is glued. 
Alaternus 5 is the easiest wood for turning, and its 
whiteness is like that of the holly. Of the rest 
lime is the easiest, the whole tree, as was said, 
being easy to work because of the softness of the 
wood. In general those woods which are tough are 
easy to bend. The mulberry and the wild fig seem 
to be specially so; wherefore they make of these 
theatre-seats, 6 the hoops of garlands, and, in 
general, things for ornament. 

7 Woods which have a fair amount of moisture in 
them are easier to saw or split than those which 

5 cf. 5. 7. 7. 

6 Rendering doubtful. Xnpia has probably here some un- 
known meaning, on which the sense of k6c\xov depends. 

7 Pliri. 16. 227. 


Digitized by 


irdfiirav %rjpa>v tcl fiev yap iravovrat, tcl Be 
laravTar tcl Be xXcopa Xtav avfi/xvec teal ive^e- 
rat, iv Tot9 oBovai ra irpiafiaTa teal ifnrXaTTei, 
Bi b zeal TrapaXkoTTovaiv dXXrfXwv tovs 6B6vTa$ 
iva igdyrjrat,. can Be teal BvaTpvirqTOTepa tcl 

. Xiav xXwpd* ftpaBiay? yap dvafyeperai tcl iicrpv- 
TTrnmra Bid to ftapea elvar tcjv Be ^rjpcov Ta^€Q)9 
teal evOus 6 drjp dva0€pfmiv6fJL€Vo$ dvaBiBcoar 
irdXtv Be tcl Xiav £r)pd Bid ttjv aKXrjpoTrjra 
Bvairpiara' /caddirep yap oarpaKov o-vfifiaivei 
irpieiv, Be b teal TpwirGyvTes eiriftpexovaiv. 

4 TLvTreXe/crjTorepa Be iea\ evropvoTepa real evtjo- 
(orepa ra xXeopd* 7rpo<rtcd0r)Tai re yap to Topvev- 
Tijpiov fiaWov teal ovie diroTrrjBa* xalrj 7T€\e/ci]cn$ 
toov p>a\aK(OTepcov pacov, teal r\ f~ eo~t9 Be 6/jlolco^ teal 
en Xeiorepa. lax v P° raT0V Be teal % /cpdveia, t&v 
Be aXXeov ov% ijKiara rj irTeXea, Bi b teal tov$ 
<npo<f>ea<;, &<nrep iXexOrj, tcu? Ovpais irreXetvov^ 
Troiovaiv. vyporarov Be fieXia zeal ogvr)* teal yap 
ra leXivdpia tcl evBiBovTa eie tovtgw. 

VII. ff OXco<; Be 7T/0O9 Trola t?/9 vXris e/ed<TTr) 
XPV^^V Ka ^ nolo, vav7rr)yi]<TLfio<; teal ol/coBofiL/cij, 
irXelaTrj yap avTr) r) XP eia Ka ^ * v M€yio~TOJ9, 
ireiparkov elirelv, d^opl^ovTa tca(F e/cao-TOV to 

'FtXaTi] fiev ovv teal irevfcrj teal tc&Bpo? a>9 a7rXa>9 

1 Tcavovrai can hardly be right : Plin. I.e. seems to have 
had a fuller text. 

2 4fiir\&TT€L : cf. de Sens.. 66. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. vi. 3 -vu. 1 

are altogether dry : for the latter give, 1 while the 
former resist. Wood which is too green closes up 
again when sawn, and the sawdust catches in the 
saw's teeth and clogs 2 them ; wherefore the teeth 
of the saw are set alternate ways, to get rid of the 
sawdust. Wood which is too green is also harder to 
bore holes in ; for the auger's dust is only brought 
up slowly, because it is heavy ; while, if the wood is 
dry, the air gets warmed by the boring and brings 
it up readily and at once. On the other hand, wood 
which is over dry 8 is hard to saw because of its 
hardness : for it is like sawing through earthenware ; 
wherefore they wet the auger when using it. 

However green wood is easier to work with the 
axe the chisel or the plane ; for the chisel gets a 
better hold and does not slip off. Again softer 
woods are easier for the axe and for smoothing, 4 and 
also a better polished surface is obtained. The 
cornelian cherry is also a very strong wood, and 
among the rest elm-wood is the strongest ; where- 
fore, as was said, 5 they make the ' hinges ' for doors 
of elm-wood. Manna-ash and beech have very moist 
wood, for of these they make elastic bedsteads. 

Of the woods used in ship-building. 

VII. Next we must endeavour to say in a general 
way, distinguishing the several uses, for which 
purposes each kind of timber is serviceable, which 
is of use for ship-building, which for house-building : 
for these uses extend far and are important. 

Now silver-fir, fir and Syrian cedar 6 are, generally 

8 Tok \lav £r;pcfc conj. St. ; A«io koI fyiph. Ald.H. 

4 Sc. with the carpenter's axe. 

5 5. 3. 5. 6 See Index. 


Digitized by 


elirelv vavTrrjyrjcri/j.a* ra? fiev yap Tpu'jpet,? zeal tcl 
fiafcpa ttXoZcl iXaTLva ttoiovgi Sia Kov^orrjTa, ra 
Se GTpoyyvXa irev/civa Sia to deratre^ evioi 8k /cal 
Ta? Tpi7jp€i$ Sia to fir) eviropelv i\aTrj<;. ol Se 
Kara Hvpiav /cal <t>oivl/cr)v e/c /ceSpov Giravitpvai 
yap teal Trev/cr)?. ol 8' ev Kvirpq) irirvov ravrrjv 
yap r) vijao^ e%et /cal So/eel /cpeiTTtov elvai rr)? 

2 Trev/cr)?. teal Ta /JL€V aWa e/c tovtodv* ttjv oe 
Tpbiriv Tpirfpei fikv Spvtvrjv, r Lva dvTexy irpbs ra? 
vecoX/das, Tafc Se 6\/cderi Trev/civrjv viroTiOeaeri & 
€Ti teal Bpvtvrjv eirav vecoX/ccoeTi, rat9 8' ekaTToeriv 
dgvtvrjv zeal oA,g>? ifc tovtov to *)(ekvcrfia. 

Ov% aiTTCTai 8k ovSk Kara Trjv KoWrjeriv 
ofioico? to Spvivov t&v irev/clvoov teal eXaTLveov tcl 
fikv ydp irv/eva Ta Sk fiavd, teal ra fikv Sfioia Ta 8' 
ov. Set Se 6fioioira6r) elvai tcl fieXkovTa avfi- 
fyvecrOai koX fir) evavTia, /caOanepavel \cdov zeal 

3 f H 8k TOpveia to?? fiev ifXoiois yiveTai erv/ca- 
filvov fieXia? TTTeXea? irXaTavov* yXicry^poTryra 
yap eyeiv Set /cal ler^vv. x ei P^ <TT V ^ V T *)$ 
TrXaTavow Tayy yctp errjirerai. Tal$ Se Tpirjpecriv 
evioi /cal TTiTvtva? iroiovai Sia to i\a<j)p6v. to 

eTTepeeofia, irpos cS to %e\uo*/ia, ical Ta? eirco- 
Tt8a?, fieXla? /cal av/cafilvov /cal TrTeXeas* ler)(vpa 

1 rprfipci conj. W.; rpi^prj U; rpi'fjprjs MV; rpfljpfffi Aid. 

2 rats 5' 4\drroffiv 6£vlpr)v conj. W. (rots Sch.); rois filv 
4\drTo<rty o^vrj Aid. cf. Plin. 16. 226. 

8 x^fo-yua, a temporary covering for the bottom : so Poll, 
and Hesych. explain. 


Digitized by 


speaking, useful for ship-building ; for triremes and 
long ships are made of silver-fir, because of its light- 
ness, and merchant ships of fir, because it does not 
decay ; while some make triremes of it also because 
they are ill provided with silver-fir. The people 
of Syria and Phoenicia use Syrian cedar, since they 
cannot obtain much fir either ; while the people of 
Cyprus use Aleppo pine, since their island provides 
this and it seems to be superior to their fir. Most 
parts are made of these woods ; but the keel for a 
trireme 1 is made of oak, that it may stand the haul- 
ing ; and for merchantmen it is made of fir. How- 
ever they put an oaken keel under this when they 
are hauling, or for smaller vessels a keel of beech ; 2 
and the sheathing 3 is made entirely of this wood. 

4 (However oak-wood does not join well with glue 
on to fir or silver-fir ; for the one is of close, the 
other of open grain, the one is uniform, the other 
not so ; whereas things which are to be made into 
one piece should be of similar character, and not of 
opposite character, like wood and stone.) 

The work of bentwood 5 for vessels is made of 
mulberry manna-ash elm or plane ; for it must be 
tough and strong. That made of plane-wood is the 
worst, since it soon decays. For triremes some make 
such parts of Aleppo pine because of its lightness. 
The cutwater, 6 to which the sheathing is attached, 7 
and the catheads are made of manna-ash mulberry 

4 This sentence is out of place ; its right place is perhaps 
at the end of § 4. 

6 ropvelu ; but the word is perhaps corrupt : one would 
expect the name of some part of the vessel. 

6 ffT€p4tofia : apparently the fore part of the keel ; — crriipa. 

7 irpbs <j> T&xcAwr/iaconj. W. after Seal,; irp6<ru>' rb cx^vfffia 
Aid. (<rx«Ao/xa M, x&wr/ua U) npSaoe' rb 5e x«A»><r/ua mBas. 



yap Bel ravr elvai. vavinjyijo-ifio*; fiev ovv v\rj 
a^eSbv avrrj* 

4 Oifco&o fitter) Be iroWip irXeieov, ekaTq re teal 
irevKtj teal tceBpos, eri tcvirdptTTo? Spv$ teal dp- 
teevOor o>9 8' a7r\ft>9 eiirelv iracra XPV^^V irXrjv 
ei t*9 aa0€vr}<: Trdfiirav ov/c eh ravrb yap iraerai, 
teaQdirep ovB* iirl rrj^ vavTnjyias. ai 8' aXXat 
7rpb<; to, tBia t&v rexvwv, olov crteevr) teal opyava 
teal et tl toiovtov erepov. irpb<; irXelerra Bk ax^Bbv 
7] iXdrrj irapex^Tav x?^ av * Ka ^ J&P Tpbs tou? 
irlvaieas tou9 ypa<j)Ofievov$. re/cropi/cy fiev ovv f) 
TraXaioraTrj KpaTiarrj, idv jj aaairrjv evOerel yap 
a>9 eiirelv irdat xpfjaffar vavirrjyiKfj he Sid Trjv 
tedfiyfriv ivueyjnkpa dvay/catov €7rel tt/oo? ye rifv 
tcoXXrjcriv rj grjpoTepa crvfjuf>ep€i. Xararai ydp 
teaivd rd vavirrjyovpsva teal orav crv/nrayjj teaO- 
e\fcvcr0€PTa crvfifivei teal ciTeyei, irXfjv idv fit) 
iravrdiraeriv ifytefLaerdrj' totc Bk oi Si^rai teoX- 
Xrjcriv fj oix o/iotft>9. 

6 Aei Be teal teaf? eteaerrov Xafiffdveiv eis irola 
XpyGipLos ecrriv. iXdrr) fiev ovv teal irevKrj, 
tcaOdirep elprjrai, teal irpbs vavirqylav teal 77790? 

1 4\drri . . . UpKtvOos conj. W. ; *\irr\ t€ koI trfvKrj k<x\ KtSpos 
tri Kvxdpirros tipvs iretf/ci; koI K&pos HpicevOos U; 4\<Lrri tc koI 
•wcticr} koI icttyos teal &pK*v$os Ald.H.: so also MV, omitting 
koI before 

2 &s 5' oirAws conj. Sch.; cnc\us 8' its Aid. 
■ Kaivh. conj. Sch. ; koL vvv Aid. 

4 cvfiicayrj conj. W., which he renders * when it has been 
glued together'; vvfiirlri Aid. G's reading was evidently 


Digitized by 


and elm ; for these parts must be strong. Such 
then is the timber used in ship-building. 

Of the woods used in house-building. 
For house-building a much greater variety is 
used, silver-fir fir and prickly cedar ; also cypress 
oak and Phoenician cedar. 1 In fact, to speak 
generally, 2 any wood is here of service, unless it is 
altogether weak : for there are various purposes for 
which different woods are serviceable, just as there 
are in ship-building. While other woods are service- 
able for special articles belonging to various crafts, 
such as furniture tools and the like, the wood of 
silver-fir is of use for almost more purposes than any 
other wood ; for it is even used for painters' tablets. 
For carpentry the oldest wood is the best, provided 
that it has not decayed ; for it is convenient for 
almost anyone to use. But for ship-building, where 
bending is necessary, one must use wood which 
contains more moisture (though, where glue is to be 
used, drier wood is convenient). For timber- work 
for ships is set to stand when it is newly 8 made : 
then, when it has become firmly united, 4 it is 
dragged down to the water, and then it closes up 
and becomes watertight,— unless 5 all the moisture 
has been dried out of it, in which case it will not 
take the glue, or will not take it so well. 

Of the uses of the wood of particular trees. 
But we must consider for what purposes 6 each 
several wood is serviceable. Silver-fir and fir, as has 
been said, are suitable both for ship-building house - 

5 irAV ^ conj. W.; nr. idv re M ; nr. idv ye Aid. 
B i.e. apart from ship-building and house-building, in 
which several woods are used. 


Digitized by 


oltcohofiiav teal en 7rpo9 aXXa t&v epycjv, eh 
irXela) he 7) iXdrrj. ttltvl he xp&vrai /jlcv eh 
apxfrco teal ov% fjrTOV eh vavirrjyLav, ov jitfv dXXd 
Twyy hiaaryirerai. hpvs he irpb^ olteohojiiav teal 
7T/?o? vavjrijyiav en re irpb? rd Kara 7/7? tcaropvr- 
rofieva. <j)C\vpa he 7T/oo? to, aavihcofiara twv 
fiatcp&v ttXolwv teal irpb<; tei/Scoria teal Trpbs ttjv 
r&v fMerpcov Karaatcev^v. e%a Be teal top $Xoibp 
Xprjai/Aov 7r/oo? re rd G^pivLa teal irpbs rd$ kLgtclv 
TTOiovcri yap e£ air?)?. 

6 %<f>evhafiv6<} re teal %vyla 777)0? teXivoTrv\y'iav 

KOL 7T/)09 TCL %Vyd TCJV XO(f>OVp€0V. /u\o<? &€ €l<t 

irapaKoXKrifiaTa /ay8a>TO*9 teal viroftdOpoi*; teal 

0\ft)9 TOt9 TOIOVTOI?. TTpWOS hk 7T/0O? afoi>a9 Tafc 

fiovo(TTp6<f>oi<; a/xd^ai<; teal eh £vyd Xvpai? teal 
yjra\T7)pioL<;. ogvrj h% 777909 dp,a%OTn)yiav teal 
01(f) poirrjy lav ttjv evreXrj. irreXea he* 777009 Ovpo- 
irqyLav teal yaXedypas* y^p&vrai h\ teal eh ra 
dfia^ifcd fierpLG)?. Trrjhbs he eh a%ovd<s re rah 
dfxa^ai^ teal eh eXterjOpa to?9 dporpot?. dvhpd%Xr) 
he rah yvvaiQv eh ra irepl tovs larovs. ap- 
teevOos he eh retcTovias teal eh rd viraWpta teal 
eh rd tearopvrTopLeva Kara yrjs hid to daaire^. 

7 ftxravTG)? he teal r) Evfioiter) tcapva, teal 777&09 ye 
ttjv tearopvgiv en fidXXov daair^. irv^ep hi 
ytp&vrai p,kv 777)09 evia, ov firjv dXX* f\ ye ev T£> 
OXvpnrtp yivofievr) hid to fipayeld re elvai teal 
6£(bhr)<; dxpelo?. reppivOep he ovhev xp&vrai 

1 Kiaras : cf. 3. 13. 1 ; perhaps 1 hampers/ cf. 5. 7. 7. 

2 napaKoKhiifjiara : lit. * things glued on.' 

3 Plin. 16. 229. 

4 rats (xovocrTp6<pois Ufxi^ais : or, perhaps, * the wheels of 

Digitized by 


building and also for other kinds of work, but silver- 
fir is of use for more purposes than fir. Aleppo pine 
is used for both kinds of building, but especially for 
ship-building, yet it soon rots. Oak is used for 
house-building, for ship-building, and also for under- 
ground work ; lime for the deck-planks of long ships, 
for boxes, and for the manufacture of measures ; its 
bark is also useful for ropes and writing-cases, 1 for 
these are sometimes made of it. 

Maple and zygia are used for making beds 
and the yokes of beasts of burden : yew for the 
ornamental work attached 2 to chests and footstools 
and the like : kermes-oak 3 for the axles of wheel- 
barrows 4 and the cross-bars of lyres and psalteries : 
beech for making waggons and cheap carts : elm 
for making doors and weasel-traps, and to some 
extent it is also used for waggon work ; pedos 5 for 
waggon-axles and the stocks of ploughs : andrachne 
is used for women for parts of the loom : Phoenician 
cedar for carpenters' work 6 and for work which is 
either to be exposed to the air or buried underground, 
because it does not decay. Similarly the sweet 
chestnut is used, and it is even less likely to decay 
if it is used for underground work. Box is used for 
some purposes ; however that which grows on 
Mount Olympus 7 is useless, because only short pieces 
can be obtained and the wood 8 is full of knots. 
Terebinth is not used, 9 except the fruit and the resin. 

carts with solid wheels.' reus conj. Sch.; re ko\ UMV; re /col 
fxovo<TTp6<povs afxd^as Aid. 

6 irqdos (with varying accent) MSS. : probably = irtiSos, 4. 1. 
3 ; in$|oj Aid., but see § 7. 

8 TCKTovlas can hardly be right. 7 cf. 3. 15. 5. 

8 cf. 1. 8. 2, of box in general ; Plin. 16. 71. 

9 Inconsistent with 5. 3. 2. 


Digitized by 


7r\rjv Tq> Kapir& Kal rfj prjrLvrf, ovBe fyiXvtcrf 
7r\r)v rols irpofidroir del yap eari Baaeia. rj) 
Be a(f>dp/crj eh yapaicax re teal to icaieiv. K.r\- 
Xaarptp Be Kal arjfivBa 717)09 fiaKrrjpia?. evioi Be 
koX Bd<f>vy ra$ yap yepovriKas teal Kovcfra? ravrrf? 
iroiovaiv. irea he 717)09 re ra? d<nriSa$ ical 
t^9 Kiaras Kal rd /cava Kal rdXXa. irpoaava- 
Xafielv Be eari Kal r&v aXXcov eKaarov ofioicos. 
8 Airjprjrai Be Kal 717)09 rd reKroviKd r&v opyd- 
veov eKaara Kara rr)v xpeiav otov afyvpiov fiev 
Kal repkvpiov apiara fiev yiverai Korivov X9^ iVTai 
Be Kal rrvgivoi? Kal irreXetvoi*; Kal fieXetvow rd$ 
Be fieydXa? <r<j)vpa^ mrvtvas iroiovaiv. 6fioLO)$ 
Be Kal roov aXXcov eKaarov e%et rwd rdgiv. Kal 
ravra fiev ai y^pelai Biaipovaiv. 

VIII. 'E/cao-Tiy Be rr)$ 5X179, &crirep Kal irporepov 
eXex^ 7 !* Bia<f>epei Kara tou9 T07rof9' evOa fiev ydp 
\o)T09 evOa Be KeBpo? yiverai Oavfiaarrjy KaOdirep 
Kal ire pi *%vpiav % ev Xvpia yap ev re Tofc 6 peat 
Bia<j)epovra yiverai rd BevBpa rr)<; KeBpov Kal t£ 
vyjrei Kal rq> Tracer rrjXiKavra ydp eanv &ar 
evia fiev fir) BvvaaOai rpei? avBpa? 7r€piXafij3dveiv 
ev re rols irapaBeiaois eri fiei^co Kal KaXXiay. 
<j>aiverai Be Kal edv ri$ ea Kal fir) rkfivrf roirov 
oikciov eKaarov e^pv yiveaOai Oavfiaarov tcS 
firjKei Kal irdyei. ev Kvirptp yovv ovk erejivov 01 
ftaaiXeis, dfia fiev rrjpovvres Kal rafiievofievoi, dfia 

1 Inconsistent with 5. 6. 2. <pi\vp4a conj. Sch. 

2 Kal crtj^vha conj. Sch. ; ko.1 fivia U ; Kal fxva Aid. c/. 3. 14. 4. 


Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. vn. 7-vm. 1 

1 Alaternus is only useful for feeding sheep ; for it is 
always leafy. Hybrid arbutus is used for making 
stakes and for burning : holly and Judas-tree 2 for 
walking-sticks : some also use bay for these ; for 
of this 3 they make light sticks and sticks for old 
men. Willow is used for shields hampers baskets 
and the like. We might in like manner add the 
several uses of the other woods. 

4 Distinction is also made between woods according 
as they are serviceable for one or other of the 
carpenters tools : thus hammers and gimlets are best 
made of wild olive, but box elm and manna-ash are 
also used, while large mallets are made of Aleppo 
pine. In like manner there is a regular practice 
about each of the other tools. Such are the 
differences as to the uses of various woods. 

Of the localities in which the best timber grows, 

VIII. Each kind of timber, as was said before, 
differs according to the place 6 where it grows ; 
in one place nettle-tree, in another the cedar is 
remarkably fine, for instance in Syria ; for in Syria 
and on its mountains the cedars grow to a sur- 
passing height and thickness : they are sometimes 
so large that three men cannot embrace the tree. 
And in the parks they are even larger and finer. It 
appears that any tree, if it is left alone in its 
natural position and not cut down, grows to a 
remarkable height and thickness. For instance in 
Cyprus the kings used not to cut the trees, 
l>oth because they took great care of them and hus- 

■ ravrifs conj. H. ; rauras UMVAld. 
« Plin. 16. 230. 

6 t6kovs conj. Seal, from G ; *6Ka.s Aid. 


Digitized by 


Be teal Bid to BvateofiicTov elvai. fifj/co? fiev Tfv 
t&p eh ttjp epBe/crjpr) ttjp ^tjfirjTplov TfitjOevTtop 
Tpia/caiBe/caopyviov, avTa Be to, ^vXa tw firj/cei 
davfiacrra teal ao£a teal Xela, /Jbeyiara Be teal 
irapa ttoXv ra ip ttj JZvpvtp (paalp elvac t&p 
yap ip tt) KarLvri tcaX&p yipofiepwp VTrepfioXr) 
teai t&p ikaripcop /cal t&p irevtcipeop — fiel^co yap 
ravra teal tcaXXiG) t&p * It aXite&p — ovBep elvai 

2 7T/309 tcl ip Trj Kvpva). irXevaai yap 7T0TC tov? 
'Voofiaiov*; ftoyXofiepovs tcaTOGKevdaaaQai ttoXip 
ip t9) prjatp irePT€ /cal ettcoai pavai, teal ttjXucovtop 
elpai to /xeyeOos t&p BepBpcop &gt€ eiairXeoPTas 
e£? koXttov <? twos; teal XipAvas Biacrxiadelai tois 
laTols iiriKipBvpevaai. teal o\ft>9 Be 7rdaap ttjp 
pfjo-op Bacreiap teal &airep rjypiayfieprjp tt) vky 
Bi h teal airoaTrjpai ttjp ttoXip oltei^eip* BiaftdvTa? 
Be Tipas diroTefMeadac irdfiiroXv TrXfjOo? etc tottov 
fipayeos, &<tt€ TrjXi/cavTrjp iroirjaai a^eBLap fj 
€XpV (TaT0 TtepTT]KOPTa Ict'iow ov fiijp dXXa 
Biaireaelp avTtjp ip T<p ireXdyei. VLvppo? fiep ovp 
eire Bid ttjp apeaip enre teal to eBatpo? teal top 
depa 7roXit Bia<f>epei t&p aXXwp. 

3 'H Be t&p AaTipcDP €(j>vBpo<s irao-a* teal r) p,ep 
ireBeiPr) Bd<j)pr)p e^ei teal fivppipov? teal 6%vrjp 
0avp,ao-Ti]P' TrjXi/cavTa yap ra filter) Teyivovai 
(oaT elvai Biapetc&$ t&p TvpprjpiBcov virb ttjp 
Tpoiriv r) B\ opeivrj irevtcrjp teal iXaTtjp. to Be 

1 Demetrius Poliorcetes. c/. Plut. Demetr. 43 ; Plin. 16. 

2 iviKivdwevaai conj. W.; iwl rhv wvkvov Aid.; so U, but 

8 i.e. against the overhanging trees. ? lartois, to which 
diaaX' is more appropriate. 

Digitized by 


banded them, and also because the transport of the 
timber was difficult. The timbers cut for Demetrius' 1 
ship of eleven banks of oars were thirteen fathoms 
long, and the timbers themselves were without 
knots and smooth, as well as of marvellous length. 
But largest of all, they say, are the trees of 
Corsica; for whereas silver-fir and fir grow in 
Latium to a very great size, and are taller and 
finer than the silver-firs and firs of South Italy, 
these are said to be nothing to the trees of Corsica. 
For it is told how the Romans once made an ex- 
pedition to that island with twenty-five ships, wishing 
to found a city there ; and so great was the size of 
the trees that, as they sailed into certain bays and 
creeks, they got into difficulties 2 through breaking 
their masts. 3 And in general it is said that the 
whole island is thickly wooded and, as it were, one 
wild forest ; wherefore the Romans gave up the idea 
of founding their city : however some of them made 
an excursion 4 into the island and cleared away a large 
quantity of trees from a small area, enough to make 
a raft with fifty sails ; 5 but this broke up in the open 
sea. Corsica then, whether because of its uncultivated 
condition or because of its soil and climate, is very 
superior in trees to other countries. 

The country of the Latins is all well watered ; 
the lowland part contains bay, myrtle, and wonder- 
ful beech : they cut timbers of it of such a size that 
they will run the whole length G of the keel of a 
Tyrrhenian vessel. The hill country produces fir and 
silver-fir. The district called by Circe's name is, it 

4 StapdvTas 5c rivas conj. St. from G; SmjSctvTa 5e riva Ald.H. 

5 $1 txpft aaro for. conj. Sch.; J ixpfowro ot Ald.H. 

6 $iav€K&s conj. Sch. ; 5ict i/€<J>s Aid. 


VOL. I. H H 

Digitized by 


Ktpteaiov teaXovpuevov elvai fiev atcpav v^rjXrjv, 
Sacreiav Be a<f>6Spa teal eyeiv Bpvv teal Bd^vrjv ttoX- 
Xrjv teal fAvppivovs. Xiyetv Be to£»9 ey^coptoi/? is 
ivravOa 17 Kipterj teaTfpteei teal Beitevvvai rov tov 
'EXTrtfvopos rd(f)OP, e£ ov <f>vovrai puvppivai teaOd- 
Trep ai GTe^avditTiSes t&v aXXotv 6vt(ov fieydXtov 
pvppLvwv. rbv Be tottov elvai teal tovtov veav 
irpoadeaiv, teal irporepov ftev oiv vfjaov elvai to 
Kiptcaiov, vvv Be viro TroTap&v tivwv 7rpoatce- 
y&aQai teal elvai ifibva. t% Be vijaov to /xeyeOos 
irepl oyBorjieovra aTaBlov?. teal ra fiev t&v 
tottcov XSia TroXXrjv e%€t Siacfyopdv, &<rirep eiprjrai 


IX. To Be teal 7T/0O9 ttjv irvpaxriv 7nw? etedarr] 
rfjs v\t)<; eyei Xetereov opioLw teal ireipareov 
Xafielv. avffpa/ces fiev ovv apiarot yivovTai t&v 
TrutcvoTaTayv, olov aplas Bpvbs teojidpow aTeped)- 
TaTOi yap, &(tt€ irXelaTOV ypovov avTeyovai teal 
p.a\iGTa iaxvovar Si o teal iv Tofc dpyvpeiois 
tovtois yp&VTai 7T/0O? ttjv irp&Trjv tovtwv (hfrrjaiv. 
yelpiGTOi Be tovtcdv oi Bpvivoi* yecoBeaTaTOi yap* 
Xeipov? Be teal oi t&v irpeajSvTepcov t&v vecov, teal 
pAXiGTa oi t&v yepavBpvayv Bid TavTO* grjpoTaTOi 
yap, Si o teal tttjS&o'i tcaiofievor Bel Be evitcpbov 

2 l&eXTiaToi Bk oi t&v iv dte/xfj teal fidXiaTa oi 

1 cf. Horn. Od. 10. 552 foil., 11. 51-80, 12. 8-15; Plin. 15. 

2 v4av vp6a$€(rtv conj. 8ch. ; us hvtipbs Biaiv Aid. 

Digitized by 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. vm. 3 -ix. 2 

is said, a lofty promontory, but very thickly wooded, 
producing oak, bay in abundance, and myrtle. There, 
according to the natives, dwelt Circe, and they shew 
Elpenor's tomb, 1 on which grow myrtles like those 
used for garlands, though other kinds of myrtle are 
large trees. Further it is said that the district is a 
recent addition 2 to the land, and that once this piece 
of land was an island, but now the sea has been 
silted up by certain streams and it has become 
united to the coast, and the size of the { island ' 8 
is about eighty furlongs in circumference. There 
is 4 then much difference in trees, as has been said 
repeatedly, which is due to the individual character 
of particular districts. 

Of the uses of various woods in making fire : charcoal, fuel, 

IX. Next we must state in like manner and 
endeavour to determine the properties of each kind 
of timber in relation to making fire. The best 
charcoal is made from the closest wood, such as 
aria (holm-oak) oak arbutus ; for these are the most 
solid, so that they last longest and are the strongest ; 
wherefore these are used in silver-mines for the first 
smelting of the ore. Worst of the woods mentioned 
is oak, since it contains most mineral matter, 5 and 
the wood of older trees is inferior to that of the 
younger, and for the same reason that of really old 
trees is specially bad. For it is very dry, wherefore 
it sputters as it burns ; whereas wood for charcoal 
should contain sap. 

The best charcoal comes from trees in their prime, 

8 cf. Plin. 3. 57. 4 *x« conj. Sch.; eTveu Aid. 
5 i.e. and so makes much ash. 6 cf. 2. 7. 2. 


H H 2 

Digitized by 


t&v tcoXoftcbv avfifiArpo)^ yap e^pvai t$ 7rv/cp& 
teal yeoahei /cal T(p vypa>' /SeXrlov? he /cal i/c r&v 
eveiXwp /cal fpyp&v /cal irpoafioppcop rj i/c t&v 
TraXia/CLcov /cal vyp&p /cal irpo^ vorov /cal el 
ipiKfWTepas v\r)$, Trv/cpfj?' vyporepa yap r) irv/cpr]. 
/cal oXft>9, oaa fj <f}vaei fj hid [top] tottop giypoTepop 
TrvtevoTCpa, ig airaPT&p fieXTico hid ttjv avTrjp 
aiTiav, XP € * a ^ aXktov aWrj* irpbs epia yap 
^fjTOuai tou9 fiaXaxovs, olov iv to 19 aihrjpeioi? 
tou9 t% tcapvas t^9 JLvfioi/cfjs, orav rjhr) tce/cav- 
fiivo? rj, ical iv to?? dpyv peloid to£>9 irtrvtvovs. 

3 xp&vrai he /cal ai reyyai tovtois. ^qrovai he 
zeal ol xaXtcei? tow Trev/cLpov? fiSXKov fj hpvtvovv 
tcalroi daOeveaTepoi d\\ 9 et9 ttjv <f>vo~r)aip dpei- 
pov$ C09 r)aaop /carafiapaivopevoi' ecTi he r) <f>\b^ 
dgvTepa tovtcop. to he o\op d£vT€pa <f>Xb^ ical 

f] TOVTtoV teal f] T&V f~v\a)P TWP pjtPtoP KOX KOV<f>(OP 

/cal r) t<op avcop* r) h* etc tcSp ttv/cp&v /cal %\ct>/Hwi/ 
pcoOeaTepa /cal irayyTepa* iraa&p he ogvTaTrj r) 
i/c t&p vkrjpaTcop* apQpa/ces he o\w9 ov yiPOPTai 
hid to pr) eyeip to acofiaT&he?. 

4 Tipupovai hk /cal tyyTOvai et9 ra9 dv9 pate ids «ra 

1 koKo&Sov conj. Palm. ; KoWd&oov U ; koA<£j3«v Aid. 

2 5c Kai 4k rS>v conj. W. ; 5c koX ol roov UMVP ; 5e ol rcov 

s ical ct iv ik port pas conj. W.; ical ol ivaxnorcpas U ; Kal tj 4v 
aKfirp-^pas MV; ical ol iv aKfx-qripas Aid. Baa. Cam. The sense 
seems to require vypor4pas for 4viKfior4pas and iviKfxorcpa for 
vyporepa. G seems to have had a fuller text. 

4 i.e. from growing in a damper place, cf. 5. 9. 4. 


Digitized by 


and especially from trees which have been topped 1 : 
for these contain in the right proportion the qualities 
of closeness admixture of mineral matter and moisture. 
Again better charcoal comes from trees 2 in a sunny dry 
position with a north aspect than from those grown in 
a shady damp position facing south. Or, if the wood 8 
used contains a good deal of moisture, 4 it should be 
of close texture ; for such wood contains more sap. 5 
And, for the same reason, that which is of closer 
texture either from its own natural character or 
because it was grown in a drier spot, is, whatever 
the kind of tree, better. 7 But different kinds of 
charcoal are used for different purposes : for some 
uses men require it to be soft; thus in iron-mines 
they use that which is made of sweet chestnut 
when the iron has been already smelted, and in 
silver-mines they use charcoal of pine- wood : and 
these kinds are also used by the crafts. Smiths 8 
require charcoal of fir rather than of oak : it is 
indeed not so strong, but it blows up better into 
a flame, as it is less apt to smoulder : and the flame 
from these woods is fiercer. In general the flame is 
fiercer not only from these but from any wood which 
is of open texture and light, or which is dry : while 
that from wood which is of close texture or green is 
more sluggish and dull. The fiercest flame of all 
is given by brushwood ; but charcoal cannot be 
made from it at all, since it has not the necessary 

They cut and require for the charcoal-heap straight 

5 cf. §1 ad Jin. 

6 Zripfocpov conj. W. ; ^p6r*pa UMV; irvKvSrcpa ^p6repa 
Aid. I have bracketed rbv. 

7 &*\rlu> conj. Sch.; pekrluv UM ; fitknov Ald.H. 
* cf. Plin. 16. 23. 


Digitized by 


evOea Kai rd Xeia* hei yap g>s irvKvorara <tvv- 
delvai irpbs ttjv Kardirvi^iv, orav he ire pi - 
aXelyfrcoai rrjv Kajiwov, e^dirrovai irapd pApo? 
irapaKevrovvres 6/3eXLaKoi<;. eh fiev ttjv dvOpa- 
Kidv rd Toiavra ^rjrovai. 

Avafcairva he tcS yevei fiev o\©9 rd vypd* teal 
rd 'xXcopd Sid rovro hvcKairva, Xeyw he rd vypd 
rd eXeia, olov irXdravov Ireav XevKrjv atyeipov 
eirei teal rj afiireXo? ore vypd hvcrKairvos. eic he 
Trjs ihLas <j>vaea>$ 6 <f>otvil;, ov hrj teal fidXia-rd 

TlV€<i. V7T€cXl](f>a<Tl hxHTKairvov odev KOI ^XLlptfflWV 

eiroiifae " rod re hvcrKairvoTarov <f>oiviKO<; i/c 7179 
6 pi£o<f>oLTrjTov<; <£A,ey8a9." hpifivraro^ he 6 kclttvo*; 
avtcfjs Kai ipiveov kcu ei tl aXXo OTr&hes' curia 
he 7j vypoTW (piXo'iadevra he kcu diro^pexO^vra 
ev vharc eTnppvja* Kai fierd ravra grjpavOevra 
irdvroDV aKairvorara Kai <f>Xoya /xaXaKcordrr^v 
dvirjaiv, are koX T779 oiKeCa^ vypoTrjTOS i^rjprjfievrjf;. 
hpifieia he Kai 1) T€<f)pa Kai 17 Kovia rj air' avr&v. 
fiaXiara he <j>aai ttjv dirb ri]$ dfivyhaXrj<;. 
e II/009 htj ra9 Ka/Mvia? Kai Ta9 aUa9 re^m? 
aXXr) aXXoi? XPVvfav* ifiirvpeveadai he apiara 
avKYj Kai iXda* avKtj fiev, on yXtaxpov re Kai 
jiavov, ware eXKev re Kai ov hieurw eXda he, oti 
ttvkvov Kai Xnrapov. 

1 A«Ta conj. Seal, from G ; vca Aid. 

2 With sods. c/. Plin., I.e., who seems to have had a fuller 

* An Athenian tragic poet. Seal, restores the quotation 

Digitized by 


smooth 1 billets: for they must be laid as close as 
possible for the smouldering process. When they 
have covered 2 the kiln, they kindle the heap by 
degrees, stirring it with poles. Such is the wood 
required for the charcoal-heap. 

In general damp wood makes an evil smoke, and 
for this reason green wood does so : I mean the 
damp woods which grow in marshy ground, such 
as plane willow abele black poplar : for even 
vine-wood, when it is damp, gives an evil smoke. 
So does palm-wood of its own nature, and some 
have supposed it to give the most evil smoke of all : 
whence Chaeremon 3 speaks of "Veins issuing under- 
ground from roots of palm with its malodorous smoke." 
Most pungent is the smoke of fig-wood, whether 
wild or cultivated, and of any tree which has a 
curdling juice ; the reason lies in the sap ; when 
such wood has been barked and soaked in running 
water and then dried, it gives as little smoke as 
any other, and sends up a very soft 4 flame, since 
its natural moisture also has been removed. The 
cinders and ashes of such wood are also pungent, 
and especially, they say, those of almond -wood. 

For the crafts requiring a furnace and for other 
crafts various woods are serviceable according to 
circumstances. 5 For kindling fig and olive are best : 
fig, because it is tough and of open texture, so that 
it easily catches fire and does not let it through, 6 
olive, because it is of close texture and oily. 

thus : rod rc ^vffKaitvurdrov \ (poiviKos 4k yijs jn{o<poir4)rovs 
<p\4&as (Pi(o<pir{irovs conj. Schneidewin). 

4 i.e. not sputtering. 

5 koI . . . xpyvfav con j- W.; rix vals a\\-fi\ois XPV^V U; 
t. a\\-f}\as XP- MV; r4x*il ^AAi? Atti XP* P J T » AXA^Xoii itrrl 
xpv<r(w Aid. 6 i.e. burn out quickly. 

47 * 

Digitized by 


Ylvpela Be yiverai fiev ite ttoW&v, dpiara Be, 
g>9 <j>v)ai Mevearcop, etc tcirrov Tdftiara yap teal 
ifXelarov dvatrvel. irvpelov Be <paaiv apiarov 
piev etc Trjs d6payevr\<$ /caXov/nevrjs viro nvcov 
tovto B* earl BevBpov Sfioiov rfi dfnre\<p teal ttj 
oivdvdtf rfj aypia* &<nrep etcelva teal tovto dva- 

7 ftalvei 7T/0O9 rd BevBpa. Bel Be rrjv eaydpav etc 
tovtcov iroielv to Be Tpviravov etc Bd(f>vrj<;' oi yap 
etc ravrov to iroiovv teal irdaypv, a\A,' erepov 
evdv Bel Kara <f>vaiv, zeal to fiev Bel iradrjri/cov 
eXvai to Be iroirjritcov. oi firjv dWa ko\ ite rod 
aifTov yiverai teai, &<; ye rive? viro\afi/3dvovaiv f 
ovSev Biaxf>epei. yiverai yap etc pdfivov zeal 
irpivov teal <f>i\vpa<; teal a^cBbv etc t&v ifkeiarwv 
ttXtjv e\aa9* o teal Soteel aroirov eivai* teal yap 
atcXrjporepov teal Xiirapbv r\ e\da* tovto fiev ovv 
aavfifierpov eyei BrjXov on rrjv vyporrjra 777)09 
ttjv irvpeoaiv. dyaOa Be ra etc pdfivov iroiel Be 
tovto teal ttjv eayapav ypr\arr]v irpo? yap T<p 
fjrjpdv tca\ ayyfiov eivai Bel teal fiavorepav, iv f] 
rpiyjri*; la^vy, to Be Tpviravov diraBearepov Si 
b to rf}<; Bdtf>vr)<i apiarov dirade? yap bv ipyd- 
ferai rrj ipifivrryn. irdvra Be ra irvpela ftopeioi? 
fiev Oarrov teal fiaXXov e^dirrerai, voriois Be 
fjrrov teal ev fiev rols fierecbpoi? fiaXXov, ev Be 
Tofc tcoiXoi? fjrrov. 

8 'Avici Be t&v gvXcov ra tceBpiva teal airX&s &v 

1 ir. 5c ylvcrai /xiv conj. Sch.; w. /tev 71*6x01 5« UMVAld. 
' 2 cf. 1. 2. 3 n. 

* Ktrrov conj. Bod. from de igm 64, Plin. 16. 208 ; teapvov Aid. 
4 vvpuov conj, Salm, ; icvpot UMVAld. 


Digitized by 


Fire-sticks are made 1 from many kinds of wood, 
but best, according to Menestor, 2 from ivy 3 : for 
that flares up most quickly and freely. They 
say also that a very good fire-stick 4 is made of 
the wood which some call traveller's joy ; this is 
a tree like the vine or the ' wild vine,' which, 
like these, climbs up trees. The stationary piece 5 
should be made of one of these, the drill of bay ; 
for the active and passive parts of the apparatus 
should not be of the same wood, but different in 
their natural properties to start with, one being 
of active, the other of passive character. Never- 
theless they are sometimes made of the same wood, 
and some suppose that it makes no difference. 
They are made in fact of buckthorn kermes- 
oak lime and almost any wood except olive ; 
which seems surprising, as olive-wood is rather 
hard and oily ; however it is plainly its moisture 
which makes it less suitable for kindling. The 
wood of the buckthorn is also good, and it makes 
a satisfactory stationary piece ; for, besides being 
dry and free from sap it is necessary that this 
should also be of rather open texture, that the 
friction may be effectual ; while the drill should 
be one which gets little worn by use. And that 
is why one made of bay is best; for, as it is not 
worn by use, it is effective through its biting 
quality. All fire-sticks take fire quicker and better 
in a north than in a south wind, and better in an 
exposed spot than in one which is shut in. 

Some woods, such as prickly cedar, exude 6 
moisture, and, generally speaking, so do those 

5 i.e. the piece of wood to be bored, cf. de »gr?ie, I.e. 
8 ayUt. UviMu. 


Digitized by 


iXcu(D$i]<; r) vyporrjs* Bi b /ecu ret dydXpbard 
<j>a<riv ihieiv iviore* iroiovai ydp ix tovt&v. b 
&€ icakovaiv oi pdvreis J?*iXei6via<i afyehpov, xnrep 
ov Kai i/cOvovrai, 7r/oo9 to?? iXarivois ytverat 
<rvvi<rTafi€vrj<; two? vypoTrjTO?, rq> a^jpari piv 
arpoyyvKov peyedos Se rfkiicov ditiov rj /cat pitcpw 
p&V£pv rj iXaTTOP. itcjSkaaTavei Se paXiara ra 
eKaiva Kai apya KeipAva teal elpyaa pkva iroWd- 
tciS) idv i/cpdSa Xapfidvri iea\ e%V tottov vorepov 
&<T7T€p rj$r) t*9 arpo(f)€v<i tt;? Ovpas i/Skdarrja-e, Kai 
eU kvKikiov ifKivOivov T€0el<ra Koatrt] iv 7nj\(p. 

1 cf. CP. 5. 4. 4. oi ft&vTcis . . . 4\arlvois conj. Lobeck. ; 
ol \eTav . . . to?j (Karlvots U ; oltelav . . . robs iKfiarivois V; oi 
Acta? rrjs elhrjd-fias . . . rots iKuarlvots M ; oi \(iav rrjs a\rjQvla% 
i<pai$pov . . . rovs ^Karlpovs P 2 ; i\uap rrjs €t\ri6vias tyuBpov . . . 
to us knarivovs Aid. 


Digitized by 


whose sap is of an oily character; and this is 
why statues are sometimes said to 6 sweat ' ; for 
they are made of such woods. That which seers 
call the menses of Eileithuia,' 1 and for the appearance 
of which they make atonement, 2 forms on the wood 
of the silver-fir when some moisture gathers on it : 
the formation is round 3 in shape, and in size about 
as large as a pear, or a little larger or smaller. 
Olive-wood is more apt than other woods to pro- 
duce shoots even when lying idle or made into 
manufactured articles ; this it often does, if it obtains 
moisture and lies in a damp place ; thus the socket 
of a door-' hinge ' 4 has been known to shoot, and 
also an oar which was standing in damp earth in an 
earthenware vessel. 5 

2 i.e. as a portent, cj. Char. 16. 2. 

3 (rrp6yyv\ov conj. Sell.; ffrpoYyv\rjs UMVPoAld. 

4 cf. 5. 6. 4; Plin. 16. 230. 

5 irKivB. red. k^ittj eV w^Ay conj. Spr. ; irXivBivov rtBtls t§ 
Kdnrrj ieri\6s P 2 A1J.H. 


Digitized by 

printed in great britain by 
Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, 
brunswick street, stamford street, s.e.i 
and bunoay, suffolk. 

Digitized by 



Latin Authors. 

APULEIUS. The Golden Ass. (Metamorphoses.) Trans, by 

W. Adlington (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. 1 Vol. 
CAESAR : CIVIL WARS. Trans, by A. G. Peskett. 1 Vol. 
CATULLUS. Trans, by F. W. Cornish ; TIBULLUS. 

Trans, by J. P. Postgate ; PERVIGILIUM VENERIS. 

Trans, by J. W. Mackail. I Vol. 
CICERO : DE FINIBUS. Trans, by H. Rackham. 1 Vol. 
CICERO : DE OFFICIIS. Trans, by Walter Miller. 1 Vol. 

Winstedt. Vols I and II. 

(1631). 2 Vols. 
HORACE: ODES AND EPODES. Trans, by C. E. Bennett. 

1 Vol. 


Showerman. 1 Vol. 
OVID: METAMORPHOSES. Trans, by F. J. Miller. 

2 Vols. 

PETRONIUS. Trans, by M. Heseltine ; SENECA : APOCO- 

LOCYNTOSIS. Trans, by W. H. D. Rouse. 1 Vol. 
PLAUTUS. Trans, by Paul Nixon. Vol. I. 
PLINY: LETTERS. Melmoth's Translation revised by 

W. M. L. Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 
PROPERTIUS. Trans, by H. E. Butler. 1 Vol. 
SUETONIUS. Trans, by J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
TACITUS: DIALOGUS. Trans, by Sir Wm. Peterson; 


Hutton. 1 Vol. 
TERENCE. Trans, by John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. 

Digitized by v^ooQle 

Greek Authors* 

APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. Trans, by R. C. Seaton. I Vol. 
THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Trans, by Kirsopp Lake. 

2 Vols. 

APPIAN'S ROMAN HISTORY. Trans, by Horace White. 
4 Vols. 

DAPHNIS AND CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised 
by J. M. Edmonds ; PARTHENIUS. Trans, by S. Gaselee. 
I Vol. 

Vols. I, II, III, IV, and V. 

EURIPIDES. Trans, by A. S. Way. 4 Vols. 

THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. Trans, by W. R. Paton. 
Vols. I, II, and III. 

MOSCHUS). Trans, by J. M. Edmonds. 1 Vol. 

H. G. Evelyn White. I Vol. 

JULIAN. Trans, by Wilmer Cave Wright. Vols. I and II. 

LUCIAN. Trans, by A. M. Harmon. Vols. I and II. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. Trans, by C. R. Haines. 1 Vol. 

TYANA. Trans, by F. C. Conybeare. 2 Vols. 

PINDAR. Trans, by Sir J. E. Sandys. 1 Vol. 

PHAEDRUS. Trans, by H. N. Fowler. 1 Vol. 

Perrin. Vols. I, II, III, and IV. 

PROCOPIUS. Trans, by H. B. Dewing. Vols. I and II. 

QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. Trans, by A. S. Way. 1 Vol. 

SOPHOCLES. Trans, by F. Storr. 2 Vols. 

Trans, by the Rev. G. R. Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 

1 Vol. 

XENOPHON : CYROPAEDIA. Trans, by Walter Miller. 

2 Vols. 

Digitized by 


Greek Authors. 

AESCHINES, C. D. Adams, of Dartmouth College. 

AESCHYLUS, H. W. Smyth, of Harvard University. 

ARISTOPHANES, J. W. White, of Harvard University. 

Heseltine, of New College, Oxford. 

STITUTION, Edward Capps, of Princeton University. 

ARRIAN, W. K. Prentice, of Princeton University. 

ATHENAEUS, C. B. Gulick, of Harvard University. 

CALLIMACHUS, A. W. Mair, Professor of Greek in the 
University of Edinburgh ; ARATUS, G. R. Mair, of Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge. 

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, Rev. G. W. Butterworth, 
of the University of Leeds. 

DIO CHRYSOSTOM, W. E. Waters, New York University. 

EUSEBIUS, Kirsopp Lake, of Harvard University. 

GREEK LYRICS, J. M. Edmonds, of Jesus College, Cam- 

HOMER, ILIAD, W. F. Harris, of Harvard University. 
HOMER, ODYSSEY, A. T. Murray, of Stanford University. 
IAMBIC AND ELEGIAC POETS, E. D. Perry, of Columbia 

ISAEUS, R. J. Bonner, of the University of Chicago. 
ISOCRATES, G. Norlin, of the University of Colorado. 
MANETHO, S. de Ricci. 

MENANDER, F. G. Allinson, of Brown University. 
PAUSANIAS, W. H. S. Jones, of St. Catherine's College, 

PHILOSTRATUS, IMAGINES, Arthur Fairbanks, Boston 

Museum of Fine Arts. 
PLATO, LYSIS AND GORGIAS, W. R. Lamb, of Trinity 

College, Cambridge. 
PLATO, REPUBLIC, Paul Shorey, University 01 Chicago. 
PLUTARCH, MORALIA, F. C. Babbitt, of Trinity College, 

POLYBIUS, W. R. Paton. 

THUCYDIDES, C. F. Smith, of the University of Wisconsin. 
Brownson, of the College of the City of New York. 


Digitized by v^ooQle 

, . i / 

\ v > Latin Authors. 

p ^vAMMIANUS, C. U. Clark, of Yale University. 
• N ' AULUS GELLIUS, C. B. Platner, of Western Reserve 
/ University. 

AUSONIUS, H. G. Evelyn White, of Wadham College, 
/ Oxford. 

CICERO, AD FAMILIARES, E. O. Winstedt, of Magdalen 

College, Oxford. 

FRONTINUS, DE AQUIS, C. Herschel, of New York. 
FRONTO, C. R. Haines, of St. Catherine's College, Cam- 

HORACE, EPISTLES and SATIRES, W. G. Hale, of the 
University of Chicago, and G. L. Hendrickson, of Yale 

JUVENAL and PERSIUS, G. G. Rarnsay, of Trinity College, 

Oxford, and late of Glasgow University. 
LIVY, B. O. Foster, of Stanford University. 
LUCAN, S. Reinach, Member of the Institute of France. 
OVID, TRISTIA and EX PONTO, A. L. Wheeler, of Bryn 

Mawr College. 

SALLUST, J. C. Rolfe, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Haverford College. 
SENECA, MORAL ESSAYS, J. W. Basore, of Princeton 


TACITUS, ANNALS, John Jackson, of Queers College, 

VALERIUS FLACCUS, A. F. Scholfield, of King's College, 

VELEIUS PATERCULUS, F. W. Shipley, of Washington 

VITRUVIUS, F. W. Kelsey, of the University of Michigan. 

New York - <- - G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS. 



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